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Compiled ar\d Edited bv) 

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TEXAS DEVELOPMEAIT BUREAU 

DALLAS. TEXAS 



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FOREWORD 

EXAS comprises a vast area with a wide diversity 
of soil, climate and industries and a wealth of re- 
sources, products and opportunities which make 
the Lone Star State an empire within itself. The 
History of Texas, the only State of the Union that 
has lived under six flags, is rich in traditions and filled with 
picturesque lore that thrill with romantic interest. 
In the preparation of the Encyclopedia of Texas, our aim 
has been to make it a publication of practical utility that will 
be educational, interesting and attractive to the greatest pos- 
sible number of people. In addition to a History of Texas and 
Historical sketches of the leading cities, we have compiled and 
tabulated the principal facts of interest regarding every city, 
town, county and district of the State, which we have alphabet- 
ically arranged and carefully indexed. 1[In view of the many 
topics of interest on which it is important that full and reliable 
information should be published, we have secured the collabor- 
ation of many eminent Texans and Texas Organizations who 
have contributed articles covering subjects on which they are 
recognized as competent authorities. So that this volume is 
not a work of any one man or group of men, but the product of 
a great number of the most capable men of Texas, a work of 
Texans, by Texans and for Texans, as well as a source of infor- 
mation for the people throughout the world who are interested 
in the Great Southwest. IjThe work is illustrated with appro- 
priate pictures showing scenic beauties, types of architecture, 
panoramic views, street scenes, public buildings, and views 
representative of Texas industries. Maps of railroads, electric 
lines, public highways and geographical and political divisions 
of the. State, accompanied by an index to all towns and coun- 
ties, are an attractive feature of the work. 
We offer this volume to the reading public, not only as a 
Historical and Pictorial Review of the Lone Star State, but as 
a Standard Reference Encyclopedia for Public and Private 
Libraries, Banks, Business and Professional Offices, Schools, 
Hotels, Newspapers, Civic, Social and Publicity Organizations 
and all others seeking reliable information upon Texas. 

THE EDITORS. 



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Table of Contents 



Page 

Title Page 1 

Foreword 2 

Texas, The Lone Star State 3 

By Pat M. Neff. 

History oi Texas 5 

By Elizabeth H. West. 

Public School System of Texas 10 

By Annie Webb Blanton. 

The University of Texas 11 

By Dr. Robert E. Vinson. 

Progressive Legislation in Texas 13 

By W . P. Hobby. 

The Texas Judiciary 14 

By Thomas W. Greenwood. 

Texas Libraries 15 

By Eliz.\beth H. West. 

History of Texas Banking 18 

By Jldce \\. F. Ramsey. 

The Lumber Industry of Texas 19 

By John H. Kirby. 

Public Health in Texas 20 

By Dr. C. W. Goddard. 

History of Texas Medical Profession 22 

By R. W. Knox, .M. D. 

History of the Texas Bar Association 23 

By Claude Pollard. 

History of the Texas Oil Industry 24 

By J. Edgar Pew. 

Oil Production of Texas by Fields, 1895-1922.... 26 

History of Southern Texas Oil Industry 27 

By D. R. Beatty. 

The City and Business of Agriculture 30 

By James Z. George, M. A. M. Soc. C. E. 

Agriculture of Texas 33 

By Clarence Ousley. 



Page 

The Cotton Industry 34 

By .M. H. Wolfe. 

The Wonderful Resources of West Texas 35 

By Porter A. Whaley. 

The Texas Cowboy 36 

By Tom L. Burnett. 

State Fair of Texas 38 

By W. H. Stratton. 

History of die Texas Automobile Industry 39 

By J. W. Atwood. 

Masonry: Its Objects and Influences 41 

By Sam P. Cochran, 33°. 

Austin, The Home City 43 

By Austin Chamber of Commerce. 

History of Dallas 45 

By E. J. Kiest. 

Industries and Opportunities of Dallas 47 

By Dallas Chamber of Commerce. 

Dallas Banking History 49 

By E. M. Reardon. 

The Growth of Dallas 50 

By John W. Philp. 

Dallas, Medical Center of the Southwest 51 

By Edward H. Cary', M. D. F. A. C. S. 

History of the Bench and Bar of Dallas 52 

By F. ]M. Etheridge. 

Tlie Public Schools of Dallas 54 

By Justin F. Kimball. 

Dallas Municipal Activities 55 

By Sawnie Aldredge. 

Ft. Worth Commercial and Industrial Progress 57 
By Ft. Worth Chamber of Commerce. 

History of Ft. Worth Banks 60 

By G. H. Colvin. 

History and Progress of Ft. Worth 61 

By J. H. Allison. 



Page 

Cattle Raising in Texas 63 

By E. B. Spiller. 

Ft. Worth as an Oil Center 65 

By T. B. Hoffer. 

Wichita Falls, The City that Faith Built 66 

By Wichita Falls Chamber of Commerce. 

Wichita Falls Irrigation Project 67 

By J. A. Kemp. 

Transportation and Industries of Wichita Falls 69 
By Frank Kell. 

Banking History of Wichita Falls 70 

By R. E. Huff. 

North Texas Oil Industry 71 

By Walter D. Cline. 

History of Wichita Falls 72 

By J. B. Marlow. 

Burkburnett Among the Oil Derricks 75 

By a. R. Thomas. 

Burkburnett, Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow 76 
By R. D. Laney. 

History and Progress of Breckenridge 77 

By Breckenridge S. Walker. 

Breckenridge, The Oil City 78 

By Breckenridge Chamber of Commerce. 

History of Ranger 80 

By M. H. Hagaman. 

Corsicana 81 

By Corsicana Chamber of Commerce. 

Mexia, The Central Texas Oil City 83 

By Mexla Chamber of Commerce. 

History of Mexia 84 

By D. Leon Harp. 

Waco, Built in a Park 85 

By Waco Chamber of Commerce. 

History of Waco 87 

By Geo. Robinson, 

Proprietor of W'aco Times-Herald. 

Civic Improvement of Waco 89 

By Ed. McCullouch, 
Ex-Mayor. 



Page 

Future Growth of Waco 90 

By a. J. Peterson. 

Houston Industries and Opportunities 91 

By Houston Chamber of Commerce. 

History of Houston 95 

By Roy G. Watson. 
Houston Post. 

Future Outlook of Houston 98 

By Houston Chronicle. 

Houston's Municipal Progress 100 

By a. E. Amerman, 
Ex-Mayor. 

Houston's Young Men's Business League 101 

By S. F. Carter, Jr. 

Beaumont, Metropolis of Southeast Texas... 102 

By Beaumont Chamber of Commerce. 

Galveston, The Texas Port, Gateway of the 

Southwest 103 

By Edwin Cheesborough. 

History of Galveston 106 

By Alexander Russell, 
Galveston Tribune. 

Amarillo, Metropolis of the Panhandle 108 

By Board of City Development. 

San Antonio 109 

By San Antonio Chamber of Commerce. 

The Future of San Antonio 110 

By Chas. S. Diehl. 

El Paso - ....Ill 

By El Paso Chamber of Commerce. 

Cities and Towns of Texas 121-165 

Counties of Texas 166-186 

Index to Counties, Towns and Post Offices with 
Population 187 

Maps of Texas 194-197 

Maps of the United States and the World 198 

Men of Texas 203-878 

Governors of Texas 204-209 



TEXAS, THE LONE STAR STATE 



By PAT M. NEFF 

Governor 




T 



iEXAS, popularly 
known as the Lone 
Star State, occupies a 
vast area of over a quarter of 
a million square miles, has 
perhaps a greater diversity 
of climate, soil, industries 
and products than any other 
state in the Union. 

Texas measures eleven 
hundred miles from east to 
west. Its greatest distance 
from north to south is nine 
hundred miles. Although a 
state with every variety of 
industry, the most important 
is agriculture. The surface 
of Texas is mountainous in 
the northwest and rolling 
prairies and lowlands. The soil consists of fertile 
black land, red land and sandy loam. In parts of 
West Texas irrigation is necessary to get the best 
results from the soil. In the eastern, central and 
southern portions, there is sufficient rainfall for any 
kind of agricultural produce. The climate is so 
varied that it is not so unusual in the winter time 
for ice to be found at Amarillo, while fresh straw- 
berries are being picked at Alvin. 

Texas leads all states in the production of pure 
bred live stock. It also has a long lead as a cotton 
producing state. The total value of agriculture, 
according to the 1921 census was $727,400,000, 
while its nearest competitive state, Iowa, had but 
$459,191,000. In 1921 Texas also led all states in 
the production of 
oil and the unde- 
veloped oil fields 
no doubt still 
holds possibilities 
of a greater pro- 
duction than any 
other state. Texas 
also leads in the 
output of refin- 
eries. More than 
one-fourth of the 
oil consumed in 
the United States 
is being refined 
here. The income 
from Texas oil 
fields alone 
amounts to near- 
ly five billion dol- 
lars. 

Texas is rich in 
mineral deposits, 
leading the Union 
in the production 
of sulphur and 
second to Cali- 
fornia in the pro- 
duction of quicksilver. 



per cent of the yellow pine timber of the United 
States stands within its borders. 

Although fundamentally an agricultural state, 
Texas has more rapidly growing cities than any 
of her sister states. The wide area of west Texas, 
no doubt offers greater inducements for prospective 
settlers than any of the northern states. 

Although Texas, through her extensive areas and 
large population has led in aggregate total of agri- 
cultural products, there is a large opportunity for 
greatly increasing the output and much can be done 
by the application of scientific principles of farming 
and the education of those who live upon the soil to 
enhance the value of their farm products, thus in- 
creasing the prosperity of the farm district. This 
can be done by the practice of greater diversified 
farming and rotation of crops. The agricultural 
department of Texas has done much and in the 
future will do a great deal more in the education of 
the farmer to get the most possible from his land. 
The chief fault, if it may be called a fault, of the 
Texas farmer is, to stake too much on one product. 
In the rich cotton raising areas it has been the habit 
to devote his entire time and available land to 
raising nothing but cotton. In the cattle raising 
districts, to raising nothing but cattle, in the wheat 
raising districts, to raising nothing but wheat, etc. 
This system has many drawbacks, as in case of a 
large crop of cotton, the price of the product might 
be too small to give much of a profit. The same 
principle will apply to the other products. In case 
of an over production, of low price or entire failure 
of a crop of any particular kind, it leaves the 




THE ST.VrE CAPITOL, AUSTIN 

Built in a Park on a Hill. Surrounded With a Luxuriant Growth o£ Trees and Herbage 

is the Largest and one of the Finest State Capitols in the United States 



Large deposits of lignite 
and brown ore lie in central and east Texas. 

The state ranks high in the lumber industry. 
There are seven hundred saw mills producing up- 
wards of three billion feet of lumber annually. Ten 



farmer with little, if any profit for his labors. With 
a systematic study of the kind of products that each 
district can produce and a diversity of the crops 
upon each farm, the land owner will always be 
assured a fair profit for his labors. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



The variety of soil, climate and rainfall in the 
different districts of the state has naturally made 
possible the different kinds of produce. In East 
Texas great emphasis has been given to the fruit 
and vegetable industry. A wide area in this section 
is devoted to tomatoes, which has possibly been the 
greatest vegetable crop. Peaches are also an im- 
portant crop in this area while sweet potatoes and 
watermelons are raised in abundance. 

In Southern Texas small fruit and vegetables pre- 
dominate. Strawberries in the late winter and early 
spring are an important crop. Alvin is one of the 
leading centers. Farther south, near the Mexican 
border, the Bermuda onion, cabbage, cucumbers and 
watermelons have brought the farmer handsome re- 
turns. Laredo, on the border, is one of the prin- 
cipal centers for these products. 

The lower Rio Grande Valley, with its ample rain- 
fall and mild winter climate has become a profitable 
section for citrus fruit. 
Grape fruit and oranges 
of exceedingly delicious 
flavor are raised in 
abundance in this area 
and the acreage devoted 
to this product is being 
greatly increased. Cante- 
loupe raising is another 
profitable industry. Pe- 
cans, the fruit from the 
most popular Texas tree, 
has long been a profit- 
able industry and the 
cultivation of pecan 
trees has brought this 
delicious nut to the fore- 
ground in agricultural 
districts throughout the 
state. There is a bound- 
less opportunity for a 
great increase of the 
pecan growth on land 
which has hitherto been 
considered unproductive. 
The value of pecans as 
a food is becoming more and more appreciated. 

Texas is well provided with transportation facili- 
ties. Railroads penetrate all the rich agricultural 
and oil regions with transportation accomodations 
to the local as well as foreign markets. Electric 
roads radiate from the leading cities to the interior 
towns. The city of Dallas is the center of more 
miles of electric lines than any other city of its size 
in the United States. Public highways are being 
rapidly improved and a veritable net work of paved 
automobile roads will surround the leading cities and 
connect the larger centers with the most modern 
means of travel. 

Texas is composed of a progressive and energetic 
people. The refined culture and hospitality, char- 
acteristic of the southern people, tempered with the 
enterprise and broad vision of the western type, 
make a distinct personality which characterizes the 
true Texan, who radiates that charming quality, 
known as the Texas Spirit, giving the Texan the de- 
served reputation of being the greatest people of 
the greatest state of the Union. 

A great deal has been written about the great 
area of Texas and the state has been generally 




Executive Mansion, Home of Texas' Governors, Austin 



known throughout the North and East as a great 
unbroken range and many of the descriptions of 
Texas express distances and terms of miles and 
even hundreds of miles and the great ranches of 
the West in terms of thousands of acres. This, of 
course, has appealed to the imagination and lent a 
great amount of romantic interest to those who are 
attracted by the spirit of adventure. These de- 
scriptions have in the past been accurate to a more 
or less degree but in a treatise of the conditions 
as they are today, consideration must be given to 
the development which has taken place during the 
last few years. In large sections, where recently 
countless herds of cattle roamed over the unbroken 
range, large ranches have been divided into smaller 
ranches, the soil which is capable of producing 
cereals has been planted to small grains and the 
raising of wheat, oats, rye, kaffir corn, cotton and 
other profitable farm products have taken the place 

of stock raising. Al- 
tho it must be admitted 
there are still large dis- 
tricts of Texas where 
the rainfall is too small 
and the land too barren 
to become productive for 
the raising of grain or 
even for grazing, yet 
there are still large 
areas that are capable 
of being made far more 
productive than they 
have been in the past 
and if the population of 
the productive areas 
were as dense per square 
mile as the states of 
Missouri and Iowa, the 
state of Texas would 
have more than double 
its present population. 

Possibly one of the 
greatest opportun i t i e s 
for the increasing of 
productivity of Texas, 
would be in the conservation of the water sup- 
ply and the irrigation of large tracts of land 
which could thereby be brought under close cultiva- 
tion and the production vastly increased. This 
opens up a great field for the investment of capital. 
Dams could be built on many of the Texas streams 
and reservoirs maintained which would fill up during 
the rainy seasons and conserved for a time when 
the water is needed for the crops during a season 
when there is a lack of rainfall. An example of this 
kind may be seen in Wichita County and through 
the activity of enterprising citizens, the county has 
been bonded for four and a quarter million dollars 
for the building of a dam on the Wichita river 
where a reservoir will be maintained, which will irri- 
gate an area of one hundred and fifty thousand acres 
of rich Wichita Valley land, thus bringing non-pro- 
ductive districts into a rich and intensified farming 
area. This plan could be duplicated in many of the 
districts of North and West Texas, where the amount 
of rainfall is scant and large districts be brought 
under cultivation, thus increasing the productivity 
and hence the value of the lands. 



HISTORY OF TEXAS 

I5y KIJZABETH II. WEST 

state Librarian 




SPANISH discoveries and 
discoveries of the fif- 
teenth and sixteenth 
centuries, notably those of 
Columbus, Pineda, Cabeza de 
Vaca, Coronada and De Sota, 
formed the basis of Spanish 
claims to the country which is 
now Texas. 

Remembering that the 
Spaniard has ever been a 
better dreamer than a doer, 
one is not surprised that 
■ ^. the elaborate plans of Spain 

',^^ \ to occupy the North Ameri- 

^g I can mainland were but slowly 

j M '\ put into effect. New Mexico, 

^B jj the first settled part of our 

present Southwest was per- 
manently occupied almost a century, Texas almost 
two centuries after Columbus' discovery. 

The Spanish were temporarily driven out of Nev/ 
Mexico by the Indian uprising of 1680. The fugi- 
tives gathered into a settlement which formed the 
beginning of El Paso del Norte, or Paso del Norte, 
now the Mexican City of Juarez. This settlement, 
which was kept up after the reoccupation of New 
Mexico, in time overflowed to the Te.xas side of the 
Rio Grande thus furnishing a nucleus about which 
grew the present city of El Paso, Texas. 

The occupation 
of Texas by of- 
ficial intent was 
the outcome of 
long years of in- 
vestigation and 
planning on the 
part of the Span- 
ish Government. 
Back of it lay 
economic, relig- 
ious and political 
motives. The eco- 
nomic motive was 
the desire, which 
had led to plans 
and royal orders 
to settle a colony 
on M a t a g o r da 
Bay, for a port 
closer to New 
Mexico than was 
the port of Vera 
Cruz, which was 
needed to shorten 
the long expens- 
ive overland trade 
■I'oute for goods 
imported f r o m 

Spain. The religious motive was the desire to 
Christianize the Indians. The political motive was 
the desire to hold the country against foreigners, 
especially the French. 

The execution of these plans, somewhat modified 
by circumstances was stimulated by La Salle's 



abortive attempt to settle a French colony on the 
Garcitas River, an inlet of Matagorda Bay, under 
the impression that he had reached the mouth of the 
Mississippi River. 

In their efforts to find the French intruders the 
Spanish made friends vi'ith a Tejas Indian chief and 
in 1690 founded a mission among these tribes. This 
mission, San Francisco De Las Tejas, was in 1693 
abandoned. 

The first permanent settlement was also the di- 
rect outcome of a Frenchman's entry into Texas, the 
Frenchman in this case being Louis de Saint Denis, 
who in 1715 came in from Louisiana to the Rio 
Grande in the interest of French trade. 

This easy, albeit peaceful invasion showed the 
Viceroy of New Spain the need of prompt action 
towards carrying out Spain's long cherished plans 
for the occupation of Texas. Accordingly an expe- 
dition was sent out in 1716 under Domingo Ramon 
and St. Denis, which resulted in the founding of a 
group of Missions and presidios in the vicinity of 
the present Nacogdoches and St. Augustine. Save 
for the brief period between 1719, when the Span- 
iards were driven westward by a French invasion and 
1721 when they were brought back by the Marques 
de Aguayo, this mission group was kept up as a 
Spanish frontier outpost until 1762 when the cession 
of Louisiana to Spain making an Eastern outpost 
less important, the settlement was broken up by the 
Government. 




Surrender of Santa Anna, April 22, 1836, to General Sam Houston 
After the Battle of San Jacinto 

Seventeen years later, however, some of those 
colonists impelled by longing for their old homes, 
came back under the lead of Antonio Gil Ybarbo, 
and founded Nacogdoches, which in turn became an 
important Spanish outpost when the United States 
acquired Louisiana in 1803. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



At the close of the eighteenth century Nacogdo- 
ches, Goliad and San Antonio constituted practically 
the net result of the various Spanish experiments in 
the colonization of Texas. 

Goliad was the settlement clustered about the 
third site of the Spanish missions which had origi- 
nally been established on the site of La Salle's at- 
tempted colony. 

San Antonio or San Antonio de Bexar, had, so far 
as official records go, begun in 1718 with the removal 
thither of Rio Grande missions which, officially 
known as San Antonio de Valero, has come down in 
hi.story as the Alamo, and the Marquis de Aguayo 
had completed its official establishment in the course 
of his entrada of 1719-1722. The settlement consis- 
ted of the civil establishment, San Fernando de Bex- 
ar, and the group of missions in and about San An- 
tonio, which still remain. 

All the other mission buildings, those in East 
Texas, those near Rockdale, near Menardville on the 




Battle of San Jacinto, April 21, 1S36, at which Texas Sprurc<l Liberty from Mexico. Oen. Sani 
Houston with Eight Hundred Tcxans Attacked (len. Santa Anna with an Army ni Thir- 
teen Hundred Mexicans and Killed or Captured the Entire Command. 

lower Trinity, on the Coast, have long since crum- 
bled into ruins and disappeared. 

The readjustment which in 1763 followed the 
French and Indian war divided the Mississippi Val- 
ley, or Louisiana, between Spain and England, Span- 
ish Louisiana lying West, English Louisiana east of 
the Mississippi River. The readjustment, which in 
1783 followed the American Revolution made 
Eastern Louisiana a part of the United States of 
America. 

Spain was much disturbed at the close neighbor- 
hood of a republican government, fearing a de- 
moralizing influence in Texas and the Floridas. 
This concern was deepened when in 1803, only three 
years after Spain had returned Western Louisiana 
to France, the latter conveyed it to the United States. 
Clashes occured in the early nineteenth century in 
the Floridas and on the Texas-Louisiana frontier 
which threatened serious trouble. So far as the Tex- 
as-Louisiana boundary was concerned the trouble 
was temporarily settled in 1806, by an agreement 
between the United States and Spain designating a 
frontier strip as the neutral ground, and permanently 
settled by the treaty of 1819, which definitely fixed 
the boundary. 



In the early years of the nineteenth century, the 
infiltration of republican ideas that Spain had 
dreaded brought about a revolt which beginning in 
1810 with the sounding of the GRITO by the poet- 
priest Hidalgo, ended in 1821 with the separation of 
Mexico from Spain. 

Spain was powerless to prevent the incoming 
of Anglo-American ideas. 

The intruders came as filibusters, notably under 
Philip Nolan, who led several expeditions, the last 
in 1800, under Augustus Magee and under James 
Long, both of whom came in to co-operate with the 
Republican forces. 

They also came in as settlers. Little is known 
of this phase of early nineteenth century history, 
unpublished documents however indicate that from 
1800 on there was considerable unofficial activity 
in this direction. Officially, so far as published 
history goes, the Anglo-American colonization of 
Texas began in December 1821, when Stephen F. 

Austin brought in 
the First Anglo- 
American colony. 
The grant had 
been made by the 
Spanish govern- 
ment in 1820 to 
Austin's father, 
Moses Austin, 
after the father's 
death the grant 
was passed to the 
son; and it was 
confirmed by the 
Mexican govern- 
ment which suc- 
ceeded the Span- 
ish. 

Far from try- 
ing to keep for- 
eigners out, Mex- 
ico at first held 
out liberal in- 
ducements to en- 
courage foreign 
immigration. Austin took out several other colon- 
ization contracts, as did other empressarios. By 
1835, it is estimated, there were at least 25,000 
Americans in Texas, who, being energetic and re- 
sourceful, had made an excellent beginning in dev- 
eloping the resources of Texas. 

At first the centers of government were too far 
away for the Texan to feel much governmental re- 
straint in everyday affairs. Under the Mexican 
government developed early in the Anglo-American 
period, Texas with Coahuila formed the state of 
Coahuila and Texas the state governor and legisla- 
ture were at Saltillo, the state capitol. Closer to 
the individual colonists was the departmental gov- 
ernor, the closest of all was the local government. 

There was at first only one Texan department, 
that of Bexar, in 1834 there were three with political 
chiefs at San Antonio, San Felipe de Austin and 
Nacogdoches. The principal local officer was the 
ALCALDE, and there was a local municipal coun- 
cil known as the AYUNTAMIENTO. 

The average Anglo-Texan then, came into little 
direct contact with Mexican officials and took little 
thought of Mexico. With the United States, on the 
other hand, the Anglo-Texan had very strong ties. 



6 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



In the United States were his friends and kindred, 
with the United States he had trade relations, to the 
United States if anywhere he sent his children to be 
educated. 

Although the Mexicans in the first flush of their 
victory over Spain in the War of Independence had 
shown a very liberal policy toward Americans, it 
was not long before the old distrust founded upon 
inter-racial misunderstanding flamed up again and 
grew worse until it finally culminated in the Texas 
Revolution of 1835-3G. 

The Fredonian Rebellion of Hayden and Benjamin 
W. Edwards in 1825, President Guerrero's emanci- 
pation proclamation of September 15, 1823, the De- 
cree of April (), 1830, the Texan Rebellion of 1832, 
the imprisonment of Austin in 1834 and 1835, in 
the course of his mission to Mexico City to urge the 
separation of Texas from Coahuila, marked succes- 
sive stages in the growth of this mutual distrust. 

Finally General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna by 
a succession of tyrannical acts, notably the occu 
pation of Texas with Mexican soldiers and the at- 
tempted arrest of a number of prominent Texans, 
brought the difficulty to a head. 

Austin upon his return from Mexico in Septem- 
ber 1835, issued a call to the colonists to arm them- 
selves for the inevitable conflict. In less than two 
weeks after this call the Revolution actually began 
with the battle of Gonzales, October 2, 1835. Short- 
ly after this trouble Austin was made commander- 
in-Chief. In November, however, the Consultation 
which met at San Felipe de Austin elected General 
Sam Houston as Commander-in-Chief and sent Aus- 
tin with Archer and Wharton as commissioners to 
the United States. 

The war lasted seven months. Its most out- 
standing events were the battle of Gonzales, Octo- 
ber 2, 1835, the capture of San Antonio by the Tex- 
ans in December 1835, the capture of the Alamo by 
the Mexicans on March C, 1836, and the massacre of 
the handful of Texans under William Barrett Travis 
who had heroically defended it against overwhelm- 
ing numbers; the massacre of Fannin and his com- 
mand at Goliad on Palm Sunday; three weeks later; 
the eastward flight of the non combatant Texans. 
known as the "Runaway Scrape," and the battle of 
San Jacinto on April 21, 1830, which ended the 
war. 

The Texans began by fighting not for indepen- 
dence but for their rights under the Mexican Con- 
stitution of 1824. As time went on however, the 
course of events made independence inevitable and 
the Convention which assembled on March 1, 183G, 
p.-issed a Declaration of Independence and later 
adopted a constitution. 

Under this constitution an independent republican 
government with David G. Burnet as provisional 
president replaced the provisional state government 
consisting of a governor and council set up by the 
Consultation of November 1835, whose dissentions 
had done much to weaken the Texan cause and invite 
disaster. 

Texas remained an independent Republic for ten 
years, its independence being recognized by the Uni- 
ted States and several European powers. Mexico 
did not trouble Texas for about six years following 
the battle of San Jacinto. The two Mexican inva- 
sions of Texas in 1842 were partly in retaliation for 
Texan aggressiveness, notably the Santa Fe Expe- 
dition of 1841, and partly to emphasize the fact that 



Mexico had never recognized the independence of 
Texas. Following these came the unfortunate Mier 
expedition, which ended the fighting between Mexico 
and Texas. 

The annexation of Texas by the United States in 
1845, however, angered Mexico so that the Mexican 
war, 1846-1848, resulted. 

This war ended by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidal- 
go, February 2, 1848, which gave to the United 
States for $15,000,000, not only Texas, but the 
country which is now California, Nevada, Utah, Ari- 




Th.- Alain.., t li.- ll;..t.,rH- I>la,-.-_w lu-ri- I I.-rolc Ti-xans 
Fouylit and Died fur Texas Liberty 

zona, part of New Mexico, Colorado and Wyoming, 
the Rio Grande being agreed upon as the Western 
boundary of Texas. 

The question which soon arose between the 
United States and Texas as to the latter's boundary 
threatened serious trouble for a while; it was finally 
settled by Henry Clay's Omnibus Bill which gave to 
Texas its present boundary and ten million dollars 
for giving up its claim to the rest of the territory ac- 
quired by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. 

Sixteen years after annexation the Civil war bi'oke 
out. Despite a strong union sentiment in Texas, the 
chief exponent of which was Governor Sam Houston, 
Texas seceded from the Union and became one of 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



the Confederate States of America. Because Texas 
was on the extreme western edge of the Confeder- 
acy there was little actual fighting within the State. 
Galveston was captured by the Union forces in Oc- 
tober, 1862, and recaptured by the Confederates in 
New Year's day, 1863. Sabine Pass was attacked 
but not taken by the Federals, and Brownsville was 
occupied for a short while. That was all. 

After the collapse of the Confederacy, Texas was 
occupied by the Federals in 1865, the slaves were de- 
clared free, and a provisional government was estab- 
lished by President Johnson. In 1866 a popular elec- 
tion restored the regular state government. 

In 1867 however, Congress rejected the President's 
plan of reconstruction and put the South back under 
military rule. From this time until 1872, the state 
was in a very turbulent condition. The dominant po- 
litical party, the Radicals, enfranchised the negroes 
and disfranchised many of the whites. In 1869 they 




The Fall of the Alamo, March 6, 1836. In (his Battle the Complete Garrison of One Hun- 
dred and Eichty-Two Texans were Annihilated. The Alamo was Defended by this Little 
Force of Texans Under the Command of Col. Travis, Assisted by Crockett and Bowie. 
An Army of Several Thousand Mexicans, Commanded by Santa Ana, Sur- 
rounded and Attacked the Texans, Killing the Entire Force. 

formed a new constitution and elected Edmund J. 
Davis Governor. 

The antebellum ruling class naturally resented 
this reversal of the old order; they resented the 
harsh radical legislation: they resented the place of 
prominence assumed by the Negroes, they resented 
the difficult conditions of life naturally growing 
out of the abnormal state of things subsequent to 
the war. 

One channel through which this resentment found 
utterance was the Ku Klux Klan, a secret organiza- 
cioii formed for the purpose of holding down the 
lawlessness of the Negroes. Its first effect seems 
to have been genuinely on the side of good public 
order, unfortunately however it fell into the hands of 
men who took advantage of the opportunity which 
it afforded them to play the brute. 

In 1870 Texas was restored to the Union. In 1872 
the Democratic party gained control of the Legisla- 
ture and in 1873 elected Richard Coke governor; it 
has been the dominant party in Texas ever since. 

The political history of Texas for almost half a 
century has therefore been practically the history 
of factional contests within the Democratic party. 



For the most part the basis of party alignment has 
been personal loyalty. Of late, however, the pre- 
dominance of principle over personalities has added 
dignity to Texas politics. The chief specific issue 
has lately been prohibition; viewed in its broader 
aspects, however, the struggle has been between pro- 
gressive and conservative ideas. The progressive 
element is now in the ascendancy and has enacted 
into law a number of progressive measures, notably 
statewide prohibition and the primary ballot for 
women. The influence of this party has also led to 
the ratification of the Federal amendment granting 
women full suffrage. 

The election of 1918, while a sweeping victory 
for the progressive group, headed by William P. 
Hobby, who was elected governor, has been pro- 
nounced nothing short of a political revolution, the 
most important in Texas history since the election 
of Coke. Governor Hobby's opponent in this cam- 
paign was ex- 
governor James 
E. Ferguson, who 
the year before 
the election had 
been impeached, 
convicted and re- 
moved from of- 
fice. 

The Terrell 
election law has 
been in use ever 
since 1906. 

The constitution 
under which we 
are now living 
was ratified by 
the people in 
1876. In the num- 
ber of its details, 
in the rigidity of 
its checks upon 
official action, it 
reflects the popu- 
lar distrust born 
in the unsatisfac- 
tory conditions under the reconstruction state gov- 
ernment. 

In the course of the past half century violence and 
fraud have gradually been suppressed. Public or- 
der has gradually become better. The state finances 
have improved steadily since Governor Roberts the 
"Old Alcalde" put into effect his famous "Pay as 
You Go" policy. The state debt has been almost 
wiped out. 

The state has practically quintupled its popula- 
tion in the generation following Reconstruction, 
while its wealth has increased about fifteen fold. 

In the foreign part of its cosmopolitan population 
German and Mexican elements predominate. 

One notable characteristic of this period is the 
rapid growth of cities and their progress in govern- 
ment and public work. 

The economic development of Texas since condi- 
tions have become more stable has been very rapid. 
In the eastern part of the state farming and lumber 
industries especially important; in the central west- 
ern and southern, farming and stockraising are 
growing in importance. Manufacturing industries 
are also steadily developing. 



8 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



The oil fields, both the southeastern group dis- 
covered about thirty years ago and the northern and 
we&tern groups discovered within the last few years, 
are becoming increasingly important in the indus- 
trial life of Texas and are bringing to the front so- 
cial problems, especially labor questions, which bid 
fair to become more progressive in the course of 
time. 

When all is said and done, Texas still remains pi-i- 
marily a farming- state. Fruit and truck growing 
have long been predominant in the east and the south, 
cotton growing in most of the lower river valleys. 
Rice growing in the coast country is a notable de- 
velopment of the past quarter century. Large areas 
in the West are being changed by irrigation projects 
from grazing to farming land; the Rio Grande Val- 
ley especially, is becoming increasingly important 
in truck growing. Cotton farming interests have 
suffered greatly of late years from the Mexican boll 
weevil, the eradication or control of which has con- 
stituted a serious public problem. The pink boll- 
worm is another pest which has lately developed; 
th's constitutes so grave a problem as to engage 'le 
attention of the United States Dtjpartment of Agri- 
culture and to have forced the convening of the Leg- 
islature in special session to provide for its hand- 
ling. 

The railroad development of Texas is as yet in- 
complete, large areas being still remote from rail 
ways, even though the state ranks first in railway 
mileage. 

The building of railroads began before the civil 
war, the period of most rapid progress being be- 
tween 1879 and 1893. Private contributions, gifts 
of city and county bonds, loans from the state 
schools, and grants of public lands were means used 
to encourage railway development. 

As time went on and the need of regulation in the 
public interest becoming apparent, the Railroad 
Commission was in 1891 created at the instance of 
Governor Hog-g. Its first chairman was United 
States Senator .John H. Reagan, former Postmaster 
General of the Confederacy. 

In addition to the boundary disagreement with the 
United States which was settled in 1850, Texas has 
had two boundary controversies with Oklahoma. 
The first was settled by the decision of the United 
States Supreme Court in 1896, awarding Greer 
County to Oklahoma. The other which concerns an 
important oil field on the Red River, is still pending. 

Texas has suffered a number of public disasters 
from fire and flood and pestilence. Notable among 
these have been the epidemic of cholera and yellow 
fever, in the fifties and seventies; of meningitis in 
1913-14; of influenza in 1918-19, the Brazos Floods 
of 1899-1902-1914; the Coast storm of 1900, 1916 and 
1919; the West Texas drought of 1916, 1918; and 
the burning of the Capitol in 1881. 

Nature, science, and human will power and re- 
sourcefulness however, have turned these disasters 
to account in making for better things. 

Yellow fever at least has practically been con- 
quered. Galveston Island has been fortified with a 
seawall, and has out of its disaster evolved the com- 
mission form of government, which has proved so 
an improvement over the older form of municipal 
government as to impel cities far and wide to adopt 
it. Corpus Christi has in large part recovered from 
storm damage and is working to fortify itself 
against future disaster. The Brazos farms have 



been productive enough in the good years to make 
up for the losses in the flood and drought. The 
West Texas drought was broken by the rains of 
1919; the old capitol has been replaced by a new one, 
larger and more substantial, which has been in use 
since 1888. 

The growth of the State's educational system while 
yet far from complete has been another outstanding 
fact in recent state history. Though the founda- 
tion was laid in the time of the Republic by the set- 
ting aside of public lands for the provision of reve- 
nue for the educational purposes and though at- 
tempts at actual installation were made before the 
Civil War the present system has practically grown 
up since the Civil War, and especially since the pe- 
riod of reconstruction. 

The public educational agencies are the free pub- 
lic schools, the institutions of higher education, and 
the free public libraries. 

The free public schools comprise schools for nor- 
mal children, for handicapped groups the institu- 
tions for the blind and the deaf and dumb, for de- 
linquent groups, the State training schools for boys 
and girls. 

Ihe institutions for higher education are the Nor- 
mal Colleges, the Grubbs Vocational College, the 
John Tarleton College, the College of Industrial 
Arts and the Agricultural and Mechanical College, 
and the University. Most of the Institutions of 
higher education and the institutions for the handi- 
capped and delinquent groups are supported wholly 
by legislative appropriations except in so far as 
some of them are benefitted by Federal appropria- 
tions under the land grants acts and the later Smith- 
Hughes and Smith-Lever Acts; the free public 
schools and the University have endowments de- 
rived from the sale and lease of public land set 
aside by the Republic; the free schools also have 
special state and local taxes, some of them also 
have a certain amount of state aid from legislative 
appropriations, the University has regularly a legis- 
lative appropriation for maintenance. 

In 1915 a compulsory attendance law was passed, 
which, notwithstanding its imperfections, is a step 
forward in educational progress. Following this and 
growing logically out of it was the enactment of 
the free text book law, which went into effect in 
1919. 

The growth of the higher institutions has of late 
been phenomenally rapid; especially is this true of 
the College of Industrial Arts, the Agricultural and 
Mechanical College and the University. 

There are also a number of private and church 
institutions, the wealthiest of which is Rice Institute 
at Houston. Baylor College at Waco, Southwestern 
at Georgetown and Austin College at Sherman are 
the principal church colleges. 

T)ie free public library system of Texas, though 
one of the most vital parts of the educational system 
of any state, is only beginning. The period of most 
activity in the establishment of city libraries was 
between 1900 and 1915; it is only within the past 
ten years that developments tending- to the welding 
of the whole into one articulated system have become 
significant. 

The most important piece of legislation looking 
to this end has been the law creating a library com- 
mission, passed in 1909 and amended in 1919, and 
the county free library law, passed in 1915 and 
amended in 1917 and 1919. 



PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM OF TEXAS 

By ANNIE WEBB BLANTON 

Supt. Dopartmont of Education 




PROVISION for public 
education in Texas was 
included in the State 
Constitution framed by a 
convention which met at 
Austin in 1845. Not only 
were vast areas of land set 
aside as provision for a state 
permanent fund for public 
schools but lands to form the 
basis of a county school fund 
was allotted to such counties 
as had not already received 
from the Republic of Texas 
their quantum of land for the 
purpose oi education. The 
state permanent school fund 
is now estimated to be 
$72,865,496, a sum for which 
for the scholastic year of 1918-19 produced an in- 
come of $10,252,619. The unsold school lands ap- 
proximate 800,000 acres. The county permanent 
school fund, including the value of unsold lands, 
totals $12,751,493. 

In addition the state levies for public free schools 
and for the purchase of free text books, a tax 
of three and one-half mills, and appropriates also 
for this purpose one dollar of each poll-tax collected. 
For the scholastic year of 1919-20 the state provides 
a per capita apportionment of $7.50, totaling $9,- 
253,440 for the 1,233,792 Texas children of scholastic 
age. 

In addition, the state makes a special provision 
for the aid of rural schools by appropriating from 
the general revenues $2,000,000 per year. This is 
appointed to the weak schools, in proportion to their 
needs, special allowances being made for school dis- 
tricts which will replace old buildings with new, 
erect teacherages and purchase additional equipment 
and suitable libraries. Aid from this fund for the 
transportation of pupils and for increases of salary 
for rural teachers who will take additional courses 
of study and who will remain in the same position. 

The value of public school property in the state, 
including buildings, grounds and equipment, is ap- 
proximately $50,000,000. There are about 16,000 
school buildings in Texas, 6,000 of which are of one- 
room type. About 500 teacherages have been erected 
within the last few years. 

In the public school service about 30,000 teachers 
are employed. The average annual salary, exclusive 
of remuneration paid to superintendents, principals, 
and other school officers, is approximately $500 per 
year. A campaign for substantial increases of 
salary is now under way. 

A number of state colleges with which most of 
the public high schools are affiliated afford excellent 
opportunities for higher education. The main branch 
of the University of Texas is situated at Austin, 
with the Medical Branch at Galveston and the School 
of Mines at El Paso. The University is co-educa- 
tional in all of its branches. In the central part of 
the state, at Bryan, is the Agricultural and Me- 
chanical College for young men, which institution is 
also a military school. The Grubbs Vocational Col- 
lege at Arlington and the John Tarleton College at 



Stephenville, both ranked as junior colleges, are 
branches of the Agricultural and Mechanical College. 
The College of Industrial Arts, for young women, is 
situated in North Texas, at Denton. The state has 
made provision for the establishment of eight normal 
colleges of the first class. Six of these are now in 
operation: The Sam Houston Normal College, 
Huntsville; the North Texas Normal College, Den- 
ton; the Southwest Texas Normal College, San Mar- 
cos; the West Texas Normal College, Canyon; the 
East Texas Normal College, Commerce; and the Sul 
Ross Normal College, Alpine. The other normal 
schools will be situated at Nacogdoches and at Kings- 
ville, respectively. 

The State University, the Agricultural and Me- 
chanical College, the College of Industrial Arts, and 
the system of Normal Colleges have respectively, 
their own governing boards consisting of from six 
to nine members for each board, one-third of the 
membership of each board being appointed biennially 
by the governor. 

The state schools for the Blind and Deaf and 
Dumb are located at Austin. The state has also 
provided schools for delinquent boys and girls. The 
training school for boys being situated at Gates- 
ville, and that for girls at Gainesville, Texas. 

For vocational education under the Smith-Hughes 
Act, Texas will spend in 1919-20, $120,198.45, which 
sum is duplicated for Texas by the United States ap- 
propriation. A special state appropriation of $25,000 
is made available for vocational education in rural 
schools, to aid these schools in securing the benefit of 
the Smith-Hughes funds. 




Group of liuildiuiis at Hiiylor I'uivcrsily, \\'iic<>, one of (lie 
Oldest Institutions of Higher Leaniing in Texas 

The state superintendent of public instruction has 
general supervision over the public schools. From 
the state department of education are distributed 
blanks for school reports, teachers' registers and 
various supplies. The statewide system of free 
textbooks is administered by the state superintend- 
ent, and the affiliation and classification of schools 
is carried out under the direction of the State De- 
partment of Education. The state superintendent 
is responsible also for the state course of study and 
has in charge the direction of summer normal in- 
stitutes and of the certification of teachers. 



10 



THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS 

Hv DR. ROirr. K. N'lXSOX 




T 



, HE idea of a University 
for Texas was con- 
ceived in tiie minds of 
the fathers of the state about 
a century ago. Having thrown 
off Mexican domination be- 
cause, among other unbear- 
able citizens, Mexico had re- 
fused to provide educational 
facilities, the citizens of 
Texas immediately took steps 
to establish a public system 
which should include a uni- 
versity as the highest of its 
branches. 

The Congress of the Re- 
public in 1839 made goodly 
appropriations for the pur- 
pose of the university educa- 
tion, and in 1858 the state legislature made an 
enormous addition to this appropriation. 

The legislature of 1858 also passed an act whereby 
a university should be established, which univer- 
sity should be "an institution of learning — so en- 
dowed, supported and maintained as to place within 
the reach of our people, whether rich, or poor, the 
opportunity of conferring upon the sons of the 
state and through education." 

The Constitution of 18TG further provided specific- 
ally for the establishment and organization of "the 
University of Texas." In 1881, by popular vote, the 
University was located at Austin; two years later 
its formal opening was held. 

In the thirty-six years of its existence, the Uni- 
versity has grown in every direction. Beginning 
with the Academic and Law Departments, it has 
been added unto it the Departments of Engineering, 
Extension, Education and Medicine, and the Grad- 
uate Department and Summer Schools. The original 
University of Texas was housed in one building, 
which, incidentally, is now the west wing of the main 
building. Since that time the physical plant has 
grown until it includes nine large permanent build- 
ings and numerous temporary frame structures. 



Since the University was created by the state 
primarily for the State, it is the privilege and re- 
sponsibility of every citizen of Texas to make him- 
self acquainted with the facts as to whether the 
State University has lived up to its principals and 
whether the results that it accomplishes are worthy 
of the institution which its originators meant it to be. 

The University of Texas was from the beginning 
meant to be "a means whereby the attachments oi 





Texas Women's College, Fort ^Vorth. one of Texas' Insti- 
tutions for Higher Education 

11 



I ....kiii^ N.,illi ...1 riuMi>,ili Ai. Mil.' fioiii 111.. Caliilol 
r..«iinl III.- riiiv.Tisily of I'l-XUK. Tlic Muin 

Hiiilflini^ is in Ihotjonter 

the young men of the state to the interests, the in- 
stitutions, and the rights of the state and the liber- 
ties of the people might be encouraged and in- 
creased." These words may be considered as an 
expression of the goal toward which the institution 
has striven and is striving. To the same degree 
that its functioning has been perfect has it at- 
tained the purpose set for it. Moreover, the worth- 
iest possible compliment to be given the institution 
is that its (students and through them other Texans) 
should feel an increased responsibility and love for 
the interests, institutions and rights of the state 
The severest criticism would rightly devolve upon 
it if there should be no evidence of this intensified 
feeling in those who come under the influence of its 
teachings. 

This brings us as loyal Texans to 
the question: Are the students of 
the University of Texas by means 
of their attendance there more 
closely attached to the interests of 
the state? It is possible to tell 
only by observing the positions of 
trust creditably held by ex-students 
of the University and by noting the 
response made by them when their 
support is needed to preserve some 
former benefit or secure a new 
good for the state and its citizens. 
.Actual statistics are impossible to 
be had on so intangible a subject, 
but it is a self-evident fact that 
men and women who have been 
students in the State University 
have keener visions and are more 
capable and more eager than they 
otherwise would have been to pro- 
mote the interests of the state. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



The large majority of ex-students in public or 
private positions stand for "clean" politics, in the 
commonly accepted sense of the term. Their worthy 
and effective devotion to the interests of the state 
has been felt in more than one political struggle. 

Is the University of Texas faithful to its trust in 
regard to upholding and maintaining the institutions 
of the state? Are its students distinguished for 
their increased attachment to these institutions'' 
In answer to these questions let us first consider 
that functioning of the University which has to do 
with the educational system of the state. Standing 
as it does, at the head of education in the state, the 
University has been the means of encouraging and 
promoting scholarship in the public schools. In 
order that their students may be capable of enter- 
ing the University, the big schools of the state must 
maintain a certain standard of instruction. This 

standard, set 
by the Uni- 
varsity of 
Texas is said 
to have had 
more influ- 
ence than any 
other factor 
in the devel- 
opment and 
growth of the 
schools of 
Texas. 

Another im- 
portant s e r- 
vice rendered 
by t h e Uni- 
versity is the 
supply of 
teachers 
which comes 
annually from its class rooms. In large measure has 
it been through them that the demands of the public 
schools have been filled and the prescribed standard 
kept up. 

Nor is school teaching the only profession which 
has a bulwai-k of strength in the University of 
Texas. An educated bar is rapidly becoming a thing 
of certainty, thanks largely to the Law Department 
of the University. The practice of Medicine is, as 
a whole, on a much higher level on account of the 
Medical Department, and the graduates who go out 
from it every year. Engineers and scientists of all 
descriptions are prepared in the State University 
so that they may go out and give their service to 
the people of the state. 

It is hai'dly appreciated by the average citizen 
taxpayer in the State of Texas, what the University 
of Texas stands for as an institution to promote the 
education and progress of the state. What in reality 
does the University consist of? It is not merely a 
teaching mill, it is an assemblage of a body of men 
of science and learning provided with the facilities 
for the work of education and research, with which 
they share with the students who are to become 
the first citizens of communities throughout the 
state. Such an institution depends upon the co- 
operation and confidence of the taxpayers through- 
out Texas, for which it is created to serve. 

The church, while not an institution of the state 
in the true sense of the word, is another of the in- 
stitutions within the state which possesses a staunch 




l^niversity f>f Texas, Upper: Nfal 
Lower: Women's Dormil 




ally in the University of Texas. Sectarian teachings 
being forbidden in the school, a broadness of vision 
is fostered which encourages the student to know 
his faith and why and whence it came. That the 
University is not 
lacking in its 
spiritual charac- 
ter is testified by 
the numbers o f 
young men and 
women who have 
gone out from it 
in religious and 

social service EniSinoerlnij l$iiil<linij 

work at home and in foreign countries. 

The founders of the University of Texas further 
desired that it should be a means whereby the liber- 
ties of the people should be increased. Whatever 
may have been their ideal when they wrote these 
words, the University has not failed in this respect. 
Exemplifying and standardizing democracy on its 
own campus, it honors the millionaire and the self- 
supporting student. Opportunity for an education 
lies in it for all. And its teaching opens other doors 
to greater liberty that comes with a well informed 
and understanding mind. 

'That the liberties of the people might be in- 
creased." The men who wrote these words builded 
greater than they knew. It was not possible for 
them to conceive of the service which their Univer- 
sity should give toward increasing the liberties of 
the people of Texas and the world. 

The significance of the University is a part of the 
educational system in this state, to be fuller under- 
stood by mention of its varied activities: First, 
there is the Academic Department offering to 
students the foundation subjects, Classic Literature, 
History, Ancient and Modern Languages and 
Sciences. The departments of Jurisprudence and 
Medicine where the embroes of our future physi- 
cians, lawyers and judges are prepared for their 
professional careers. The University works hand in 
hand with the elementary schools to which they 
supply the teachers and where from the high schools 
throughout the state, its own classes are recruited. 

It would be trite to rename those many things 
that the University did and made possible during 
the recent World War. One story cannot describe 
the University of Texas as it was in 1917-20. There 
were the various military schools, the enormous 
sums of money spent for their maintenance, the 
special classes in the University proper that made 
the men and women better fitted for the responsibili- 
ties thrust upon. __^ 
them. There 
were the inspir- 
i n g examples — 
among the per- 
sonnel of the Uni- 
versity of t h o s e 
who gave greatly 
for the sake of 
others. And 
there was, and is, 
the gigantic service flag with its thousands of 
stars, hundreds of which are white ones. 

The University can progress only to the extent 
that the public encourage and support by instructing 
their representatives to provide financially for its 
support and send their children there to be educated. 







University Library 



12 



PROGRESSI\ E LEGISLATION IX TEXxVS 



By W. P. HOBUY 

Ex-Govcrnor 




w 






"ITHIN the last few 
months the popula- 
tion of Texas has 
i^reatly increased, our indus- 
tries have grown and our 
commerce has expanded. 
Along with this development 
there has been a great change 
for the better in some of our 
ideas along economic, in- 
dustrial and educational lines. 
Xew conditions have created 
new demands, and public 
opinion has become crystal- 
lized into statutes to make 
possible the achievement of 
things now essential. 

Among the list of laws 
enacted since 1912, we find 
a number that indicate the new conditions on 
the one hand, and the important changes in public 
opinion on the other. The largest group of these 
progressive measures is that effecting labor. Among 
the most important of these is the Workmen's Com- 
pensation Law. A commission was appointed in 
1911 to study and investigate the subject of work- 
men's compensation. Legislation followed in 1913 
However, the act was practically re-written in 1917 
to provide, among other things, (1) increased com- 
pensation for specific injuries with a greater num- 
ber of injuries coming under this class; (2) in- 
creased powers of the Board in enforcing its de- 
cisions and administering the law; (3) the re- 
quiring of insurance companies to enter suit after 
an award has been made where they refuse to pay 
the compensation as awarded and the employee is 
forced to bring suit; (-1) the overlapping system 
of the Board, which increases the term of office t > 
six years. (Gen. Laws, Reg. Sess. 35th Leg., 1917, 
Ch. 103.) 

It may be doubted whether any other subject of 
labor legislation has gained such general accep- 
tance in the United States for its principals in so 
brief a time as workmen's compensation, and Texas 
was one of the earlier states to recognize the ne- 
cessity of guarding against and compensating for 
industrial accidents. 

Women and Children in industry hav? received es- 
pecial attention at the hands of the legislature with 
a view to preventing the exploitation of the present 
generation at the expense of the future manhood and 
womanhood of Texas. Women have assumed a new 
status in our industrial life; and in I'ecognition of 
this new status and of the new dangers to herself 
and to society thereby entailed, it has been provided 
that she shall not work more than fifty-four hours 
a week (Gen. Laws, Reg. Sess., 34th.. Leg., 1915, 
Ch. 56) and that she shall receive minimum wage. 
(Gen. Laws, Reg. Sess., 3 6th Leg., 1919 Ch. 160). 
The Legislature furthermore has created a special 
woman's division in the Bureau of Labor Statistics 
for the sole purpose of guarding the interests of 
women and children as wage-earners. (Gen. Laws, 
Reg. Sess., 3 6th Legislature., 1917 Cli 106). Pro- 
vision has also been made for mothers' pensions 
(Gen. Laws, Reg. Sess., 35th Leg., 1917, Ch. 120). 



Closely allied to the movement to protect children 
in industry is the enactment of the compulsory ed- 
ucation law. (Gen. Laws, Reg. Sess., 3 4th Leg., 1915 
Ch. 49.) This legislation, as well as that prohibiting 
the employment of children of tender years in cer- 
tain employments, (Gen. Laws, Reg. Sess., 32nd 
Leg., 1911, Ch. 4G), looks to a more highly educated 
and more efficient democracy. 

As supplementing the foregoing laws in the in- 
terest of child welfare is the Free Text Book law. 
The State constitution was so amended in 1919 as to 
make it possible for the State to provide school books 
free within prescribed limitations, and the Text 
Book Law, making operative the amendment, was 
passed in 1919. (Gen. Laws, Reg. Sess., 3(ith Leg., 
Ch. 29.) During the past six years, Texas has ap- 
propriated eight million dollars to be spent in im- 
proving her rural schools with a view to giving chil- 
dren in the rural districts the educational advantages 
enjoyed in the urban centers. 

As looking further to the conservatijn of young 
manhood and womanhood, the legislature in 1U19 
provided for the establishment and maintenance of 
a Home for Dependent and Neglected White Chil- 
dren. (Gen Laws, Reg. Sess., Oth Leg., 1919, Ch. 
159). 

Texas has not only given legal recognition to 
woman in industry, but is making rapid strides to- 




\.\\ Attractive Bit of Scenery Near the City of Austin 

ward extending to her full rights and privileges un- 
der the law. The married woman s property- 
rights act gives married women the same property 
rights as those possessed by a femme sole, (Gen. 
Laws, Reg. Sess., 33rd Leg., Ch. 32), marks one of 
the first steps toward equal rights for women. To 
elevate further the legal status of married women, 
the legislature, in 1919, passed a law permitting 
them to become stockholders in corporations. (Gen. 
Laws, Reg. Sess , 36th Leg., 1919, Ch. 132). Equal 
sufferage in primary elections and conventions was 



13 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



recently conferred upon women by an Act of the 4th 
called session of the 35th Leg., (Ch. 34), and the 
Act was sustained by the Supreme Court in a ma- 
jority opinion handed down January 28, 1920, in 
the case of Rot vs. Schneider, not yet reported. 
Following close upon this reform was the ratifica- 
tion of the federal suffrage amendment at the last 
special session of the legislature. 

The legislation outlined pertaining to women rep- 
resents hard-won victories in the state, making foi 
her political emancipation. 

Another sharply contested battle extending over 
many years culminated in 1918 in the adoption of 
a prohibition amendment to the state constitution 
(Gen. and Sp. Laws, both called Sess., 35th Leg., 

1918. H. J. R. 1, p. 200) closely allied reform measure 
is the law abolishing pool halls passed by the legisla- 
ture in 1919. (Gen. Laws. Reg. Sess., 36th Leg., 
1919 Ch. 14). 

Probably the most far-reaching administrative leg- 
islation in Texas in recent years is the Board of 
Control law enacted at the last regular session of 
the legislature. (Gen. Laws, Reg. Sess., 36th Leg., 

1919, Ch. 3 23.) Aside from its extensive consoli- 
dation features, it discharges in a measure the func- 
tions of a budget commission, and those of an audit- 
ing department. It looks generally to a co-ordinated 
and economic administration of the affairs of the 



eleemosynary and other institutions. The passage 
of the Bill marks the beginning of a new era in the 
financial policy of Texas. 

As important in the state's financial policy two 
other measures have been recently passed; the first, 
the Act providing for the investment of surplus 
funds in the treasury in short-time U. S. Certificates, 
passed in March, 19 IS; the second, the Depository 
Law of 1919. The former, which was passed as a 
co-operative war measure, has yielded the State a 
return of .'j;2S9,936.79; the latter brings in a reve- 
nue of $30,000 per month, representing an interest 
item for the use of State funds. 

Other laws indicating progressive legislative ten- 
dencies are the Uniform Negotiable Instruments Act 
and the Uniform Warehouse Receipts Act, both 
passed in 1919. These seem to have been an effort 
to make this legislation uniform in character with 
that of various states in the Union. 

Our absentee voting law, although limited in scope 
is probably a precursor of future legislation In line 
with the absentee voting laws in force in some of 
the other states. 

The war measures are not included in this article. 
It is sufficient to say they were vigorous, thoroughly 
American in spirit, and framed with a view to full 
co-operation with the National Government in the 
prosecution of the war. 



THE TEXAS JUDICIARY 

-rilK RELATION OF THE LAWYERS TO THE COURT 
By THOMAS W. GREENWOOD 

Asstic'.ialo Justice Siiprem*- ("<mrt <»f Ti-xjis 



A review is sought in the Supreme Court each 
year of from five hundred to six hundred of the 
decisions of the nine courts of civil appeals. 
The oldest application awaiting the court's disposi- 
tion in October 1920 was filed in June 1919. Three 
months work will be required to again get the 
docket to where the applications will relate to de- 
cisions rendered within the previous ninety days. 

Hearing so much of the Supreme Court's delay, 
I am not certain that the people generally realize 
that about three out of every four appeals, which are 
contested to the utmost, are finally disposed of hy 
the Supreme Court, not after years and years of 
distressing and vexatious waiting for action, but 
after a maximum delay of some fifteen months. It 
is nevertheless true that writs of error are granted 
on only about twenty per cent of the applications, 
consequently, of all the causes, in which the de- 
cisions of the courts of civil appeals are not ac- 
cepted by the parties as final, some three fourths 
are made final by the action of the Supreme Court 
within the rather brief periods already indicated. 

Many lawyers think that the Supreme Court 
should make greater use of the Act of March 15, 
1917, empowering justices of the courts of civil ap- 
peals to act on applications for writs of error. In 
its actual operation the Act develops almost as 
much work on the judges of the Supreme Court, in 
passing on applications, as is involved in their un- 
aided determination. The reason lies mainly in the 
law's requirement that the Supreme Court alone 
shall act in every cause where there has been a 
dissent, or where there is a conflict between the 
holding complained of and a holding of another 
court of civil appeals or of the Supreme Court, or 
where a statute is held void. 



Nor is this the only impediment to the success- 
ful operation of the Act. The really numerous ap- 
plications alleging errors of importance to the juris- 
prudence of the State cause another impediment, 
for the legislature has further provided that before 
writs should be granted to correct errors of im- 
portance to the jurisprudence of the State the 
errors must be of such importance as "in the opinion 
of the Supreme Court to require correction." 
Thus action is again reciuired from the Supreme 
Court judges, and on the whole, the difference in 
time required for the Supreme Court judges to 
perform their duties under this Act and to determine 
the applications, without assistance, has not been 
thought of late to justify the hampering of the 
courts of civil appeals by the withdrawal from their 
work of three of their members. 

There is one thing entirely within the control of 
the lawyers, which is a real aid to the Supreme 
Court, and that is the reply to the application, au- 
thorized by Supreme Court Rule 5. The Statutes 
and rule, in effect, invite council for the defendant 
in error to furnish the court a plain, clear and con- 
cise refutation of the grounds of jurisdiction or the 
grounds of error, or both, as set forth in the appli- 
cation. 

Why do counsel commonly fail to reply to an ap- 
plication for writ of error? 

Perhaps the omission is due in part to the idea 
that the briefs in the courts of civil appeals may 
suffice. But that idea overlooks the essential pur- 
pose for the reply, which is to point out why the 
action of the court of civil appeals be held final 
or should be sustained. There is so much to be 
gained from a carefully prepared reply to an ap- 
plication that I do not think counsel would so often 



14 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



forego its filing were it not that the time allowed, 
viz: ten days, is so short. The Statute ought, it 
seems to me, to be amended so as to allow the same 
time for the filing the reply as is allowed for 
the preparation of the application, that is, thirty 
days. 

Under subdivision 6, of article 1521 of the Re- 
vised statutes, as amended in 1917, the Supreme 
Court will grant a writ of error, upon an assignment 
that the Court of Civil Appeals erred in its conclu- 
sion that there was or was not any evidence to call 
for the determination of an issue by the court or 
jury, only in the event that the Court of Civil Appeals 
can be fairly regarded as so flagrantly wrong as to 
amount to a virtual denial and abrogation of the 
established rules of law which in the one instance, 
enjoin upon the trial court the exercise of its essen- 
tial function, and in the other preserve the right of 
jury trial. Notwithstanding the fact that rarely 
will such errors occur, the duty is nevertheless im- 
posed upon the court to examine all assignments 
raising questions of that kind, and at least their 
supporting statements, to see if they entitle the 
applicant to the writ. So errors of this kind are 
assigned in amazing numbers, and covering endless 
pages. It seems logical that where the return for 
such an amount of work is so slight that the Court 
ought to be relieved by the Legislature of this 
really considerable burden. 

The total number of causes on the Court's trial 
docket, on the last Saturday in June 19 20, wherein 
judgement had not been entered was 274 Of this 
number submission to the Supreme Court; 89 had 
been referred to the Commission of Appeals, and 17 3 
remained on the trial docket, neither referred nor 
submitted. At the end of the Summer term the 
court determined 90 cases, without referring them 
to the Commission. The Court determined 138 
cases, which had been referred to the two sections 
of the Commission; the aggregate of causes on the 
trial docket thus being 228. 



Many people, including lawyers, seem to have the 
habit of estimating the delay on the Supreme 
Court's trial docket by figuring the time which has 
elapsed since the docketing of the oldest undisposed 
of cause. By this method of calculation, one can 
prove that the Court is at least five and a half years 
behind on its trial docket. It happens, however that 
there is only one unsubniitted and undisposed of 
cause, which was entered on the trial docket in the 
year 1914, and none whatever in the year 1915. Of 
causes entered on the trial docket in the year 191G. 
only five remain, undisposed of and not transferred 
to the Commission, and only two of the 1916 causes 
which were transferred to the Commission remained 
undisposed of. This makes only 8 cases, referred 
and unreferred, to be submitted, which reached the 
trial docket before the year 1917. 

There are 96 unreferred and unsubmitted cases 
in the Supreme Court preceding the last case re- 
ferred to the Commission, in which ths writ of error 
was granted on March 19, 1919. If its work were 
confined to the oldest cases, the Supreme Court, 
in one term, could more than dispose of these 96 
causes, if it acted on no more Commission cases 
during the term than the S9 already referred. It 
seems demonstrable, therefore, that it is neither ac- 
curate nor true that the Court's trial docket is 
five and a half years in arrears. 

And yet, with 274 cases remaining undecided 
on the trial docket of the Supreme Court, including 
cases referred to the Commission of Appeals, and 
with 4.50 pending applications for writs of error and 
with the increased volume of litigation attendant 
on the marvelous development of the States match- 
less resources, no lawyer ought to be heedless of the 
obligation to do all within his power to relieve the 
burden on the Court. 

I have not the least doubt that the people will 
ultimately enlarge the Court and make it possible 
for a large part of its business to be determined 
by sections. 



TEXAS LIBRARIES 

By EUZ.\BETH H. \\EST 



State Librarian 



ACCORDING to the latest figures available, 
there are in Texas forty-two libraries wholly 
or partially supported by the state; fifty free 
public libraries, forty-eight supported wholly or 
partly by municipalities, two by endowments; 
thirty-six subscription public libraries, and twenty- 
four libraries in colleges or universities not sup- 
ported by the state. 

State Supported Libraries: The state supported 
group comprises twelve governmental libraries, 
seventeen educational, eight in homes and hospitals, 
and four penal or correctional. The twelve govern- 
mental libraries are the State Library, the Supreme 
Court Library, and the libraries of the Court of 
Criminal Appeals. The seventeen educational li- 
braries are those of the University, main, depart- 
mental and extension; the Agricultural and Me- 
chanical College, John Tarleton College and Grubbs 
Vocational College; the six normal colleges; the 
College of Industrial Arts; and the three schools 
for the Blind and Deaf. The libraries in homes and 
hospitals and those of the two Confederate Homes, 
the Orphan's Home, the Tuberculosis Hospital, and 



the three hospitals for the Insane. The libraries for 
the state prisons at Huntsville and Rusk and of the 
two state training schools, constitute the penal and 
correctional group. 

The State Library has approximately 40,000 vol- 
umes, 30,000 pamphlets, 100,000 manuscripts and 
transcripts. Its appropriation for the current bi- 
ennium is $20,112 for the first year, .$22,298 for the 
second. It is housed in the State Capitol in quarters 
which it is rapidly outgrowing, having in 1909 been 
assigned not quite half of the space occupied pre- 
viously by the Supreme Court Library alone; its 
public documents are shelved in the basement, for 
want of available space elsewhere. 

It has, since 1909, been a separate state depart- 
ment under its own governing board, the Texas 
Library and Historical Commission. In the previous 
years of its existence it had for the most part been 
only a division of some other department state, 
1839-66, insurance, statistics and history — later 
agriculture, insurance, statistics and history — 1876- 
1909. 

Under the provisions of the law of 1909, creating 



15 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



the Texas Library and Historical Commission, as 
amended in 1913-1919, tiie library performs the usual 
functions of a state library in serving the executive 
departments and the legislature especially through 
its legislative reference division; it also has a cus- 
tody and care of historical material already ac- 
quired, official material to be transferred from other 
departments, and other future acquisitions. It is 
authorized to print its collections, and sell such 
printed copies. It is also authorized to serve as the 
distributing agency for state documents. 

Among the most important sections of the law are 
those vifhich provide for the qualification of the State 
Librarian Staff. The State Librarian must have 
had at least one year's library school training and 
three years' experience as head of a free public 
or institutional library, or as an assistant of high 
rank in such library; all assistants above the rank 
of clerks and laborers are required to have technical 
library school training, heads of departments being 
required to have in addition at least one year of ex- 
perience in library work prior to appointment. The 
commission consists of five members, to be ap- 
pointed by the governor for six-year overlapping 
terms. It is empowered to act as a governing board 
for the State Library and to "give advice to such 
persons as contemplate the establishment of public 
libraries, selection of books, cataloging and library 
management, conduct library institutions, and en- 
courage associations." The State Librarian must in 
connection "ascertain the condition of all public 
libraries in the state, and report the results to the 
commission." 

The State Library, therefore, has the legal author- 
ity to help materially in the development of the free 
public library system of Texas. It has heretofore 
been able to do little in the way of library extension, 
because of insufficient funds. It has published an 
excellent quarterly bulletin, "Texas Libraries," when 
it has had the money to do so; and it has instituted 
a traveling library service, which has proved ex- 
ceedingly useful so far as it has been able to func- 
tion at all under its financial limitations. It has 
also in the present biennium inaugurated a state- 
wide service for the blind. 

The Supreme Court Library, established in 18.54, 
is under the direct control of the Supreme Court; 
the deputy marshal of the court acts as librarian. 
As stated above, it divides its quarters with the 
State Library. It is strictly a reference library, 
its books not circulated outside the Capitol building. 

It contains approximately 21,000 volumes; its spe- 
cial strength lies in its collection of Federal and 
State reports. Its appropriation for the current 
biennium total $3,400 for the first year, $3,000 for 
the second. 

The libraries of the Courts of Appeals have for 
the current biennium appropriations ranging from 
$100 to $750 each year of the biennium, the total 
for the ten being $5,150 for each year. The latest 
available statistics indicate that their size ranges 
from approximately 1,200 to 6,000 volumes. Each 
is under the care of the clerk of the court. 

Of the state supported group, of all the libraries 
of the state, in fact, the main library of the Uni- 
versity is the largest, and for scholarly use the 
most important. When it was opened in 1883, it was 
housed in a single room in the main building, and 
the librarian devoted only a part of his time to its 
care; the first full-time librarian was appointed only 



in July, 1897. From this small beginning it has 
grown into a library of approximately 136,000 vol- 
umes and 36,000 pamphlets, with a building of its 
own, with seven departmental branches, with a li- 
brarian and a staff of twenty-seven assistants. 

The rapid yet healthy growth of the University 
Library in general and special collections is going 
far toward bringing the University of Texas to the 
goal set by the fathers — "a University of the first 
class." 

In addition to direct scholarly service rendered 
to the university community by the main library 
and its departmental branches, the university is 
giving important statewide library service. This 
is rendered to a limited extent through direct loans 
from the main library to individuals, groups or li- 
braries; to a far more important extent through the 
library schools, the Extension Loan Library, and the 
Library of the School of Government. 

A library training class was conducted in 1901- 
1902, 1903-1907. In the fall of 1919 a regular library 
school was installed. The district holds the rank 
of adjacent professor; the assistant, that of in- 
structor. Junior standing is required for admission, 
and courses are counted towards the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts. The school has begun with only 
courses in cataloging and classification; others will 
be added from year to year. 

The Extension Loan Library is a package library 
under the Department of Extension. It lends di- 
rectly to individuals and groups packages of ma- 
terial on subjects of timely interest, a typical pack- 
age containing about twenty clippings and pam- 
phlets and one or two books. It is especially useful 
to debaters of the interscholastic league, to high 
school students, and to adult groups studying ques- 
tions of current importance. It draws freely upon 
the resources of the main library but is an independ- 
ent library. 

The Library of the School of Government bears a 
closer relation to the main library than does the 
extension loan library. Its collections consist of live 
books, pamphlets, periodicals and typewritten ma- 
terials on topics of present interest to students of 
government. Its statewide service is especially 
helpful to municipal officials and other persons in- 
terested in civic affairs. It is intimately connected 
with the work of the Bureau of Municipal Research 
and of the League of Texas Municipalities. 

The items of the current appropriation specifically 
designated for the various library activities of the 
university total $23,550 for each year of the bi- 
ennium. 

Appropriations for the other libraries maintained 
by the state are as follows: Agricultural and Me- 
chanical College, $7,500 for each year of the current 
biennium; College of Industrial Arts, $710; Sam 
Houston Normal, $720, including textbooks; North 
Texas Normal, $3,421; Southwest Texas Normal, 
$8,100, including textboks; East Texas Normal, 
$5,400; Sul Ross Normal, $1,400; John Tarleton Col- 
lege, $2,400; Grubbs Vocational College, $2,700; In- 
stitution for the Blind, $1,125; School for the Deaf, 
$500; Orphans' Home, $300; Girls' Training School, 
$300. The Epileptic Colony and the hospitals for the 
insane have each a fund for literature and amuse- 
ment ranging from $300 to $1,500 for each year 
of the biennium. 

The Agricultural and Mechanical College, the Col- 
lege of Industrial Arts, Sam Houston, North Texas, 
and West Texas Normal Colleges have each a li- 



16 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



brarian and assistant librarian; Southwest Texas 
Normal College has a librarian and two assistants. 
The other Normal Colleges, John Tarleton, Grubbs 
and the Institution for the Blind have each a li- 
brarian only. The other institutions, other colleges 
and university libraries have no specific provision 
for library service. 

Of the colleges and universities not supported by 
the state, the largest libraries are those of Baylor 
University, Waco, which has approximately 31,000 
volumes; Southwestern University, Georgetown, ap- 
proximately 16,000; Austin College, Sherman, ap- 
proximately 10,000. Both Baylor and Georgetown 
have full time librarians; the Baylor librarian has 
four staff assistants, and a varying number of stu- 
dent assistants; the Georgetown librarian has only 
student assistants. The library of Austin College is 
administered by student assistants under the direc- 
tion of one of the faculty. 

Subscription Libraries: Of the thirty-six sub- 
scription libraries of Texas some have their own 
quarters, while others are kept in stores, banks, 
school houses, private residences, dental parlors, club 
houses. Masonic Lodges, city halls or court houses. 

They are mostly kept open only a few hours each 
week, and administered by volunteers; in many cases 
they are kept up by the efforts of club women. Fees 
range from 50 cents to three dollars a year. 

This group of libraries is doing good in meeting, 
even though inadequately, a strong felt need for 
library service; and, judging from past history, 
they are likely to serve a useful purpose in laying 
the foundation for free public library service. 

Free Public Libraries: The establishment of the 
free public libraries of Texas in their present form 
is in the main the work of the last twenty years. 

Many of them have back of their present organi- 
zation a history of years of struggling effort and 
small things; one, the Houston Lyceum, now merged 
with the Carnegie Library, dating back to 1848. 
Some are still leading a more or less hand-to-mouth 
existence, kept from death only by the persistent 
efforts of a devoted gi'oup of women. Their in- 
comes range from the amounts that can be secured 
from contributions by interested individuals, or 
groups, sometimes with a small appropriation from 
the municipal government, to $22,000, the sum an- 
nounced in the press as the appropriation for the 
Houston Lyceum and Carnegie Library for the pres- 
ent fiscal year. 

Twenty-six library buildings have been donated 
by the Andrew Carnegie Corporation, to which Mr. 
Carnegie, in his later years, turned over his work. 
The conditions of the gift were in each case the 
furnishing of a site by the city and the promise of a 
yearly maintenance fund from the public revenues 
at least equal to ten per cent of the amount granted. 

Statistics for 1917, the latest comparative state- 
ment available, indicate that the incomes of this 
gi'oup range all the way from nothing at all in the 
way of public support to $19,500, the amount derived 
from the library tax in Dallas. Incomplete statistics 
gathered since that time indicate a decided advance, 
several of the municipalities which had fallen be- 
low their original library maintenance, having lately 
come up to, or even beyond the amount stipulated. 
One city, for instance, has recently placed in its 
charter a provision for an annual levy of five cents 
on the hundred dollars valuation. 

The cities that have continued the originally stipu- 



lated support have, according to these later reports, 
changed places in the income scale. El Paso, for 
instance, has in its revised charter a provision for 
a library tax levy of 3% mills on the dollar; which 
tax was levied for the first time in 1919. The in- 
come for this levy will approximate $21,000 for the 
current year, practically the same as the estimated 
income of the Dallas Public Library, which in 1917 
has the largest tax-derived income in the state. 
Houston is now the leader in this respect, the city 
commission of Houston having voted for 1920 an 
appropriation of $22,000. Dallas and El Paso con- 
sequently will drop to second or third place. 

The Rosenberg Library, Galveston, the Nicholas 
P. Sims, Waxahachie, and the Kemp Public Library, 
Wichita Falls, are the three notable gift libraries of 
the state. The two first are supported by endow- 
ments; the third, by city taxation. 

Rosenberg Library has the largest income of all 
the free public library group — approximately $30,000 
annually. 

Besides the usual service of a public library it has 
for years maintained a free public lecture course. 

Other public libraries, notably San Antonio, have 
in the past also rendered this service. 

Special Collections: The most notable special col- 
lections are in the state supported group of libraries. 
The State Library has a valuable history collection, 
including the King collection, the Lamar and Regan 
papers, the Diplomatic, Consular and Domestic Cor- 
respondence of the Republic of Texas, the Spanish 
and Mexican official records known as the Nacog- 
doches papers, the original ratification copies of the 
Foreign Treaties of the Republic of Texas, etc. The 
University has a large and growing Southern history 
collection of manuscripts, books, pamphlets, news- 
papers and periodicals purchased by the Littlefield 
Fund. The Wrenn collection of rare books, largely 
Shakespearian and of literary manuscripts, also pre- 
sented by Major George W. Littlefield; the Palm 
Library; the Ashbel Smith Library; the John H. 
Regan Library, etc. 

The public libraries have in most cases made a 
point of collecting local history material. 

The General Situation: A glance at the library 
map of Texas shows that the great majority of the 
libraries serving the public are situated to the east 
of the 100th meridian; that in the whole vast region 
to the westward are only four free public libraries, 
two of them only partially supported by their munic- 
ipalities, and three subscription libraries. It is ob- 
vious therefore that the Texas public is but meagerly 
supplied with libraries, and a study of these libraries' 
workings show that the service rendered by the most 
of the existing libraries is inadequate to the needs 
of their communities. 

An examination of statistics of the libraries in 
state institutions, educational, eleemosynary, penal 
and correctional shows that these have also a long 
way to go before the people of Texas can be said to 
have really adequate library service; that is to say, 
adequate library service within the reach of every 
man, woman and child in the state. 

A strong system of county free libraries, adequate 
appropriations for the state supported group, espe- 
cially provision for state library field workers are 
the desiderata. 

Much is hoped for in this connection from the 
educational work of the American Library Asso- 
ciation's Enlarged Program. 



17 



HISTORY OF TEXAS BANKING 

By JUDGE W. F. RAMSEY 

Federal Reserve Agent 




T' 



^HE history of banking 
in Texas is both pe- 
culiar and interesting. 
In the early history of the 
state most of the banks were 
unincorporated private insti- 
tutions. Some of these were 
without any considerable ex- 
perience or adequate capital. 
Others were controlled by 
men of large vision and ex- 
perience and a few of them 
exist this day. 

In the early history of the 
state, banks were incor- 
porated under the authority 
of our laws with very lar-^e 
and unusual powers. A few 
of these charters still exist, 
and one or two of our large banks are still operat- 
ing under their authority. There had been experi- 
enced such a lack of success in incorporated state 
banks, that under the constitution of 1875 the organi- 
zation of banks under the state charter was abso- 
lutely prohibited. The result was, of course, that the 
only banks in existence for many years were those 
granted under the authority of the old laws, private 
banks and those chartered under the authority of 
the National Bank Act. For a long time, no national 
bank could be chartered with a capital of less than 
$50,000. Considering the newness of the state and 
the sparseness of its population, the National Bank- 
ing System in this state for a long time did not 
flourish, as it has done since. The minimum amount 
of capital required for national banks was a severe 
handicap for a small community. Further con- 
sideration and discussion finally developed an in- 
telligent public opinion which found expression in a 
constitutional amendment, duly voted by the people, 
authorizing the creation of state banks. Conform- 
ing with this amendment, the legislature of the 
state passed, about 1905, a comprehensive law 
authorizing the organization and regulating the con- 
duct or operation of state banks. A little later a 
law was passed, guaranteeing non-interest bearing 
deposits in state banks and making provision for 
the creation and collection of a guaranty fund which 
was deemed to be sufficient to make ample provision 
for the payment of deposits in such state banks as 
might fail. While stoutly opposed in many quarters, 
the guaranty of deposits feature of the state bank 
law had succeeded and endured to this day, and it is 
approved not only by a great many bankers, but by 
a large body of intelligent public opinion generally. 
The rapid growth in the state since 1905, and the 
fact that state banks could be organized with a mini- 
mum capital of $10,000, at once had the effect of 
encouraging the establishment of many state banks 
all over the state. Other features of the law, among 
others the authority to lend a greater portion of 
capital and surplus than the National Bank Act per- 
mitted, induced the establishment of many fairly 
large banks in most of the larger cities and more 
important towns of the state. The same growth, 
prosperity and increase in population have also 
brought about the establishment and organization of 



many national banks. This result was particularly 
encouraged by the reduction of the minimum capital 
required in the organization of national banks to 
$25,000. 

In a general way, it could be safely said that we 
have a sound, safe and workable banking law in this 
state, and it is every where conceded that the man- 
agement and supervision of these banks of the 
State Banking Board and Commissioner of Banking 
has been of the highest order and intelligence. The 
virtues and merits of the National Banking Act and 
the vigor and vigilance of the supervision of these 
banks is known to all men. 

The best opinion in this state is that there is 
ample need for both national and state banks, that 
there is no necessary conflict between them, but 
there is and should be only an attitude of generous 
competition between the two systems. 

The growth in number and increase in resources 
of banks, both state and national, is but an ex- 
emplification and evidence of the growth, develop- 
ment and prosperity of the state. There are today 
in operation in this state 549 national banks, with a 
combined capital and surplus account of .$94,366,000 
and with deposits of $572,106,000. There are in 
actual operation in the state 923 state banks, with a 
combined capital and surplus of $50,379,541, and 
combined deposits of $238,920,170. It will thus be 
seen that there are, altogether, 1,472 banks in the 
state, and combined capital and surplus of all banks, 
state and national, amounts to $144,745,541, and 
their combined deposits amount to the sum of 
$811,026,170. 

These figures take no account of the capital and 
surplus are the deposits of the private banks in suc- 




Thf Fe.liral lii 



li.iiik Building, Diillas, Built iu lUL'U 



cessful operation in the state. Any statement as to 
these figures applying to private banks would be 
a mere estimate, but I think it a fair approximation 
of the facts to say that the capital of the private 



18 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



banks in this state would exceed $5,000,000, and that 
their deposits would probably go well beyond 
$25,000,000. 

It is a matter of congratulation that in this state 
in the last several years there have been compara- 
tively few failures in national banks, and ultimately 
a very small amount in losses to depositors. I haven't 
any exact figures before me, but based on a pretty 
fair consideration of all the facts, I think it may be 
stated that the per cent of loss, based on actual 
deposits, is practically inconsequential. 

It is a matter of congratulation also that there 
have been, since the organization, comparatively 
few failures in state banks, and in case of such 
failure as applying to non-interest bearing deposits, 
these have been taken care of by the guaranty fund. 

It will have been noted by the careful observer 
that in many sections of the state there has been 
in the last year an immense growth in deposits of 



all the banks. That has been particularly true in 
those portions of the state where oil has been discov- 
ered. The most notable examples of such increases 
in the larger cities are Dallas, Fort Worth and 
Wichita Falls. In the last named city, deposits have 
more than quadrupled within a year, and now stand 
at approximately $40,000,000 a wonderful growth 
for a city of that size. 

While there has been some expansion of credits 
beyond the limitations which the wisest considera- 
tion of safety would have suggested, these credits 
for the most part have been occasioned by the needs 
of the several communities. The situation is in- 
trinsically sound, and with wise management and 
conservatism, it is not doubted that the credit struc- 
ture of the country will be preserved, nor that the 
banks will not only continue their condition of 
entire solvency, but that they will also be in a 
situation to take care of, in an orderly and ade- 
quate way, the needs of the several communities. 



THE LUMBER INDUSTRY OF TEXAS 

By JOHN H. KIKBY 



THE Lumber Industry, with all that it includes 
from the initial stage of logging to the 
finished product, constitutes the third greatest 
manufacturing activity of the United States and also 
ranks third among the industries of the Lone Star 
State. Though Texas as the largest state in the 
Union has more forested area than any other state, 
she has a "stand" much smaller than that in several 
other territories. One estimate gives 40,000,000 
acres of wooded land, but this is inaccurate and, in 
fact, it is practically impossible to make an exact 
estimate for much wooded land is unfit for commer- 
cial lumbering. As our state varies greatly in 
climate and physiography, practically the whole 
range of forest trees found in the temperate zone 
is within our borders. Four general lumber belts 
may be mentioned — East Texas, greater than all 
the others combined, the Grand and Black Prairies, 
Edwards Plateau and territory west of the Pecos 
River. 

The distribution of lumber producing trees may 
be given as follows: In the coast plain, along swamps 
and sluggish streams, pines — the most valuable — 
tupelo, magnolia, sweet gum and other species; in 
the alluvial bottoms, are the hardwoods — the oaks the 
most important in quantity and value — ash, hickory, 
gum, holly and other hardwood species; in the in- 
terior of the coast plain the loblolly pines and hard- 
woods abound, while pines are also on sandy ridges 
and hardwoods in the half -swampy flats. The Hardin 
County "Big Thicket" of hardwoods is famous as 
being almost impenetrable. North and east of this 
area are the long leaf pines. And Texas has the last 
large stands of the long leaf pines for which our 
state is famed far and wide. Between this area and 
the Red River westward to the Black Prairies are 
the short leaf pines and accompanying hardwoods. 
The Grand and Black Prairies, bounded by the Brazos 
and Nueces Rivers and the Coast Plain, abound in 
Live Oaks. The Edwards Plateau, mostly west of 
the 98th meridian, has hardwoods in canyons and 
about streams with post oak, mountain oak, and 
cedar brakes of extensive area on hills and bluffs. 
Over the whole of West Texas the Mesquite is fastly 
spreading and gives promise to become a valuable 
tree. 



Practically all logging and saw mills are in East 
Texas — from which it is again seen that East Texas 
comprises all the most valuable forests of the State, 
forty-eight counties in number. There are no pub- 
licly owned lands here. Three holdings alone include 
22.1 per cent of the total stand of which six-sevenths 
is the long leaf pine — an enormous concentration, 
and eighty-one largest holdings of the State have 
55.3 per cent of the total stand or 72.2 per cent of the 
most valuable woods. The total stand for East Texas 
is estimated as 66,000,000,000 board feet, of which 
the long leaf pine leads with over 22,000,000,000 
board feet with the short leaf pine close on to it. It 
is estimated that the annual cut is 2,099,130,000 board 
feet or 3.2 per cent, at which rate, not allowing for 
reforestation, it will require about thirty-one years 
to exhaust the timber supply of Texas. Reforesta- 
tion may come from either or both of two forces — • 
artificial effort — at which nothing is yet done in 
Texas, and by Nature which is active. The rate 
of this latter force. Nature, however, cannot easily 
been estimated except by expert foresters who would 
have to give this subject careful consideration. 

Eleven and eight-tenths per cent of the total 
volume of Texas manufactured output are from the 
lumber mills and wood using plants, while 33.5 per 
cent of all wage earners in the manufacturing indus- 
ti-y of Texas are engaged in the manufacture of 
lumber or lumber products, working in 799 plants. 
To summarize then, the Texas lumber business has 
799 manufacturing plants employing 33.5 per cent 
of all manufacturing employees of the State, putting 
out 11.8 per cent of the total of the Texas manu- 
factured output; the distribution of timber varies 
from the tupelo and cypress of the swamps of the 
East and Southeast to the Cactus on the high dry 
western plateaus with 150 varieties of valuable 
timber producing trees between; the annual "cut" 
is about 3.2 per cent of the total "stand" which is 
estimated as 66,000,000,000 board feet in which the 
long leaf pine leads with about 25,000,000,000 board 
feet, six-sevenths of which are owned by three hold- 
ings while eighty-one holdings have 72.2 per cent 
of the most valuable woods, and America's last large 
stands of the famed long leaf pine are in the State 
of Texas. 



19 



PUBLIC HEALTH IN TEXAS 

By DR. C. W. GODDARD 

Ex-State Health Officer 




T 



I HE discussion of public 
health can not be 
brought to our atten- 
tion but that the first and 
foremost thought that comes 
to our minds is: There should 
be no preventable diseases 
and no preventable deaths. 
Therefore, we shall deal with 
these groups alone: 

Typhoid fever is endemic 
in Texas at all times, to the 
extent of about five thousand 
cases a year, resulting in 
nearly five thousand deaths. 
Tuberculosis in some form or 
other effects some 30,000 
people, and was responsible 
for the death of over five 
thousand people last year. Pneumonia in all its 
forms kills on an average of 3,000 people a year, or 
about one in six of those who have this disease. 
Smallpox, which is so easily prevented, was in evi- 
dence in 154 counties of the state in 1919, there 
having been reported some 2,600 cases, and of scarlet 
fever, 12,500 cases. Diphtheria is one of the diseases 
which has lost some of its prestige in the last few 
years but was responsible for about 250 deaths last 
year, out of a total of 3,200 cases. Mumps, measles 
and whooping cough have also been reported and 
measles alone was responsible for nearly one thou- 
sand deaths. Anthrax has been found in six human 
beings in the last few months, no fatalities. 

Pellegra took a total from Texas of over five hun- 
dred people last year. 

The greatest reaper health authorities have had 
to contend with has been influenza, which was re- 
sponsible for so many people dying in the winter of 
1918-19. Only about 2,500 cases have been reported 
this winter, and the death rate for 1920 had de- 
creased. Other diseases that have been reported in 
varying numbers during the past year are epidemic 
meningitis, "infantile paralysis," rabies, leprosy, 
beri beri and dengus fever. Venereal diseases were 
found to be more prevalent than all other com- 
municable diseases combined, there being 58,000 of 
which practically all wore preventable. 

The saving of forty thousand persons a year who 
die of these unnecessary and preventable diseases, 
would, if calculated in dollars and cents, amount 
into millions, to say nothing of the increase of human 
life that would spring from the neglected infants 
who are destroyed before they become of value to 
society from a financial standpoint. 

The incexical health survey which has just been 
finished shows among other valuable facts that on 
account of sickness during one year, school children 
lost 4,790,901 days from school; also that there were 
lost 17,356,771 days from labor, which counted in 
day's work alone, giving no consideration to the 
suffering and expense of caring for patients, cost 
Texas the enormous sum of $52,070,315 in one year's 
time. 

Thus, the above figures show that with a popula- 
tion of more than five million of people, the per- 
centage of deaths from these preventable diseases 



is only thirteen. And the percentage of diseases 
is only fourteen and six-tenths. 

Texas, with her broad plains, her balmy gulf 
breezes, her productive fields, her grazing grounds, 
her mineral resources, her congenial citizenship, a 
progressive race, touched with a climate that pro- 
duces anything that the heart could desire, a climate 
condition that from its very beginning has produced 
and continues to produce such wonderful surprises 
has within her borders everything that can be 
desired both as a winter resort, for persons seeking 
relief from the continued and extreme cold of the 
northern states, and the cooling summer winds that 
furnish relaxation, a refreshing sleep for the tired 
and weary, and never a doubt but that somewhere in 
this vast tract of land, a condition that is suited 
to any purpose that may be desired by an ever 
progressing civilization. 

With more than 256,000 square miles of territory 
she is a state that you might surround with an im- 
pregnable wall and there would be produced within 
her borders anything that her citizenship would 
desire, not only for his comfort and well being, but 
for luxurious enjoyment of his leisure time. Her 
coastal cities furnish a decided advantage over other 
pleasure resorts for summer enjoyments and pleas- 
ures; her southern inland cities furnish a retreat 
from the cold of the northern states, so that the 
person who is seeking a retreat from extreme cli- 
matic conditions in order to nurse himself back tO' 
health and happiness finds that which he most de- 
sires and needs within her borders. 

As an agricultural state she is unsurpassed. Her 
mineral resources have not yet been developed to the 
limit of their capacity. New oil fields are being 
opened almost daily, and with this discovery of oil 
in regions that were once thought to be worthless, 
her riches have increased one hundred per cent dur- 
ing the past three years. With iron ore, and coal 
fields, there is nothing to prevent the production 
of enough iron to supply her own needs. Her pro- 
ductive cotton fields, the sheep from her grazing- 
grounds, can more than supply the needed clothing 
for her inhabitants. Her rice farms, her wheat 
fields, her cattle ranges, with chicken ranches, in 
fact anything in the supply of food for sick or well, 
her fruit regions of East Texas, the timber lands 
of the same region, her building stone, with all of 
this, an impregnable wall could be constructed en- 
closing her from the outside world and her residents, 
would never know the difference. 

But with new people come new ideas, and with 
new ideas come progress, thus civilization develops, 
and with that hospitality that has won fame abroad 
as southern hospitality, the hearty handclasp of the 
native born Texan for the stranger within her midst, 
has shown that her citizenship is ever ready to divide 
that which is good, and for which he holds the key, 
is ever ready to welcome the stranger within her 
borders bidding him enter, select his stamping 
ground, and produce that which will bring happiness 
to him and to his neighbor. 

In time of distress, in one region, another is pros- 
perous beyond its own needs, while possibly a neigh- 
boring region may fall heir to some misfortune, and 
in this instant there is ever a helping hand from one- 



20 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



section to another, and no sooner has the disaster 
befallen, than the one extends a helping hand to 
the other, it is righted and all is well for a pros- 
perous and progressive future. 

It is through the activity of the Health Depart- 
ment of Texas, that plans are made and carried out 
to prevent contagious diseases from becoming rooted 
in many localities being a menace to the citizens. 
The Health Department of this state is equipped 
with laboratory for research work and for the 
preparation of chemicals to exterminate the germs 
of disease. By co-operating with the Health De- 
partment in the various counties throughout the 
state, giving the constitutors and authorities proper 
assistance, they are able to have an important part 
to play in the bettering of the health conditions in 
the various communities. It is by the co-operation 
of this department with the authorities in various 
sections, that epidemics may be prevented. 

The Health Department of Texas has spent large 
sums of money, long and careful research in all 
sections of the state, in order to have at hand full 
information in which sections contagious diseases 
are most prevalent, and which counties are most 
free from contagion. Probably the greatest work 
of the department is that devoted to education. 
There is no limit to the extent of good that can be 
accomplished in this particular department of the 
work, for the education of many people or com- 
munities to use hygenic methods will be the greatest 
asset to the promotion of health. 

There is nothing more essential to the happiness 
or prosperity to the individual or community as that 
of good health, for wealth and prosperity, prevaileth 
little without good health. In the extent to which 
this department succeeds in educating the citizens 
up to methods which prevent diseases, just that 
much is the department a success. 

The Medical and Health Authorities in the various 
sections of Texas, find this department a very helpful 
refuge in any time of need. 

Thus it is that her citizenship through a desire to 
build up a system that none might equal has seen 
fit through her law makers to provide means for a 
continual warfare upon preventable disease and by 
preventable the other meaning of the word might be 
substituted, unnecessary disease, and this unneces- 
sary prevalence of disease the State Board of Health 
is helping every section of the state to overcome. 
First remove the cause, thus removing the disease 
and this plan is succeeding in no small measure. 
For that purpose the Board of Health was formed, 
and its work is being pursued with all the skill that 
modern science lends to the aid of mankind so that 
there is noticeable a decreasing number of the dis- 
eases from year to year, and which will continue 
through the time the state with her millions of peo- 
ple shall last. 

To combat this unnecessary loss of life, there have 
been established four new bureaus, in addition to 
the original bureaus established as follows: 

1. Bureau of Child Hygiene, which is to provide 
county public health nurses, in co-operation with the 
Red Cross; to establish child health centers; to give 
pre-natural and anstetrical care and advice concern- 
ing infants and young children; to give bedside care 
to the sick in their own homes by public health 
nurses, under regulations adopted by the State Board 
of Health and approved by the County Medical So- 
ciety; to distribute leaflets on pre-natal, infant and 



child care; to arrange child health conferences in 
co-operation with the Child Welfare Division of the 
Home Economics Department of the University of 
Texas; education and training. Supervision, in-' 
struction in ophthalmia neonatorum and infant hy- 
giene. Investigation of unlicensed midwives; to 
urge complete registration of births; to establish 
the following clinics: Pre-natal, well baby, sick 
baby, pre-school child; to make physical inspection 
of school children. 

2. Bureau of Communicable Diseases, whose pro- 
gram is as follows: To supply the City and County 
Health officers with information about communicable 
diseases; instructing and directing such officers in 
carrying out the laws regarding reportable and 
qaurantinable diseases; enforcing the above men- 
tioned laws and establishing general quarantine when 
necessary; receiving, tabulating and recording all re- 
ports on communicable diseases; formulating plans 
for the prevention of epidemics and the eradication 
of preventable diseases; investigating and assisting 
in the control of epidemics; preparing and supplying 
literature on the following subjects: List of com- 
municable diseases, list of "Reportable" diseases, im- 
portance of promptly reporting communicable dis- 
eases, disease "carriers," what they are and how 
controlled, vaccination — the importance and tech- 
nique, immunity — what it is and how acquired, ad- 
vantages of immunity — to the individual and the 
public, and the duty of local health officers, county 
and city officials, the community, and the individual 
in the prevention and control of communicable dis- 
eases. 

3. Bureau of Public Health Education, whose 
purpose it is to carry on the educational work of all 
the bureaus of the State Health Department; get- 
ting out pamphlets and literature for the various 
phases of public health work; keeping informed 
upon the latest public health literature on public 
health matters, and giving advice to the other 
bureaus; arranging and giving public lectures; sup- 
plying articles for the press on various activities of 
the Health Department; arranging public health ex- 
hibitions; organizing public health societies and the 
medium through which the activities of all the 
bureaus will be reduced to writing and disseminated 
to the public. 

4. Bureau of Public Health Nursing, which is to 
keep in touch with public health nursing in the 
state; to act in advisory capacity to any organiza- 
tions contemplating establishing such service; to 
interest suitable nurses in public health nursing with 
the object of increasing the supply; to properly 
place before city and county officials and the medical 
profession the importance of public health nursing 
and the functions of the public health nurse; to 
stimulate public health nursing education among 
nurses in co-operation with the State Nurse's Asso- 
ciation and State League for Nursing Education; 
to support and co-operate with the School of Public 
Health Nursing, University of Texas; through a 
plan of co-operation with the American Red Cross 
the Director of the Bureau of Public Health Nursing 
of the State Board of Health is also Director of 
Public Health Nursing for the American Red Cross 
in Texas; nurses employed by Red Cross Chapters 
carry out the public program of the State Board 
of Health in their several communities in con- 
junction with the local health officers and local 
physicians. 



21 



HISTORY OF THE TEXAS MEDICAL PROFESSION 

By R. W. IvNOX M. D. 

Ex-President State Medical Association of Texas 



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RMii 


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JUST as Texas had men 
of the first magnitude in 
her earliest military and 
civil affairs, the mere men- 
tion of whose names recall 
days of achievement of which 
the world is proud to this 
day, so the pioneer predeces- 
sors of the Medical Profes- 
sion of today had a standard 
at the outset which compared 
favorably with that of any 
state in the Union. Among 
those early physicians were 
such men as Ashbel Smith, 
physician, surgeon, scientist, 
statesman and scholar, Phil- 
lips Anderson, Chief Surgeon 
of the Texas Navy and Alex- 
ander Ewing, Chief Surgeon of the Texas Army. 
These names merely mentioned prove the high stand- 
ard when Texas began as a Republic. But with the 
winning of freedom and the establishment of safety 
within the Texas borders, multitudes flocked into 
the Republic from varying quarters, the scarcity of 
physicians was felt, and finally necessity demanded 
volunteers who had had experience in hospital work, 
nursing, the drug business or who were simply par- 
ticularly gifted in their ministrations for the sick 
to join the regular practitioners in their service for 
their country. About 1845 to 1850, the first few 
years after the Republic became a state, the medical 
profession was greatly strengthened by young men 
coming from other states, graduates of the best 
literary and medical colleges in the land, cultured 
and refined. The high standard of the earliest days 
began to be approached again, and in 1857 the first 
attempt was made to organize the Texas physicians 
when, on March 11th, the Houston physicians ef- 
fected an organization. In 1859 these men issued a 
call to all Texas physicians and surgeons to organ- 
ize but no record was kept of the meeting that re- 
sulted from that call. However, it is evident that 
the Texas physicians and surgeons first organized 
in that year for, after the Civil War days and with 
reconstruction under way, in 1869 the Houston phy- 
sicians issued a state call for "re-organization." On 
April 15, 1869, twenty-eight physicians responded 
and as a result the first state meeting whose records 
have been preserved was held. Dr. T. J. Heard, of 
Galveston, was chosen president Dr. R. H. Jones, 
of Washington County, first vice-president; Dr. D. 
R. Wallace, of Waco, second vice-president; Dr. A. 
A. Connell, of Houston, recording secretary; Dr. W. 
P. Riddle, of Houston, corresponding secretary, and 
Dr. F. Hassenberg, of Houston, treasurer. Two days 
were consumed in these details of organization. At 
the second meeting, at Houston, Dr. R. T. Flewellen, 
of Houston, was chosen president, and Dr. D. R. 
Wallace became first vice-president. The third ses- 
sion, also at Houston, found an increased attendance 
and interest. Dr. Wallace, of Waco, was made presi- 
dent; he was a man of unusual executive ability and 
at once his influence for good was felt. Through him, 
the association was brought into closer relations 



with the American Medical Association and Dr. S. O. 
Young was chosen as the first Texas delegate to the 
national body. He appointed various committees 
to do special work and report at the next annual con- 
vention. 

The fourth session of the Texas Medical Associa- 
tion, meeting at Houston, elected Dr. D. F. Stuart, 
of Houston, as president; Dr. S. O. Young as record- 
ing secretary, and Dr. J. Larendon, also of Houston, 
as treasurer and this position Dr. Larendon retained 
for a quarter of a century. This meeting was April 
15, 1872. It was then decided to abandon Houston 
as the permanent quarters. Waco was designated 
as the next meeting place. It has already been 
noted by the reader, perhaps, that the Texas Medical 
Association began as a Houston idea and was chiefly 
maintained by physicians and surgeons of that city 
and its immediate territory until its final success. 

A great deal has been accomplished through the 
activities of the Medical Association. It has in 
many cases acted as a law making body for its own 
members, prescribing certain rules of ethics and 
standards of practise which its members were re- 
quired to adopt. Through the work of the Associa- 
tion many evils of the practise have been eliminated 
and evil practitioners barred from practising. 

To trace the history of the Association from that 
fourth meeting to its present, would be to catalogue 
the accomplishment of much good for the people of 
Texas that could not have been achieved in any 
other form. Before the association was organized 
the state at one time came to be overrun with medi- 
cal quacks of every kind; there were no laws to re- 
strain them nor laws to protect the public and reput- 
able physicians. In 1871 the association began a 
crusade for laws of protection, first meeting with 
meager results but finally calling forth a state law 
requiring every physician to register statement of 
where, when and at what school he graduated and 
to register his actual diploma. This shut out some 
but not all quacks as there were bogus schools just 
as bogus graduates. Finally the Texas Medical 
Association secured a law calling for a state board 
of examiners before which every physician then 
practicing had to appear for an examination. An- 
other noteworthy accomplishment was the law creat- 
ing the State Board of Health. The general state 
work of the association is greatly furthered and 
given dispatch by a division of the state into sub- 
divisions, as the East Texas Medical Association, 
the West Texas Association. Then, too, special in- 
terests have come to have their own organization, as 
the Railroad Surgeons' Association, etc. Space fails 
us to permit of mention of how disease epidemics of 
every kind have been eliminated, health departments 
established, even in county and city forms for the 
entire state, which in turn have aided materially in 
establishment of pure water supplies, special labora- 
tories over the country, etc., — all of which have 
greatly reduced death rates and given a state-wide 
health. There are at present approximately 7,000 
physicians and surgeons in the state of Texas, and 
90 sanitariums with 125 hospitals and homes, and 
the Texas Medical Association never in so flourishing 
a condition. 



22 



HISTORY OF THE TEXAS BAR ASSOCIATION 



By CLAUDE POLLARD 

Ex-Prosiden t 




SINCE the dawn of civili- 
zation the government 
of the tribe, state, na- 
tion and empire has been di- 
rected and largely controlled 
thiough particular elements 
of society. Early Rome was 
effectively governed by the 
powerful patrician families, 
later fell under the rule of 
the emperors, and finally 
under the dominant spirit of 
militarism. Early England 
was governed by the feudal 
lords, later came under the 
domination of the House of 
Lords and is now controlled 
by the lower house of Parlia- 
ment. In the United States 
since the Declaration of Independence, the lawyers 
have been the great controlling and directing in- 
fluence of the government. In Texas to the lawyers 
and to their organization, the Texas Bar Association 
is particularly deserving that tribute of Daniel 
Webster: 

"Law is the great interest of man on earth. It 
is the ligament which holds civilized beings and 
civilized nations together. Wherever her temple 
stands there is a foundation for social security, gen- 
eral happiness and the improvement of progress of 
our race. And whoever labors on this edifice with 
usefulness and distinction, whoever clears its founda- 
tions, strengthens its pillars, adorns its entablatures, 
or contributes to raise its agust dome still higher in 
the skies, connects himself, in name, and fame, and 
character, with that which is and must be as durable 
as the frame of human society." 

The first meeting of the Texas Bar Association was 
called at Galveston in the year 1882. At this meet- 
ing tentative plans were made for a permanent or- 
ganization and many lawyers expressed their will- 
ingness to co-operate with the new organization. 
Among the charter members of the association were 
some of the most prominent attorneys of Texas, 
amongst whom are: James L. Autry, of Houston, 
James A. Baker, of Houston; Colonel W. L. Craw- 
ford, of Dallas; Senator C. A. Culberson, of Dallas; 
R. V. Davidson, of Dallas; Walter Gresham, of Gal- 
veston; T. S. Henderson, of Cameron; Charles F. 
Hume, of Houston, Rudolf Kleburg, of Austin, John 
Lovejoy, of Houston, B. F. Masterson, of Galveston; 
Judge T. S. Maxey, of Austin, F. D. Minor, of Beau- 
mont; Anson Rainey, of Dallas; N. A. Rector, of 
Austin; Judge Seth Sheppard, of Washington, D. C; 
W. S. Simpkins, of Austin, R. G. Street, of Galves- 
ton; B. D. Tarlton, of Austin; Charles F. Todd, of 
Texarkana, and John C. Walker, of Galveston. It is 
to these "old guardsmen" that the association is in- 
debted for its existence and it is through their ef- 
forts that much of its success has been gained. In 
their constitution they provided that annual meet- 
ings were to be held for the purpose of "advancing 
the science of jurisprudence, promoting uniformity 
of legislation in the administration of justice 
throughout the state, upholding the honor of the 



profession of law, and encouraging intercourse 
among its members." Galveston was selected as the 
permanent convention city and for twenty years it 
continued to be the annual meeting place. The first 
president of the association was Thomas J. Devine, 
of San Antonio, who was one of the early Texas 
settlers and who had won a substantial reputation 
throughout the state as a lawyer of great ability. 
By 1900 the membership had reached the hundred 
mark and it was thought advisable to change the 
meeting place of the yearly convention from city 
to city. This policy being carried out, the next 
meeting was held at Dallas. By means of interest 
thus stimulated the membership began to increase 
and by 1914 it had approximately five hundred named 
on its roll, while at the present time the membership 
is over the thousand mark. 

As stated in the constitution the purpose is to aid 
the state and in its legal and governmental prob- 
lems. In furtherance of this aim the yearly con-i 
ventions are devoted to a thorough discussion of 
problems of the state. Committees are frequently 
appointed to consider and report to the state legis- 
lature changes in existing laws which might be 
advisable and by this means many state laws have 
been greatly changed to the advantage of the people. 

The presidents of the association, who in their 
time were among the most prominent men of the 
state have been: Thomas J. Devine, 1882; T. N. 
Waul,1883; J. H. McCleary, 1884; B. H. Bassett, 1885; 
A. J. Peeler, 1886; T. J. Beall, 1887; W. L. Crawford, 
1888; F. Charles Hume, 1889; H. W. Lightfoot, 1890; 
Norman G. Kittrell, 1891; Seth Sheppard, 1892; John 
N. Henderson, 1893; S. C. Padelford, 1894; Thomas 
H. Franklin, 1895; William L. Prather, 1896; William 
H. Clark, 1897; William Aubrey, 1898; Frank C. 
Dillard, 1899; Presley K. Ewing, 1900; M. A. 
Spoonts, 1901; James B. Stubbs, 1902; Lewis R. 
Bryan, 1903; T. S. Reese, 1904; H. C. Carter, 1905; 
H. M. Garwood, 1906; A. L. Beaty, 1907;A. E. Wilkin- 
son, 1908; Yancey Lewis, 1909; William H. Burges, 
1910; Hiram Glass, 1911; R. E. L. Santr, 1912; John 
T. Duncan, 1913; W. W. Searcy, 1914; Allan D. San- 
ford, 1915; John L. Dyer, 1916; Frank C. Jones, 1917; 
Charles K. Lee, 1918; W. L. Estes, 1919; and Claude 
Pollard, 1920. 

For thirty-eight years the Texas Bar Association 
has been the largest association of its kind in the 
Southwest. It has furnished the national halls of 
Congress many able men and many are the learned 
jurists that have come from its ranks. Ever mind- 
ful of the duties that rest with the association the 
members are continually striving for the greater, 
better Texas, and many are the measures of reform 
which it has been the means of having introduced 
and passed through the legislature of this state. 
The preservation of our state institutions is depend- 
ent in no small degree upon the patriotic zeal of 
this body of lawyers, and the things for which they 
contend, and, if always true to the heritage of the 
history of our state and its institutions, it may al- 
ways be said of her: 

"Though storms and tempests thunder on its brow 

And oceans break its billows at its feet. 

It stands unmoved, and glories in its height." 



23 



HISTORY OF THE TEXAS OIL INDUSTRY 



By J. EDGAR PEW 



Ex-Presidcnt Mid-Gontinent Oil and Gas Association 




o 



^N January 10th, 1901, 
the great Lucas Gush- 
er commenced to pro- 
duce oil. This well was drilled 
about four miles south of 
Beaumont, Texas, by John J. 
Guffney and John Galey of 
Pittsburg, Pa., and ushered 
in the "Spindle Top" oil field. 
This was the beginning of a 
new era in the oil business. 
Prior to that time but little 
oil had been produced west 
of the Mississippi River, and 
in fact, among the "Oil 
Fraternity," but little was ex- 
pected. This new discovery 
also brought into the oil 
industry an entirely new set 
of men. The "Old Timers," as is the custom among 
oil men, came to Texas, looked the oil over and ex- 
amined the oil, but the majority of them went back 
east to tell the boys, "not to be alarmed, the oil was 
N. G." and "It cannot be refined" and they also pre- 
dicted the well would be a "freak and would soon go 
to water." Some few of them stayed and with their 
experience in the business, were generally well payed 
for their judgment. 

Of these oil men from the east, previously promi- 
nent in the business, were W. L. Mellon, of Pitts- 
burgh, who organized what are now known as the 
Gulf Companies; J. S. Cullinan, formerly of Wash- 
ington, Pa., but at that time located at Corsicana. 
Texas, who, together with Ex-Governor Jas. Hogg, 
of Texas, Judge Jas. Swayne of Ft. Worth, Texas, 
and William Campbell, also a Texan, organized 
what is now the Texas Company; and J. N. Pew of 
Pittsburgh, Pa., who organized the Sun Company, 
and a little later, S. G. Bayne, of New York, who 
organized what is now known as the Magnolia Pe- 
troleum Company. All of these companies were 
formed to handle this new grade of oil, and to con- 
vert it into marketable products. The result of their 
enterprise and good judgement are toi well known 
to the entire oil world to require further details. 

But it is not only to these that nredit for this 
beginning of this great industry in Texas should be 
given. Beaumont was soon filled up w-th men from 
all parts of the country, the great majority of whom 
prior to that time, had never seen an oil well and 
many of them had not the remotest idea of how 
oil was produced. From such, we have today many 
of the most successful producers in the business. 
The names of these are too numerous to mention in 
this brief article. 



The discovery of "Spindle Top" or the "Beaumont 
Field," as it is more properly called, was a "real 
epoch," a "decisive period" in the oil business. It 
was the first opportunity of the "Independents" in 




The New Magnolia BuildinjJ, Dallas, the Tallest Office 
Building in Texas, Completed in 1922 

the history of oil. This Beaumont field together 
with the later discovery of Sour Lake, Batson, Sara- 
toga, and Humble, and later still at Goose Creek 
and West Columbia, all have produced a total of 
more than 250,000,000 barrels of oil, and from an 
actual producing area for the total of these fields, 
of probably not to exceed 4,000 acres 

But Texas is a large state and all of its oil was 
not to be confined to its coastal fields. Before the 
Beaumont discoveries a very profitable pool of 
oil had been found at Corsicana, Navarro County, 
Texas, but not until the Electra Field in Wichita 
County was developed was the production in Texas 
of high grade oils for refining purposes really an 
important factor in the industry. This was in 1911 

The interest in Electra has subsided, the "wise 
ones" who had finally come to Texas when this real 
oil was discovered, had returned to Oklahoma and 




A Wilderness of Oil Derricks in the Goose Creek Oil Fields Southern Texas 

24 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



the east, and it was the faith of Edgar L. Marston, 
of New York City, President of the Texas-Pacific 
Coal Company, and W. K. Gordon, his able nianag«!r 
in Texas, who called them back, when in the month 
of October 1917, they drilled to the "Farmer's" 
sand and developed the McClesky well, near the then 
small town of Ranger, Eastland County, Texas. The 
developments following this discovery have opened 
the eyes of the world to the possibilities of Texas, 
as the Great Reservoir, from which the greatest 
production of oil for many years to come, will be 
obtained. As a result of this new discovery, "wild 
catting" (the name for drilling in new territory be- 
fore the discovery of oil in the vicinity) was stim- 
ulated, and has resulted in a greatly enlarged pro- 
ducing area around Ranger at Caddo and Brecken- 
ridge in Stephens County, and at Desdemona in Com- 
merce County, and also the development of the new 
and spectacular Burkburnett field in Wichita County 
These discoveries promise to extend not only over 
these counties but into the adjoining counties of 
Young, Wilbarger and Archer, also Palo Pinto. In 
each of these counties light oil in small quantities 
has already been discovered. How much further this 
development will be extended within the counties 
named, and with what results, or whether oil will 
be developed in paying quantities in additional coun- 
ties in North Texas, is beyond the knowledge of 
man. More recently the Mexia field in Limestone 
County, had been developed by Col. A. E. Humphreys 
one of the most spectacularly successful "wild cat- 
ters" in the business. This new development opens 
up again possibilities for Texas to become the .great 
producing state of the Union. 

Great sums of money are being, and will yet be, 
spent in practically every county of Central, North 
and Northwest Texas, and while geology is being 
follovjred very largely in these efforts, it is only the 
drill that will produce results. 

An average well in the Comanche, Eastland, and 
Stephens County fields, is from 3,000 to 3,400 feet 
deep, to where the oil is found in what is known as 
the "Black Line" formation. These wells will vary 
in size from 25 barrels to 12,000 barrels in their 
initial production, and cost from $3 2,000 to $50,000 
each to drill and equip. Such wells cannot be prof- 
itably drilled at present high cost of labor, material, 
etc., if they produce less than 100 baj-rels or more 
per day, and wells of this minimum size must prove 
consistent producers for a long period in order to 
pay out. The fields have not been producing for n 
sufficiently long period to determine this. 

Shallow oil is also being developed in these areas 
at from 1,S00 to 2,150 feet in depth and this oil, 
on account of the greater amount of sand, and the 
lesser cost of drilling, may yet prove of greater 
value than the deep production. 

In the Burkburnett field, the oil is found at from 
1,500 to 1,750 feet, and the cost of a well is much 
less, probably now about $20,000; the amount of 
producing sand is greater in this field, also, than 
in the "Black Line" district, further south, and 
within the confines of the pool the average initial 
production of the wells is greater. This field has 
been the "Eldorado" of the small producer, and 
where the operations have been carried on with good 
judgement, and the financing honest and reasonably 
conservative, will probably make for the operators 



and their stockholders, more money on the average 
than any of the Texas fields, so far developed. 

The oil of North and North Central Texas, is of 
a gravity varying 3 4 degrees B, to 4 4 degrees B. 
It gives a yield of Gasoline of from 12 to 40% and 
much of it has good lubricating values. It is pro- 
bably the equal in value of the average Oklahoma 
oil, excepting that of the Healdton field, which is 
much inferior, much of it is better than the Kansas 
oil, and is better than that produced in Ohio, lUi 
nois and Indiana, but not the equal of the oils pro- 
duced in Pennsylvania and West Virginia, on account 
of the superior lubricating values of these latter oils. 

When the Texas-Pacific Coal & Oil Company made 
the discovery in the McClesky well at Ranger, TexaiS 
was producing not over 30,000 barrels of light oils 
in all of its then developed fields; it is now produc- 
ing about 200,000 barrels, or a production on Nov. 
1, 1921, much less than that of Kansas and Okla- 




Oil Gusher at Currie, which Opened I'p a New Field Four- 
teen Miles North of Mexia 

homa combined. South Texas is producing abo'it 
110,000 barrels. What Texas will produce in the 
future is anyone's guess, but my prediction is that 
this production will gradually grow, and that for the 
next twenty years, Texas will be leader in the pro- 
duction of the light and high grade oil of the world. 
In conclusion, this means prosperity for all con- 
cerned, for the farmer, for the merchant, for the 
banker, for the workmen in the field, and for the oil 
operator. The cities of Dallas, Ft. Worth and 
Wichita Falls have greatly prospered, and in the 
future will still greatly prosper by these develop- 
ments and from the general good times resulting 
from this new discovery in their midst. 



25 



OIL PRODUCTION OF TEXAS BY FIELDS FROM 
1895 TO JANUARY 1, 1922 



Year Corsicana 



Powell 



Petrolia Spindle Top Sour Lake 



Batson 



Saratoga 



Humble Goose Creek 



1895 




1896 


1,450 


1897 


65,975 


1898 


544.620 


1899 


668,483 


1900 


829,560 


1901 


763,424 


1902 


571.079 


1903 


401,817 


1904 


374.318 


1905 


312,595 


1906 


336,387 


1907 


276,311 


1908 


211,117 


1909 


180,764 


1910 


137,331 


1911 


128,526 


1912 


233,282 


1913 


158,830 


1914 


133,811 


1915 


143.275 


1916 


135.263 


1917 


131.828 


1918 


•361.980 


1919 


•150.000 


1920 


530 .000 


1921 


305,335 



5,479 
37.121 
46,812 
100,143 
129,329 
131,051 
675,842 
596,897 
398,649 
383,137 
450,188 
373,055 
251.240 
283,476 
282.279 
237.410 
215.729 
196,855 



Totals 8,087,361 

•Includes Powell. 



4,794,692 



65,455 
101,651 
111.072 

83,260 
113,485 
113,485 
126,531 
168,965 
197.421 
344.868 
550,585 
349,857 
302,145 
282,420 
297,320 
212,624 
135,385 
132,295 

3,657,978 



3,593,113 

17,420,949 

8,600,905 

3,433,842 

1,600.379 

1,075.755 

1.613.513 

1.747.537 

1.388.170 

1.182.436 

965.939 

822.916 

716.374 

580.130 

388.266 

340,441 

308,039 

502,265 

458,680 

323,995 

321,080 

47,384,644 



44,338 
8,848,159 
6,442,357 
3,369,012 
2.156,010 
2.354,997 
1,595,060 
1,703.798 
1,518.723 
1,364,880 
1,175.108 
1,348,053 
5,209,208 
4,114,622 
4,923,332 
4,763,004 
3.115,033 
2,740,142 
2.073.485 
1.749.625 

60.608.946 



4,518 

10,904,737 

3,790,629 

2,388,238 

2.166,554 

1,593,570 

1,206,214 

1,113.767 

1,023,493 

844,563 

741,350 

775,804 

703,686 

744.915 

692.417 

654,950 

502,200 

484.035 

516.225 

30,851.865 



7.W.239 

2.922.215 

2.289.057 

2,198.585 

1.634.786 

1.183.559 

1.024.348 

925,777 

1,116,655 

937,720 

889,743 

864,266 

781,128 

682,797 

790,740 

616,110 

913,735 

936,695 

22,447,155 



18.066,428 
3.570,845 
2,930,842 
3,778,521 
3,237,060 
2.495.511 
2.426.220 
1.829.923 
1.504,880 
2,799,458 
11,061.802 
10.925.805 
7.389.831 
5,645,104 
3,270,617 
3,692,115 
3,098,500 

87,723,462 



43,808 

249,641 

134,748 

119,336 

397,291 

7,300,279 

9,419,132 

7,288,716 

5,666,390 

5,647,020 

36,266,261 



Year Orange Matagorda 

County County 

1904 151,936 

1905 46,470 

1906 8,000 

1907 4,500 

1908 62,640 

1909 29.103 

1910 455.999 

1911 561.828 

1912 300.000 

1913 17.706 294,553 

1914 43,208 164.192 

1915 21.697 137.481 

1916 17,758 158,336 

1917 7,023 128,011 

1918 3,425 99,540 

1919 4,400 53,260 

1920 4,000 75,775 

1921 704.870 89.405 

Totals 824.087 2.821.029 
••Figures not obtainable. 



Dayton 



Blue Ridge 
and 
Other Pools 



Marian 
County 



Wichita and 

Wilbarger 

Counties 



Moran 



Thrall Miscellaneous 



60.294 




192,460 




120,036 




39.901 


31,185 


17.647 


87,039 


9.582 


129,497 


4.344 


2,800 


12.151 


1,044 


13.329 


1.620 


1S;791 


1.780 


10,378 


47.254 


8,571 


43.921 


9.995 


159.245 


7.442 


40.000 


I.IKXJ 


24.910 


1,000 


•173.085 


30,410 


•461.035 



251.717 
677.689 
362.870 
262.392 
180.584 
123.464 
64.971 
57.952 



557.331 
*Blue Ridge only. 



1,204,415 1,981,639 

e-Estimated 



899,579 

4,227,104 

8,131,624 

8,227,951 

5,833,386 

7,837,386 

9,541,6,36 

12,159.032 

30,279,108 

32,895,485 

24,184,955 

144,217,246 



68,191 
109,116 
135,608 
68,118 
54,900 
32,500 
48,575 
50,455 

567,463 



613,182 
432.695 
176.887 
12.000 
8.2CO 
8.000 
73,280 

1,324,244 



4,525 

4,554 

3,656 

3,379 

4,062 

7,074 

12,900 

4.061 

32.140 

111.220 

130.000 

235.075 

25.000 

24.000 

601.646 



Year 



Strawn 



Coleman 
County 



Eastland 
County 



Stephens 
County 



Desdemona 



Brown 
County 



Damon Mound 



1915 


50.498 


1916 


175,147 


1917 


340,950 


1918 


185,520 


1919 


101,300 


1920 


512,260 


1921 


262,055 



31.253 
46.590 
83.785 
66,190 



93,053 


36,219 


3,107,120 


790,243 


22,379,665 


10,514,216 


10,141,385 


23,852,050 


5,887,420 


31,037,710 



7,375,825 
5,097,745 
2,467,115 




486,640 

434,700 

1,259.375 

1,353,960 



330,300 
1,476,405 
4,468,615 
8,717,970 



Totals 


1,627,730 


227,819 


41,608,643 66,230,438 


14,940,685 


907,438 


3,534,675 


14,993,290 


Year 


Mexia 


Young 
County 


Nacogdoches HoUiday-Archer 
County 


Pierce 
Junction 


Barber's 
HiU 


West 
Columbia 


San Antonio 

District and 

Somerset 



1918 










- 


20.000 
169.415 
136.375 

49,885 


136,350 58,400 


1919 










8,128,809 94,100 


1920 


134.895 
) 2,820.080 


75,000 
103,035 


49.850 
422.205 




10,563,150 245,135 


1921 4,716,80 


1.403.940 


12,573,450 482,340 


Totals 4,716,80 


2,954,975 


178,035 


472,055 


1,403,940 


375,675 


31.401.759 879.975 


TOTAL PRODUCTION OF OIL FOR TEXAS EACH YEAR FROM 1889 TO JAN. 1, 1922 

1889 48 1»94 60 Wl<) 669 013 1904 22 241 413 1909 9 534 467 

1890 54 1895 50 19U0 836 039 1905 28 136 189 1910 8 899 266 

1891 54 1896 1450 1901 4 393 658 1906 12 567 897 1911 9 526 474 

1892 45 1897 65.975 1902 18,083,659 1907 12.322,696 1912 11.735,057 

1893 50 1898 546,070 1903 17 955 572 1908 11,206,464 1913 15,009,478 
Grand Total from 1889 to 1911 


IN BARR] 

1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 


ELS OF 42 GALLONS 

20 068 184 1919 85 312 000 
24 942 701 1920 96 000 000 
27.644,605 1921 111,969,575 
32,413,287 


620,831,580 


















TOTAL AMOt 

Pa. andN. Y 

Ohio 


INT OF OIL PRODUCED 
Total 1921 1859 to 1922 

8,410,000 814,415,053 
7,314,000 486,336,978 
7,945 000 319,625,398 
114,267,000 1,431,383,360 
9,092,300 41,015,992 


IN EACH S- 

Colorado. . . 


fATE IN 1921— ALS( 
Total 1921 

108,200 

1.165.000 


D AMOUNT PRODUCED FR( 
1859 to 1922 

11,779,250 Missouri 

109,132,364 Oklahoma.... 
331,518,380 Wyo. & Mont 

256.303.984 Louisiana 

620 831.580 United States 


DM 1859 TO JAN 1, 1922 

Total 1921 1859 to 1921 

86,977 

111,256.160 1.149.429.517 


We.Kt Virginia. . . . 

California 

Ky. & Tenn 


Illinois 

Kansas 

Texas 


10.085.000 

24.312.586 

111.969.575 


20.473.800 91.242.693 

27,814,380 230,483,291 

474,858,216 5,904 550,935 



26 



HISTORY OF SOUTHERN TEXAS OH. INDUSTRY 

By 1). R. BEATTY 

Pioneer Oil Operator 



111 

a 

wel 



, . ^HE history of oil de- 

••^^^^^ I \elopment in what is 

^L -*- known as the Coastal 

!■ region comprising the terri- 
M^ B tory bordering the Gulf of 
^1^ wi Mexico in South Texas and 
South Louisiana dated back 
to the famous Lucas gusher 
well at Spindle Top, in Jef- 
ferson County, three miles 
south if Beaumont by com- 
mon consent. This well came 
in January, 1901, but as 
matter of fact shallow 
"!s had been drilled pre- 
vious to that date in what 
are now known as the Sour 
Lake, Saratoga and Spindle 
Top Pools. As far back as 
1883 small wells producing a heavy natural lubricat- 
ing crude had been developed at Oil Springs, a 
short distance from the towTi of Nacogdoches in 
Nacogdoches County. These wells found the oil in 
a sand around 280 feet. 

A pipe line was laid to Nacogdoches and the oil 
shipped out in cars for use by railroads, but big 
marketing companies in the east made contracts 
with the roads of the southwest for their lubricating 
needs at price that made it unprofitable to operate 
the shallow holes. 

As far back as 1895 and 1896 the Savage Bros., 
contractors from West Virginia, drilled shallow 
wells at Sour Lake and Saratoga, getting light wells 
around 250 feet. Long before that, however, "spring 
pole" holes had been put down at Saratoga, getting 
a heavy gravity crude which was sold for medicinal 
purposes. Sour Lake had enjoyed a reputation as 
a local health resort on account of the "sour" water 
springs and its fame had spread as 
far east as New Orleans and over 
to St. Louis, guests coming from 
both places for the mud baths and 
to drink the waters. 

The development of the Coastal 
pools was a long, up-hill fight and 
it is safe to assume that no other 
oil producing section received less 
aid in the work of development 
from the larger oil companies then 
in the lead in the eastern fields. 
The product was looked upon as a 
low grade crude, fit only for fuel 
purposes and these large eastern 
companies adopted a policy o f 
hands off. Financing the develop- 
ment work fell largely on the 
shoulders of men who had been 
identified with lumber and other 
interests in South Texas and 
Southern Louisiana. Much criti- 
cism has been attached to the 
methods of promoters of oil com- 
panies in the early days of the in- 
dustry in the Coastal region, but a 
large part of that criticism is un- 
just. These men who were interest- 



ed in the early day developments were compelled to 
seek outside financial aid, but the big banking in- 
terests of the east followed the example of the large 
oil companies and declined to identify themselves 
w'ith the prospect. In this emergency operators 
found it necessary to turn to the public, through 
the medium of advertising and other methods to 
secure investors who would put in the money to 
develop the pools. That fake promoters took ad- 
vantage of the situation cannot be denied and that 
irregularities followed is a matter of the history of 
the pools. Most of those originally interested in 
the developments during the early days knew little 
or nothing about the petroleum industry. Fuel 
markets for their product had to be found in com- 
petition with coal and the big railroad systems 
were naturally loath to adopt what to their officials 
looked like an experiment. Meantime, the wells 
were allowed to flow and soon the quotation dropped 
to as low as three cents per barrel. The result 
was failures and the loss of investments by those 
who had looked forward to fortunes with a conse- 
quent reputation that the original operators do not 
deserve. 

Gradually, the large eastern companies became 
converted to the value of the Coastal product and 
became interested in the development work, laying 
pipe lines, building refineries and establishing mar- 
keting agencies. Among the first of these was the 
J. M. Guffey Petroleum Company, financed by 
the Mellon interests, of Pittsburg, Pa.; the Sun 
Company, Security Oil Company, et al. The Texas 
Company, now one of the leading oil corporations 
in the world, had its inception at Spindle Top and 
the Gulf Refining Company is another. The little 
100 barrel lubricating plant started in 1898 at Sour 
Lake by the Gulf Coast Refining Company, operat- 
ing on the production of five wells producing from 



f. 
















^% 



i^5?Si£ilii 







One of the Large Office Buildings in the Business Section of Houston 
27 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



around 280 feet, has given place to the immense 
refining plants of the Texas Company and Gulf Pro- 
duction Company at Port Arthur, each with a charg- 
ing capacity of 60,000 barrels per day; the Mag- 
nolia Petroleum Company at Beaumont, with a ca- 
pacity of 65,000 barrels per day; Galena-Signal Oil 
Company on the Houston Ship Canal and the Pierce 
Oil Corporation plant at Texas City, while the Sin- 
clair Oil & Refining Company will start its 20,000 
barrel plant next month. The Crown Oil & Refining 
Company is erecting a 20,000 barrel capacity re- 
finery on the channel and the Humble Oil & Refining 
Company is building a plant that will eventually 
have a capacity of 60,000 barrels per day. Half a 
dozen smaller plants are either operating or are in 
the process of construction. Not all these plants, 
however, are designed to operate on the Gulf Coast 
crude. The Galena-Signal Oil Company is using 
Coastal crude exclusively for the manufacture of 
lubricants. However, the producing end of all these 
companies started originally in the Gulf Coast 
pools, and are still producing two-thirds of the out- 
put from them. 

Among the men first identified with the Gulf 
region, who are now national figrures in the oil 
world may be mentioned: Judge R. E. Brooks, a 
director of the Texas Company, who forsook the 
law for the oil business at Spindle Top; C. N. Scott, 
vice-president and general manager of the Texas 
Company; Messrs. Thomas J. and Ambrose M. 
Donoghue, both connected with the Texas Company; 
Judge Wm. D. Bates, with the Texas Company; 

D. R. Beatty, who brought in the first big well in 
the Humble pool, January 7, 1905, flowing 8,000 
barrels per day, the second well at Spindle Top and 
the second well at Sour Lake; J. S. Cullinan, presi- 
dent Republic Production Company, president Ga- 
lena-Signal Oil Company, director in the Fidelity 
Trust Company, president Houston Chamber of 
Commerce and president Texas Chamber of Com- 
merce. Mr. Cullinan was formerly president of the 
Texas Company; J. Edgar Pew, of the Sun Company, 
whose ancestors were among the pioneer operators 
in the Pennsylvania fields; T. P. Lee, vice-president 
and general manager Republic Production Company; 

E. F. Woodward, one of the organizers of the Re- 
public Production Company; H. T. Staiti, and E. F. 
Simms, both large operators now in Texas, Louisiana 
and Oklahoma; Walter Sharpe and Billie Lyons, 
both pioneer operators in the Gulf Coast and now 
associated with the producing end of the Texas 
Company; Cal Clark, now with the Standard Oil 
Company of Louisiana, one of the organizers of the 
Burt Refining Company of Beaumont, now owned 
by the Standard; Capt. Terrell, one of the original 
promoters of the Haywood Oil Company; Haywood 
Brothers, pioneer operators; Jas. Jolley, manager 
Empire Gas & Fuel Company of Texas; Niels Esper- 
son, Jno. O'Neal, J. R. Cheek, R. L. Blaffer, R. L. 
Young, W. S. Farish, W. W. Fondren, J. C. McKal- 
lipp, Harry Weiss, J C. Wilson, R. C. Duff, Jim 
West and H. H. Myers, all pioneer operators in the 
Gulf Coast, some of whom, however, have become 
interested in Oklahoma and the latter North Central 
Texas fields. Gov. Hogg and Will C. Hogg, pro- 
moters of the Landslide Oil Company; Burt & Grif- 
fith, noted for their efforts to develop new fields; 
Jack E. Crosby, pioneer operator at Spindle Top; 
J. E. Webb, operator and considered one of the best 
well men in the Gulf Coast; R. S. Sterling, largely 



through his efforts the Humble Oil Company oc- 
cupies the commanding position, in the oil industry, 
which it does today; Lee Hager, looked upon as 
one of the most prominent geologists in the Gulf 
Coast; W. C. Turnbow, another of the pioneers who 
has interests in practically all the fields in Texas, 
also owner of one of the largest cattle ranches in 
Texas; Underwood Nazro, vice-president of the 
Gulf allied interests; Joe McCue, now on the execu- 
tive board of the Texas Company, was one of the 
first Pittsburg operators to reach Spindle Top after 
the bringing in of the Lucas well. He took full 
charge of all development for Guffey & Gayle, who 
purchased the Lucas well; Chas. Wallis, formerly 
president of the Higgins Oil Company, who was 
one of the first operators at Spindle Top; Jno. Gil- 
bert; Steve Pipkin; Judge Douglas, pioneer operator 
at Batson; Duson Brothers, connected with the 
Crowley Oil & Mineral Company of Jennings, La.; 
Tump Bass, Jno. H. Kirby, now heavily interested 
in North Central Texas; A. F. Tarver and Ed. 
Peggie; Dias Brothers, who opened up the Saratoga 
pool; Capt. Lucas, owner of the famous Lucas 
gusher; Ed Prater, connected with Walter Sharp 
during the Spindle Top days; Jim Putnam, owner 
of Sour Lake property; Jno. Gonzalas, operator at 
Sour Lake; W. S. Griffith, Murry Done, acting vice- 
president of the Gulf Company, formerly with the 
Sun Company; Mr. Grives, who was connected with 
the Star & Crescent Oil Company; H. S. Revis, 
editor Investors' Journal; Farmer Dean, pioneer 
operator at Big Hill, Matagorda County. 

History of the Pools. Singular as it may seem 
the first big well at Spindle Top was started by 
Capt. A. F. Lucas as a sulphur proposition, backed 
by Guffey and Galey, who were the leading "Wild- 
catters" in the business. In 1892 Patillio Higgins 
drilled a hole to 300 feet where he quit on account 
of the lack of tools. Sharp & Company drilled a 
shallow hole in 1894, followed by J. Loomey in 1896. 
The Savage Bros, made a shallow test in 1898 and 
in October, 1900 C. G. and Al Hamel drilled in 
the famous Lucal well which was estimated as high 
at 75,000 barrels, getting the pay between 1,120 
and 1,139 feet. The second well, known as the Betty 
well, was drilled in by Stern Brothers, estimated at 
40,000 to 50,000 barrels per Jay. Fifteen wells had 
been completed by July, 1901. The producing area 
covered about 250 acres on a slight elevation about 

15 feet above sea level. 

Sour Lake. The first development at Sour Lake, 
which is some 18 miles west of Beaumont, in Hardin 
County, Texas, was in 1893, when a little 16 per 
cent (Beaume) oil was found at a depth of from 260 
to 370 feet by Walter Sharp. This was not de- 
veloped commercially. In 1895, the Savage Brothers 
found oil in several shallow wells. In 1895 the Gulf 
Coast Refining Company built a small 100 barrel 
refinery and five wells were drilled, none of them 
exceeding 280 feet in depth. In three of them 
the Savage Brothers found oil at 230 feet of about 

16 gravity. The first large well was brought in by 
Walter Sharp on the Shoestring tract, and the second 
large well was drilled in by Mitchell & Little for 
D. R. Beatty on the Cannon tract. This well fiowed 
one year to a day. 

In 1901 the J. M. Guffey Petroleum Company got 
gas and some oil at 822 feet. Hooks, No. 1 in the 
Saratoga pool came in in 1902, flowing 1,000 barrels 
at 1,000 feet. Brice, No. 1 was a big well at 400 



28 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



feet. During the years 1903-4 the 800 and 1,000 
foot sands were developed with a deeper pay found 
in 1905. 

Batson. Batson field was discovered through oil 
and gas seepages, the first producing well being 
drilled in October, 1903, by the Paraffine Oil Com- 
pany of Beaumont, which later became a part of 
the Humble Oil Company. The first well was fin- 
ished at 1,280 feet by Mitchell & Little, and was a 
fair producer of 23 Beaume oil. 

Within the next forty-five days four wells had 
been completed by the Paraffine and Producers (pro- 
ducing subsidiary of the Te.xas Company) had prac- 
tically the entire field under lease. As the oil was 
found at comparatively shallow depths, wells were 
finished in a hurry. The Guffey and the Texas 
Company had laid pipe lines from the field to Sara- 
toga, where they connected with their Sour Lake 
pipe lines, and the Guffey had built a telegraph 
line through the wilderness between Batson and 
Saratoga. 

The real excitement did not begin until Decem- 
ber 19th, when the Paraffine No. 2 came in, making 
6,000 barrels of 30 gravity oil from 1,1.50 feet. On 
December 24th the Para Ine brought in No. 3, a 
15,000 barrel well, from the cap rock. This big 
flood of new production caused an immediate slump 
in prices and oil went_down to 25 cents per barrel. 

During the next few months Batson experienced 
one of the biggest booms that has been experienced 
in the Coastal fields. Earthern storage with ca- 
pacity of 3,500 to 4,000,000 barrels was constructed 
and by 1904 a great part of it was filled, as up to 
that time the field, not yet six months old, had 
produced 4,000,000 barrels of oil. 

After the wells began coming in there was much 
danger from gas. At times the gas from the pro- 
ducing wells would hang like a fog just above the 
ground. One Houston oil man tells the story of 
crawling along the gTound, through the fresh air 
which lay between the gas and ground in order to 
escape being poisoned by the gas. Three or four 
good whiffs of the gas were sufficient to asphyxiate 
a person unless that person got into fresh air im- 
mediately. It finally got so bad that it was burned 
off as it was separated from the oil. It is said 
that the wild geese confused at night by the great 
glare from the burning gas, would fly around and 
around the flame and fall to the ground at last, ex- 
hausted or even dead. One man built his house at 
night by the light of these great natural torches. 

Humble. Shallow gas blow-outs in 1902 had at- 
tracted attention to what was known as Echols 
Ridge, east of Humble, 18 miles north of Houston. 
Some oil and gas between 1.100 and 1,230 feet fol- 
lowed in tests in 1903 and 1904, but on January 2, 
1905, Beatty No. 2 was brought in at 1,136 feet, 
drilled by J. E. Webb, Guy M. Mennis and Chas. 
Jackson, flowing 8,000 barrels. The development 
was fast after that. In 1915 the Texas Company 
opened up the deep territory known as the Stevenson 
tract, discovering the pay between 2,800 and 3,200 
feet. 

In 1907 Houston people commenced prospecting 
at Goose Creek on San Jacinto Bay, opposite Mor- 
gan's Point. The first well got enough production 
between 1,000 and 1,100 feet to supply fuel for a 
second test. The pool was an erratic proposition 
until August, 1916, when one of the old holes on 
the Churchill Oil Company's lease was deepened to 



around 2,200 feet and it started flowing 5,000 barrels. 
There was an immediate rush for acreage by all the 
large operating companies who had released acreage 
held by them in previous years. Deep drilling 
seemed to be the slogan, and wells were drilled to 
3,400 feet where a prolific sand was found. The 
pool is still one of the most active in the Coastal 
region. 

West Columbia. West Columbia, three miles west 
of the Brazos River in Brazoria County, is one of the 
latest pools to be operated. Exploration work in the 
West Columbia district had bi en going on for some 
17 years, with more or less unsatisfactory results 
until last December, when the Humble Oil & Re- 
fining Company and the Texas Company brought in 
big wells on what is known as the Hogg and Arnold 
tracts. Prior to the bringing in of paying wells in 
December, 1918, Gov. Hogg, et al., discovered a 
little production which proved that the oil was in 
that territory. The bringing in of this field is due 
chiefly to the perseverance and vast expenditures of 
the Texas Company and also the Humble Oil & Re- 
fining Company. 

Hull. The first well in the Hull district came in 
during September, 1918, on the east side of the 
dome — being the Republic Production Company's 
well. The Gulf, Texas, Sun companies and smaller 
companies and individuals are now operating there 
in addition to the Republic Production Company — 
a J. S. Cullinan interests. 

Development work is still being carried on by the 
Gulf, Sun and Texas companies in the Barber's 
Hill, Chambers County district. Messrs. Hindman 
& Benckenstein are also operating in this territory. 
About 200 barrels daily production represents the 
reward in return for the efforts of the companies 
and individuals to develop a new field of importance. 

Considerable development is now taking place at 
Blue Ridge, Fort Bend County, due to the bringing 
in of a small well by the Gulf Company. There was 
a wild rush for leases a short time ago when it was 
learned that the West Production Company had a 
well about completed, but to date they have failed 
to bring it in. 

Keen interest is now being shown in the section 
known as Hardscrabble Mound, Jackson County, due 
to the development being prosecuted by the Texas 
Company, et al. Many of the old experienced 
operators believe this prospective territory will soon 
develop into one of the largest fields in the Gulf 
Coast. 

The manner by which the producer marketed his 
oil differed for years from t'ne method in other pro- 
ducing sections of the country. From the days of 
Spindle Top down to the advent of the war with 
Germany, Coastal operators sold their crude to the 
pipe lines by contract, agreeing to sell all his output 
for a stipulated period — usually one year — at a 
designated figure. By this method the producer 
knew just what he was going to get for his crude. 
In 1917 the contract method was discarded and the 
credit balance method substituted. Under this 
system the oil is run into the lines and the pro- 
ducer is given a receipt, which can be converted into 
cash upon presentation at the offices of the line. 
During the period of the war the credit balance 
quotation was fixed at $1.80 per barrel by the oil 
division of the fuel administration. When the 
armistice was signed, the quotation gradually de- 
clined to $1.00 per barrel — where it is now. 



29 



THE CITY, AND BUSINESS OF AGRICULTURE 

By JAMES Z. GEORGE, M. AM. SOC., C. E. 

Vice President and General Manager, Texas Chaniber of Commerce 




I 




■ T is fortunate indeed that 
nature implants in many 
red-blooded men and 
^^^ women a love for the country 

i «ai^i^Bk ^^'-^ ^^^ freedom of the open 

^^Stt "lBiTJ^*'^jp spaces, otherwise it is pos- 
'^^ " '' sible that we urban dwellers 

might, in time, go right cold 
and hungry, as there would 
be no dairyman to milk the 
cows and no farmer to grow 
the food we requii'e and the 
raiment we are want to wear. 
This call of the red gods is so 
strong that many men and 
women remain on the farm 
despite its present drawbacks 
and the insistent beckoning 
of urban life. But, I am 
Borry to say, there are also many farmers and farm 
laborers who await only the opportunity to quit and 
"move to town." Hence present day farming may 
aptly be divided into two classes: voluntary and in- 
voluntary. Even casual observation will bring the 
regretful conclusion that the voluntary farmers are 
rapidly approaching a minority, and farm morale is 
low despite high prices of farm products and im- 
provements in farming methods. 

Why is it that towns and cities are being filled 
to overflowing with boys and girls who leave the 
farm and come to work in the city? Why, with the 
insistent demand on the farm, does the brawny farm 
laborer come to town to become a factory worker? 
Why did not the soldier who came from the farm 
return to the farm when demobilized ? Why is there 
no real back-to-the-farm movement in answer to the 
ever increasing demand for products of the soil ? 
It may be we have been too busy watching the unrest 



of industrial and transportation labor which, in its 
behavior, is more spectacular and makes better head- 
lines. But the exodus from the farm, unattended by 
demonstrations or strikes or fiery speeches, is, never- 
theless, taking place at an alarming rate and its 
very lack of demonstration likens it to the move- 
ment in our rear of an enemy seeking to cut off 
the line to the base of supplies. The causes of this 
condition and its possible remedy are of grave im- 
portance not only to the farm owner, but to the 
city man, merchant, doctor, banker, lawyer and 
laborer — every one who desires to live and progress 
along normal lines. Industry cannot live without 
the products of the farm and the farm absorbs the 
products of the industrial center; the two are inter- 
dependent and their co-operative development is 
necessary to produce a well rounded and progressive 
community. 

Conditions to be Remedied 

Note, briefly, outstanding conditions to be reme- 
died before farming can be put on the basis which 
its importance warrants us in hoping and working 
for Let us begin with the foundation — value of 
lands. The statement can be made without hesita- 
tion that land can never be worth less, generally 
speaking, than it is now. It is estimated that there 
will be 200,000,000 people in the United States in 
the next thirty years which but increases every day 
the demand for farm products. Then can land ever 
become less valuable? Why, then, should a farmer 
sell his farm, and why should a tenant hesitate to 
buy one ? Tenantry is another outstanding condi- 
tion that needs a solution. It has been said that 
men will fight for their homes but that does not 
envelop the boarding house, and a rented farm is 
about on a par with the boarding house. The 
tenant suffers as well under such a system as 




Corn and Beans. Two Staple Products that are Raised in .\bundance on Texas Farms 

30 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



does the farm. Continuity of purpose, responsibility 
and permanency of citizenship is what communities 
need and it can develop only with farm ownership. 

An economic drawback to the small farmer both 
in operating and owning a farm has been lack of 
credit facilities. The high interest rates or the an- 
tiquated "furnishing" system may make large land 
owners and merchants rich, but not prosperous and 
contented farmers. A farmer, small or large, re- 
quires credit the same as a manufacturer and there 




■W!-Mi 



Ready for the Mar 
do 



kot. KruitH and X'ciiftnlilfN • 
weli OH Texas Sandy Loam 



if nil Kinds 



should be no more feeling of charity or possible loss 
on either side than there is in the industrial world. 
Short term credit for planting and harvesting crops 
is fairly well cared for as is also money on long and 
favorable terms by the Federal Farm Bank for buy- 
ing a farm. But, suppose the farmer wants to im- 
prove his farm; wants a better grade of live stock or 
a comfortable home, or a silo, or modern, efficient 
and labor-saving machinery that he may increase 
his production? Where can he turn? He cannot 
hope to pay for all this in one year as he would his 
seed and labor, hence the necessity for a "middle- 
term" credit of from two to five years for the 
farmer which has not yet been established. The ap- 
plication of modern machinery to industry has in- 
creased the product of labor enormously, resulting 
in greater production and lower prices to the con- 
sumer. Proper lay-out of farm buildings for con- 
venience and economy is unknown, practically, 
though the smallest factories give much study and 
planning to this subject. It is common to see farm 
machinery left to the weather from the gathering of 
a crop to the planting of another, which results in 
replacement of equipment probably every three 
years. This waste alone adds many millions of 
dollars a year to the cost of production, all of which 
the urban consumer must pay or the farmer lose. 

Another disappointment to the farmer, especially 
the small one, is after a hai'd period of cultivation 
and harvest to find no market or an indifferent one 
for his products. Most aid extended the farmer 
heretofore has been principally to increase produc- 
tion, but the question of getting a fair return for 
these products is of equal, if not greater, interest. 
Increased production and no ready and fair-price 
market discourages and bi'eaks many a good farmer 
and makes him a city dweller. Another drawback 
is scarcity of farm labor, whether the farmer's sons 
or the hired help, due to the lack of conveniences 
and recognition which help demands. Add to these 
hindrances the lack of rural school facilities and the 
lack of rural social life and we about have the sum 
total of the more serious handicaps surrounding the 



farmer today and which tends to a crisis which noth- 
ing but concerted and wise action on the part of all 
business men will avert. Let us now consider the 
question as who should initiate and be responsible 
for the program of betterment. 

The City's Interest. 
While the farmer is, of course, directly benefited 
by any improvement in farming conditions, I am 
fully convinced that the town or city is really, broad- 
ly speaking, the greatest beneficiary of a well de- 
veloped farming community surrounding it. Pro- 
duction is production and a million dollars paid a 
community for its agricultural products is paid 
in the same kind of money that would be received 
for manufactured products. The purchasing 
power of the small farm and the family, including 
its equipment, is greater per capita than that of 
the industrial worker. This fact should not be 
overlooked by the business men of the town, 
even though it be a more materialistic view- 
point. More important than buying-power, is 
the ability of the industrial community to 
properly feed itself. I know of at least one city 
in this state that in 1916 got over 95 per 
cent of its butter and egg supply from outside 
per cent of its butter and egg supply from outside 
its own county and a great part of that supply from 
outside the state of Texas. Is this a fact that would 
be of advantage if known to the "captain of indus- 
try" looking for a location for his plant in that 
city? The very foundation of urban industrial de- 
velopment is abundant food stuffs and this can only 
be accomplished through a highly productive country 
surrounding the industrial center. Thus we find, 
as Mr. Quick of the Federal Land Bank points out, 
"The mighty fabric of city, town and village life Is 
built on too small a foundation of crops, fields, herbs 
and gardens." There is such a thing as overdevelop- 
ment from purely a manufacturing standpoint, and 
in that case it is not so much the foundation that is 
endangered as the superstructure. Says Mr. Quick. 



n 



-?«***< 





v^ 



Loading Farm Produce on a Railroad Sidinj^ for Shipnien 
to Northern Markets 

"Yet such decay must come unless the agriculture of 
the United States is placed on a better basis. Great 
manufacturing and trading cities cannot persist 
when agriculture languishes." From these facts it 
seems that the far-seeing business man must take 
a part in building up not only his town with its cor- 
porate limits, but must include the entire rural sec- 
tion surrounding and tributary within one great com- 
munity. The dividing line between town and coun- 
try should be wiped out and the word "community" 



31 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



substituted to include all industry and agriculture. 
And now for the general 

Work of Rural Development 

Work of rural development to be undertaken by a 
community may be grouped in three grand divisions: 
First, production; second, Conservation and Third, 
distribution. What are the factors that make best 
for the promotion of these ends? First, because 
uppermost in the farmer's mind and which pleases 
him most, and which will secui'e his cooperation, is 
the provision of a ready and standardized market 
for every thing he produces. If a farmer is am- 
bitious enough to increase his production, he should 
be rewarded with a ready market at fair prices. 
He has a right to demand this service of the business 
men of his market place in return for his agricul- 
tural products which the city needs. The idea of 
the-farmer's-loaded-wagon must be adopted by the 
city; the farmer must never come to town without 
a wagon loaded with his products to sell and he must 
never go home without his wagon loaded with better 
equipment for his farm, his family, etc. It is not 
economically possible to have one without the other 
and the urban business man might as well recognize 
the fact as now. A market for local consumption 
is not enough — but efficient lines of distribution to 
other centers needing farm products must be estab- 
lished to take care of surplus that can not be used 
locally. Efforts have been made toward standard- 
ization, classing and proper packing of farm pro- 
ducts. Warehouses, creameries, packing house 
plants, canning plants, etc., for storing farm pro- 
ducts that they will not have to be dumped imme- 
diately on the market must be provided. 

The importance of provision for preserving the 
products is especially emphasized in the districts 
which raise principally fruit and vegetable products. 
The East Texas fruit and vegetable industry can be 
greatly increased by adequate facilities for taking 
care of this product. One of the most important 
products in this section are tomatoes. The tomato 
is a perishable fruit and in order to insure the value 
of the crop, it must be quickly cared for after the 
crop is gathered. Adequate facilities for canning 
and marketing will do much toward insuring the 
producer profit. 

The peach crop may be mentioned as another 
example of a very highly valuable, yet perishable 
product. Adequate transportation facilities with 
sufficient available warehousing, packing and ship- 
ping, and also canning facilities, will do much toward 
insuring the profit in this important industry. 

The watermelon industry is also in need of better 
methods of handling the product. Large quantities 
of watermelons are often spoiled for want of trans- 
portation and marketing facilities. With the 
adaptation of the proper system of taking care of 
this product, a much greater profit from the yield 
each year may be received. 

Ambitious communities must have more vision and 
take advantage of opportunities to become perman- 
ently greater. They must put the same thought and 
mass effort into developing rural territory about 
them as they do on purely city work, remembering 
the overdeveloping industrial center will be the first 
to suffer from the failure of agricultural production 
and rural development in its territory. 



A system of co-operation by which the gathering 
of the product and either canning or transporting 
for the market and the distribution at the market- 
ing places, all may co-ordinate higher returns to 
the producer and greater prosperity thereby will 
be assured. 

Then there is the Rural Development Fund, which 
is needed, a revolving fund of some kind, or lending 
aid to small farmers, which should be subscribed by 
the business men of the city and county, adminis- 
tered by a strong committee, and which should earn 
enough that a fair rate of interest can be paid the 
subscribers. Such a fund has been provided by the 
city of Houston for farmers of its community, for 
the buying of fine dairy cattle, silos, tractors, equip- 
ment, etc., on three to five year terms. Another 
vital factor in the solution of the problem is the part 
the farmer's and girls may have in the program 
when the old folks are "sot in their ways." The Ex- 
tension Department of the U. S. Deparement of Agri- 
culture, A. & M. College, help here. Besides Corn 
Clubs, Pig Clubs, for boys, there are Canning and 
Poultry Clubs for the girls. In the summer of 1917, 
140 pure bred Duroc Jersey sows were purchased 
and turned over to 140 boys. To pay for this sow, 
each boy agreed to return two sow pigs six months 
old, when this was done, the original sow belonged 
to the boy. One boy, in eighteen months made 
$432.00, including the value of the mother sow, at a 
total cost of $49.00, a clear profit of $383.00 on a 
zero investment. 

Community centers, the location of the churches, 
a club for social functions and other things people 
demand for their pleasure and convenience must be 
provided to care for rural social life problems. One 
city in my knowledge arranged that its business men 
meet regularly at set periods with the country people 
at their school houses, at which time a free movie 
was given, from the best films of best producers, 
and about one-fourth of the time was spent in edu- 
cational matters, such as a short talk on dairying, 
or a photograph of a fine cow or hog or a well built 
barn or farm residence from another part of the 
country. 

The one-family farm owned by the farmer must 
come before the permanent answed to the present 
shortage of farm labor and supply of farm products 
can come. Every community should make its great- 
est efforts towards encouragement in the ownership 
of small farms. The Federal Land Bank is doing a 
great work in this realm, but, unfortunately, many 
have brought the defeat of good measures for the 
country and thereby for the hole of the nation by 
fearing that such assistance and cooperation smacks 
too greatly of socialism. But let us remember that 
many things are too big and too important to leave to 
individual initiative and effort, and can be accomp- 
lished only by the mass effort of the people. Urban 
centers must assist in the work of securing good 
roads and good schools not simply to the limit of its 
own cooperation, but to the uttermost part of its 
community from which it draws its living. No city, 
town or village can afford to leave off industrial de- 
velopment at the corporate limits — it must include 
the rural district as well. Out of 250 Chambers of 
Commerce, large and small in this state, so far as 
I can learn, only fifteen are making rural develop- 
ment a major activity, and yet agriculture is the line 
of least resistance in Texas. 



32 



AGRICULTURE OF TP:XAS 

By CLARENC.E OUSLEY 

Ex-Asst. U. S- Secretary of Agriculture 




T 



lHE growing belief in 
divei-sification is the 
"silver lining to the 
cloud" discovered by observ- 
ers of Texas agricultural 
conditions during the last 
year. Contemplating the 
future, they predict more and 
more diversification, a growth 
of the small stock farming 
industry and increasing pros- 
perity therefrom. Especially 
in the "black land sections" 
of North Texas has this ten- 
dency become uppermost, and 
in Dallas County, Ellis Coun- 
ty, Coliin and other counties 
where land prices are high- 
est, the small stock farmers 
are becoming numerous and the interest in pure- 
bred and registered stock of all kinds is growing. 
While individual farmers in Texas are suffering 
as a result of decline in prices the agricultural in- 
dustry of the state, as a whole, is nearer than it has 
ever been to a basis of stability and prosperity. 

Record of Production: Production during the last 
year has been very large and the effect of this large 
addition to the wealth of the state can not long be 
observed by the smoked glasses of pessimism. There 
is inspiration in figures like these for a normal year; 
Cotton, 4,200,000 bales; corn, 169,000,000 bushels; 
wheat, 31,665,000 bushels; oats, 42,336,000 bushels; 
sweet potatoes, 9,000,000 bushels; rice, 9,212,000 
bushels; hay, 1,239,000 tons; grain sorghum, 60,000,- 
000 bushels; wool, 17,600,000 pounds; apples, 489,000 
bushels; syrup, 650,000 gallons; peanuts, 4,900,000 
bushels; broom corn, 8,000 tons; barley, 469,000 
bushels; hogs, 2,102,000 heads; beef cattle, $200,- 
000,000 value; dairy cattle, $90,000,000 value. 

While prices are low the actual wealth produced 
is here and can not fail to circulate through all the 
intricate and complex channels of trade and thus 
nourish and enrich all the people. 

A very bright spot on the silver lining of the cloud 
is the large feed crop produced the . 
past year. In former years when 
something happened to put the price 
of cotton down Texas farmers faced j 
the next year with empty barns and 
had to borrow large sums of money to 
buy feed to make the next year's crop. 
There is an abundance to feed on 
Texas farms at this time and borrow- 
ings for operations will be relatively 
very small. 

There has been more intelligent 
diversification of crops in Texas this 
year than ever before. The all-cotton 
farmer is hard to find where he was a 
majority a few years ago. Many so- 
called "patch crops," such as sweet 
potatoes, peanuts and tomatoes have 
become dependable cash crops. 

Live Stock Improves: There is more 
and better live stock on Texas farms 
now than the most hopeful advocate 



of live stock believed possible a few years 
ago. This is particularly truo in the rich black land 
counties. A few years ago the land owners in these 
sections believed that the high price of land com- 
pelled them to plant only cotton. Now they have 
found that only by combining live stock with feed 
crops and cotton can they earn a return upon the 
high valuation of their land. The experience of 
older states is being duplicated in Texas, and we 
are finding the best quality of live stock in the 
regions of highest land values. 

Recently large numbers of pure-bred hogs and 
dairy cows were brought into the state, and during 
the same period many local centers of pure-bred live 
stock production began to supply other sections of 
the state with breeding stock. 

Marketing Studies: Notable progress has been 
made during the year by farmers in perfecting co- 
operative marketing associations patterned closely 
after the successful California co-operative organi- 
zations. The first of these to be formed is the 
Lower Rio Grande Valley Marketing Association, 
which will handle about $6,500,000 worth of early 
vegetables and fruits. The Texas Tomato Growers' 
Exchange now organized will control more than 60 
per cent of car-lot tomato shipments from the state 
of a value approximately $1,000,000. 

The outstanding event in the field of co-operative 
marketing is the launching by the farm bureau of a 
co-operative selling agency to control not less than 
1,000,000 bales of cotton per year. This understand- 
ing is the outgrowth of a study of the cotton market- 
ing problem by a large group of farmers and busi- 
ness men, and it differs from all previous efforts 
in that it is based upon legal contracts of growers 
to deliver their cotton to the association, and in a 
plan of financing which, it is claimed, will command 
the approval of large banking interests. 

When all the things enumerated above are taken 
into consideration, I feel warranted in saying that 
notwithstanding the diflficulties of the price situa- 
tion Texas agriculture is today nearer the basis of 
permanent stability and prosperity than it has ever 
been. 




An Orchard Scene in East Texas 



33 



THE TEXAS COTTON INDUSTRY 

By M. H. WOLFE 




C 



\ 



^OTTON is the outstand- 
ing industry of Texas. 
There is something 
fascinating about the produc- 
tion and disposition of a 
large cotton crop, such as 
Texas often produces. The 
crop never fails in Texas. 
Some years the yield is small- 
er than in other years, but 
cotton is a natural growth in 
the Texas soil and climate 
and will produce whether it 
has a chance or not. It is in- 
teresting to study the pro- 
duction and the money value 
of a cotton crop. For in- 
stance, in 1914 Texas farm- 
ers planted 11,931,000 acres 
in cotton and produced 4,959,112 bales which sold 
for an average price of 7.22 cents. Realizing in 
money approximately $165,770,000, which in 1918 
the acreage was 11,235,000 which produced only 
2,580,000 bales but sold for an average price of 
28.02 cents, realizing about $363,780,000. 

The cotton crop in Texas about equals in value 
all other crops combined. It might be said in this 
connection that there are vast domains of agri- 
cultural lands in Texas, suitable to cotton production 
that has never been touched by a plow, and it is 
possible that in the future there will be produced 
in Texas as much cotton as is now produced in the 
entire world. By an experienced and observant eye 
it can be easily seen that there is practically no limit 
to the cotton possibilities in a state so large and 
whose productive powers respond so quickly to the 



fall when cotton is everywhere and the fields are 
white with open bolls, instead of ice snow we have 
cotton snow. Instead of rivers flowing with water 
we have trains flowing with cotton. As the people 
went west so did cotton, and many cotton farms 
are now to be seen over the Panhandle of the West 
where such seemed formerly impossible. From all 
parts of Texas come the contestants in the boys' and 
girls' Texas Cotton Club who have averaged more 
than one bale per acre and many of them over two 
bales per acre, running as high as 2.67 bales per 
acre. These boys and girls have the "bush that 





,\ \\ arelu»ii?^c *.'.it-v\ ill a Prosperous Farming 

coaxing of nature and the magic hand of man. In 
her black prairie farms Texas has the largest and 
finest body of cotton land in the world. The long 
cotton rows are so straight as the crow flies, and 
where the mocking bird sings the loudest the cotton 
stalk grows the tallest. It is in obedience to the 
natural laws and the divine call that cotton so pre- 
vails in Texas. During the past decade the in- 
crease in the cotton acreage in Texas has exceeded 
the increase in all the other states combined. It 
seems that the acreage devoted to cotton in Texas 
is about twice the size of the state of Massachusetts, 
which explains the fact that Texas produces about 
one-third of the cotton grown in the United States. 
Snow time in Texas is not in the winter, but in the 



Picking Cotton on a Large Texas Plantation 

bears fleece more beautiful than the wool of the 
sheep" as the Greeks of Alexander's army said about 
the cotton of India. 

Besides the fleecy staple there comes from cotton 
about 1,600,000 tons of cotton seed from the Texas 
crop, which has a value of about .$90,000,000. There 
are about 200 cotton seed mills in Texas and when 
the seed are milled the production is about one- 
fourth oil and three-fourths "cotton seed cake." The 
cotton seed oil is very rich and from it the manu- 
facturers produce "pure olive oil and hog lard," and 
from the left overs they make everything from soap 
to phonograph records. Boll worms, 
boll weevils and caterpillars gather 
more cotton in Texas than the people 
gather. However, the worms and 
their allies, by working overtime find 
the job too big and a fair crop is left 
for the people. Only about two per 
cent of the Texas crop is manufac- 
tured in Texas. Cotton spinning is 
just beginning in Texas and last year 
the cotton mills used 83,389 bales. 
Some of the mills are very successful, 
manufacturing chiefly duck. C. W. 
Post, of Postum fame, built in West 
Texas a cotton mill that takes cotton 
from the farmers' wagon, gins it, weaves it, and 
delivers hemmed sheets and pillow cases ready for 
use by the housewife. The hope is that his tribe 
will increase. 

One of the principal requirements to the success 
of any manufacturing industry is the availability of 
the raw product from which the goods are manufac- 
tured. With the large amount of cotton raised in 
Texas, much of which is stored in warehouses here 
to await marketing. The manufacture of cotton 
would always find a bountiful supply of the raw 
product available at a minimum transportation cost. 
The same would apply to the manufacture of cotton 
products. Much can be done to increase the value 
of cotton crops in Texas, by encouragement of manu- 
facturers who will utilize the raw material. 



District 



34 



THE ^^ONDERFUL RESOURCES OF WEST TEXAS 

By PORTER A. WHALEY 

Nlaiinger West Texas Chamber of Coinnierce 



HARRASSED by misleading and often by 
malicious statements effecting the very life 
blood of her civilization, following the nearly 
state-wide drouth of 1917, and keenly feeling that 
she was the victim of misunderstanding and preju- 
dice, in December, 1918, a small but representative 
group of West Texans assembled in Fort Worth and 
there took initial action towards the organization 
of a movement which should always have as its 
prime idea the importance ot correctly portraying 
the actual facts as they might exist with regard to 
life, progress and truth in the regions making up 
the domain of West Texas. 

It is an interesting fact that the so-called drouth 
of 1917 extended over a larger proportionate ter- 
ritory in the eastern than in the western half of 
Texas. The drouth may, in a broad sense, be said 
to have approximated the area of the state, yet it is 
a perfectly true statement to say that of the regions 
not affected or only slightly affected more of them 
were located in west than in east Texas. Perhaps 
the territory most seriously affected was Central 
Texas. Yet, it seemed to be the custom of most 
Texans to refer to what they termed the "Drouth in 
West Texas." Abortive plans were placed under 
way to raise a sum of money which it was advertised 
was to "relieve the drouth in West Texas" ad in- 
finatum. Comparatively a small sum of money was 
raised, most of which was given to itinerants, and 
finally the remaining balance, representing a con- 
siderable part of the total, was given to the Kerr- 
ville tubercular hospital. Yet as late as during the 
special session of the state legrislature at Austin in 
August, 1921, Senator Darrough of Tcxarkana de- 
livered an address before the senate , of Texas 
astounding for its misinformation on the "relief 
given West Texas," and we were informed that 
"East Texas, in her generosity would be willing 
again to extend relief, if in the meantime most of 
the people had not returned to their former homes 
in the princely land of East Texas," and the sad 
thing about such statements is that thousands be- 
lieve them. It is in the black land belt particu- 
larly — that region of Texas noted for its high land 
values and low assessed valuation — and where there 
is general mis-information and a growing prejudice 
against West Texas. 

In view of the fact that West Texas pays propor- 
tionately a much larger part (if the state taxes, and 
in fact has such a large over-plus proportionate 
payment as to make what in fact is in reality an 
annual contribution to the rest of the state aggre- 
gating millions of dollars, it does seem absurd that 
Senator Darrough should in his ignorance prate as 
he did in the last special session. 

Much of this mis-information is due not to a desire 
to damage West Texas, but is due to a general mis- 
understanding of life on the plains of West Texas. 

Purpose. It is therefore the primal purpose of 
the West Texas Chamber of Commerce to endeavor 
in a myriad of ways to dissipate mis-understanding 
of the truly remarkable life and pulsating civiliza- 
tion of the hardy, prosperous and thrifty people now 
living in West Texas, and in its place to repose an 
understanding of the causes back of the great exodus 
which in twenty years has sent more than 1,000,000 



native white Americans upon the lands of West 
Texas, and of the causes as they cumulate which 
for many years yet to come are to continue this 
movement. It is its purpose to stimulate all that 
is best in community and rural life, and to build 
up a consciousness of duty towards one-self, his 
neighbors and his community, and to assist in di- 
recting the mighty forces which fundamentally are 
creating a new civilization upon this threshold of 
the Southwest. Making peopJe think is a necessary 
prelude towards getting people to act. Therefore 
thought should be followed by action, and no theory 
is worth while which fails. in the acid test of action. 

Practical Things Done. Therefore the men who 
first originated the ideas of the organization rightly 
decided that they w-ould bring into. play a plan of 
operation which would cause the actual doing of 
practical, tangible things. Hence a program — and 
following that the instituting of bureaus, etc. After 
a working staff was appointed the first immediate 
object was to obtain its membership. It is interest- 
ing to note how the various towns in West Texas 
have become interested. Today the association has 
its members in practically every hamlet onward to 
the largest cities in West Texas. The present mem- 
bership includes the affiliation of 264 cities and 
towns, and a total of 5,157 members. 

The association operates through administration, 
traffic, service, agricultural, exhibit and legislative 
bureaus. A staff employee is placed at the head of 
each bureau, all of whom are appointed by the man- 
ager, who is himself elected annually by the execu- 
tive board. 

Porter A. Whaley, the writer of this article, is the 
manager. Clifford B. Jones, well known banker 
and agriculturalist, is the president. Geo. W. Briggs 
represents Lubbock on the board of directors. There 
are all told 34 directors. J. A. Kemp, of Wichita 
Falls, is vice-president. 

The administration bureau is under the imme- 
diate control of the manager, and as such directs the 
entire works of the organization. Traffic bureau is 
managed by H. H. Elzey and assistants. This 
bureau also has a special rate stenographer. It 
handles the various and intricate traffic problems 
presented to it by 260 member towns, and also by 
more than 5,000 individual members. A freight 
bill-checking service is also maintained. The agri- 
cultural bureau conducts live stock and dairying 
cow campaigns, gets laborers for harvest, etc. It 
covers all agricultural matters. A vast accumula- 
tion of work is handled. One of the interesting 
works is in marketing. The service or publicity 
bureau is that part of the fabric which must tell 
all about West Texas, must sell it, etc. Thousands 
of news stories are sent out daily. 

But above all the West Texas Chamber of Com- 
merce stands as an outward and visible sign of the 
inward determination of West Texans to protect 
their interest in all legitimate manners and to pre- 
sent to the gi-eat world beyond in an intelligent and 
capable manner the story of "America's last El- 
dorado" — a place where men and women of in- 
tellect and brawn may with their minds and hands 
and hearts build for their glory and the glory of 
their God« and country. 



35 



THE TEXAS COWBOY 

By TOM L. BURNETT 




T' 



^HE reconstruction per- 
iod following the close 
of the Civil War has 
oft been referred to by those 
in whose memory the vision 
of that dread conflict has not 
been wholly effaced, as "The 
days that tried men's souls." 
Texas, vast empire of the 
sunny south, for generations 
the veritable battle ground of 
civilization, has presented 
many problems that tried the 
souls of men and in slowly 
yielding to the onward march 
of progress offered boundless 
opportunities for the demon- 
stration of those qualities 
that determine when a man's 
a man. In the earlier days, and in fact, until quite 
recently, Texas was largely made up, from Red River 
to the Rio Gi-ande, from the panhandle to the Gulf, 
of vast ranches, many of them far exceeding in area 
some of the petty principalities of Europe and the 
regions of the Far East. 

Between these widely scattered ranches were well 
nigh boundless forests or vast unending plains where 
the majestic sweep of the prairies was broken only 
by slowly moving herds of buffalo. 

It was into such regions as this the doughty cow- 
boy forged his way and planted the seeds of refining 
civilization that resulted finally in the wrestling 
of this magnificent domain from a state of barbarism 
and made possible the scintillating Lone Star that 
today proudly takes its place in the firmament of 
commonwealths that go to make up our nation as a 
whole. 

The valor and progress of the western cowboy 
have been immortalized in song and story and the 
history of their achievements has a distinct place 
in the literature of the present day. The glory of 
his accomplishments will never die and ages after 
the deeds of martial heroes have faded in the limbo 
of a forgotten past, the memory of the western 
cowboy still will be revered. 

But the old days of the open range and the wild, 
exciting scenes of the annual round-up are nearly 
over. Science and civilization — those twin foes of 
the freedom of man — are bringing nearer and nearer 
the time when this dramatic and impressive char- 
acter will, indeed, be but a memory. 

To many, if not to all of the old timers, the pass- 
ing of the cowboy brings a well defined pang of 
regret. He has been aptly termed the vanguard of 
civilization and Texas, in erecting monuments to 



those of her sons who have had a distinct and out- 
standing part in her glorious history ,will bring to 
herself shame and humiliation should she forget the 
part played by those rugged heroes of the plains 
and hills — the cowboys. 

Numbers of men who today are leaders in the 
commercial and financial circles of the state, had 
their start as cowboys and rode the range in the 
early days. Notable among those former cowboys 
who have achieved material and financial success 
are W. T. Waggoner, Col. C. C. Goodnight, S. Burk 
Burnett, Col. C. C. Slaughter, Marion Samson, 
Phy Taylor, Jack Abernathy, John Blocker, T. A. 
Coleman, C. B. Lucas, Geo. West, Mr. Kokernot and 
others too numerous to mention. Majestic office 
buildings, towering masses of steel and stone, bear 
the names of some of these men and give silent 
tribute to their indomitable will-power and determi- 
nation to succeed. 

However, the achievements of these men, former 
cowboys, in wresting the fertile plains of Texas from 
domination of the redman and the buffalo, will be 




Lunch Served : 'I'heodore Roosevelt and Party of West 
Texans on Famous Wolf Hunt, May, 1906. 

Reading from I^ft to RijSht: W. T. Waggoner, Major S. 
B. Young, Tom L. Burnett, Col. Theodore Roosevelt, Cecil 
Lyons, I)r. Lambert, Bonnie Moore, Capt. S. Burk Burnett, 
Capt. Bill McDonald, Chief Quannah Parker, E. M. Gilles, 
Guy Waggoner, on Wagon: D. P. "Phy" Talyor, Lee Biveiis 

cherished in the memories of former Texans long 
after the towering monuments of steel and stone 
have crumbled into dust. 

In order to keep alive for coming generations the 
knowledge of how the cowboys lived and worked on 
the plains in the earlier days, there are being staged 
in many of the cities and towns of Western Texas 
annual round-ups or rodeos where the few remaining 
cowboys gather each year and, in good natured com- 
petition go through with an exhibition which ac- 
curately typifies the open life of the plains country 




The Kodeo at Wichita Falls iu 1'J:J1. Tlii.s \\c-»terii Classic has Become an Annual Kveii( l.i I'.-rpetuate < he Spirit and 

Traditions of the West Texas Range and the Cowboy 

36 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



in the early days. In keeping with this movement, 
plans are now under way for the erection in Wichita 
Falls of a monster stadium where the rodeo may 
be held each year in connection with the proposed 
agricultural and live stock fair. 

With the onward sweep of civilization the western 
cowboy will pass into history, having fully achieved 
h i s destiny 
and CO m- 
pleted the 
work which 
in the divine 
plan of the 
ages it was 
meant that 
he should 
do. In the 
near future 
palatial 
trains of 
steel Pull- 
man cars 
and high 
powered au- 
t o m o b iles 
will move 
swiftly a- 
1 o n g roads 
of steel and 




A Herd of Prize-Winninc Tln»r<uiijhbred Cattle on one 
the Burnett Ranches in West Texas 



concrete where once the lone cowboy on his pinto 
pony traversed an endless unbroken plain. 

Men of the future have a debt of gratitude to the 
western cowboy which can never be repaid. Yet him 
be immortalized in song and story, erect monuments 
of steel and granite to his memory, let the pages 
of history be emblazoned with a record of his deeds 

and even 
then the 
half will 
not have 
near been 
told. 

A tribute 
to the west- 
ern cowboy 
has been 
beautiful 1 y 
expre s s e d 
by a well 
known west 
ern poet, 
Jack Hil- 
dreth Beall, 
which may 
b e appro- 
p r i a t e 1 y 
quoted be- 



THE TEXAS COWBOY 
It matters not what comes or goes, 
Through summer's heat or winter's snows. 
At work or play, on plain or hill. 
The Texas Cowboy with a will, 
Is ever ready, night or day. 
To help a man along life's way. 
He rides the plains from dawn 'till dark, 
Is ever ready for a lark. 
Throws a lariat, shoots a gun. 
Does his work and calls it fun; 
He's rough and ready, tried and true. 
Oh Texas Cowboy, here's to you. 



In song and story, film and play, 
We've seen the passing of his day. 
And now, with labors nearly done. 
He faces still, the western sun. 
Undaunted, firm and unafraid, 
His fame and glory ne'er will fade. 
And once each year we'll meet again. 
Those hardy cowboys from the plain. 
We'll see them ride, bull-dog and throw. 
At each recurring rodeo. 
And say to those from every land, 
Our Texas Cowboy is a MAN. 

-Jack Hildreth Beall. 




THEODORE ROOSEVELT AND GROUP OF NOTED WEST TEXAN'S ON WOLF HUNT, MAY, 1906. 
Left to Ri^ht, Standing: Lee Bivens, Capt. Bill McDonald, Jack Abernathy holding Wolf , Major S. B. Young, 
Capt. S. Burk Burnett, Col. Theodore Roosevelt, E. M. Gilles. Sitting: Two Soldiers, John Doe, 
Bonnie NIoore, Quannah Parker Kneeling: Cecil Lyons, Dr. Lambert, Phy Taylor. 



STATE FAIR OF TEXAS 

By ^\^ H. STRATTOX 




D 



k ALL AS is the home of 
the State Fair of 
Texas, the grounds of 
which are located within the 
city and have an appraised 
value of over $2,000,000. This 
is the largest fair of its kind 
in the United States, being 
approached in the Western 
Hemisphere only by the an- 
nual fair of Toronto, Canada. 
The annual attendance ap- 
proximates 1,000,000 persons. 
Its profits are used in mak- 
ing improvements, or for 
stimulating manufacturing, 
agriculture and stock raising. 
The splendid spirit of co- 
operation, developed so ef- 
fectively among all of our people while we were en- 
gaged in the world war, is concretely exemplified 
by the eScient efforts of eminent live stock breed- 
ers, agriculturalists, artists, scientists, industrial 
and commercial experts, from all sections of our 
great state, men whose names alone are a guarantee 
that the fair will always keep up to the splendid 
standard of past achievement and in fact surpass 
it each year. 

Golden grain from fertile fields, luscious fruits 
from fragrant orchards, succulent vegetables from 
well-kept gardens, lowing herds of fattened cattle, 
magnificent thoroughbred horses, and all the other 
faithful, lowly friends of man, as well as riches 
from the marts of trade, modern creations of the 
inventive wizard's brain, the wonders of science, 
the beauties of art — in a word, our Twentieth 
Century Texas civilization, is typified, glorified, 
visualized at the State Fair of Texas. 

Just as "Uncle Sam" believes that "all work and 
no play makes the Yank a dull boy," so we believe 
that recreation and amusement are similarly es- 





Entrance to Texas State Fair Grounds, Dallas, Texas 



A.ImIpIuis II. .(.-l and Annex, Diilla-^ 'Icxii-. I..1 
lli)slcli-.v. K. B. Ellcfritz, Managint: IJircctui 

sential for civilian welfare. Therefore clean, 
wholesome, high-grade entertainment features 
are always found at the fair. Entrancing 
music, wonderful feats of skill and daring, 
dazzling spectacular displays — a very pano- 
rama of world progress greets the eye and 
delights the ear of the multitudes who attend 
this wonderful exposition each year. 

The Texan has one great opportunity each 
year to secure "visualized vocational instruc- 
tion" upon the many subjects of practical 
use on the farm, ranch, in the orchard, the 
vineyard or in the garden; to rub elbows 
with friends and neighbors from far and 
wide to find relaxation and to enjoy entertain- 
ment on a scale in keeping with the wonderful 
development of today. 

The Texas State Fair has become a perma- 
nent institution. It is a gathering place for 
large numbers of Texans, who each year make 
their pilgrimage to Dallas to enjoy the en- 
tertainment, to get acquainted with each other 
or to renew old friendships. The management 
of the fair never fails to provide something 
new, attractive and out of the ordinary. 



38 



HISTORY OF THE TEXAS AUTOMOBH.E INDUSTRY 

Bv J. ^\'. AT^\"OOD 




T 



U^E automobile indus- 
try in Texas is only 
twenty years old, the 
first car brought to the state 
being owned by Mr. E. H. R. 
Green, of Terrell, Texas, 
president of the Texas Mid- 
land Ry. Co. In those days 
automobiles were referred to 
by many people as horseless 
carriages. Mr. Green's car 
was a St. Louis Gas Car of 
the surrey type, with two 
cylinders both of which ex- 
ploded at the same time giv- 
ing the automobile a rather 
rough jolt with each ex- 
plosion. 

About this time Mr. Jay 
Gould, the New York railroad magnate, presente.l 
an automobile to Mr. L. S. Thorne, general manager 
of the Texas & Pacific Ry. Co. This was the second 
car brought into the state. The first automobile 
dealer in Texas was Mr. Henry Garrett, of Dallas, 
who, in 1902, bought his first car, a National Electric. 
After selling this car he took the agency for the 
Locomobile. During this year of 1902, Mr. R. L. 
Cameron, of Dallas, purchased a car from Mr. Gar- 
rett, an Olds steam car. This was Mr. Cameron's 
first automobile but later in the year he took the 
agency for the Steamobile, handling it for one year 
after which he put in a regular sales place for auto- 
mobiles taking the agency for Buick and putting 
travelers on the road, which was the first attempt 
to sell cars throughout the state. Mr. Cameron 
has continued in the automobile business for the in- 
tervening twenty years. In the latter part of 1902 
Mr. H. R. Cromer, of Fort Worth, bought a Rambler, 
a two cylinder car which he still owns, in 1922. 

In 1903 Parlin and Orendorff Implement Company 
took up the agency for Cadillac to distribute them 
throughout the state. This same year Mr. James 
Collins, of San Antonio, took the Cadillac agency 
for San Antonio territory and sold one car, a one- 
cylinder Cadillac, October 16th, to Mr. Al. Haslett, 



Miinneer of Dallas Branch Buick Motor Company 

panics were established in Dallas which was the be- 
ginning of the establishment of factory branches 
and distributors in all the large towns of the state. 
In 1907 the state legislature passed a bill requir- 
ing automobiles to be licensed in the county in which 





The Union Terminal Depot, Dallas, with Ferris Plaza in 
the Foreground 

a Southern Pacific engineer, at the price of $1,050. 
In 1904 Mr. A. B. Wharton, of Fort Worth, took 
the agency for the Olds and Winton, opening up a 
garage in Fort Worth. He sold this business about 
one year later to Mr. H. H. Lewis. 

In 1905 the Maxwell, Briscoe and Handley com- 



JcfTcrson Hotel and Ferris P'rya. Near I nion Terminal 

Depot. Built, Owned and Operated by Charles 

ManBold and E. W. Morten 

they were owned, this license being 50 cents to 
cover expense of clerical work. The owner of the 
ear was privileged to buy any sort of number that 
he chose. 

In 1908 the first real salesroom and service sta- 
tion was opened in Dallas by the Buick Automobile 
Company, the first well equipped place of the kind 
in the entire Southwest. 

Beginning with 1908 many distributing agencies 
and branch houses were opened in the five larger 
cities of Texas, Dallas, Houston, San Antonio, Fort 
Worth and El Paso and from that time until 1914 
when the war broke out in Europe many new 
agencies were established each year. Cars were im- 
proved and trucks came into existence. The first 
trucks were made by putting special bodies on the 
regular automobile chassis, many times using old 
chassis that had been taken in by the dealer in 
trades. 

In the fall of 1908, during the Texas State Fair, 
there was run between Dallas and Fort Worth an 
economic and endurance contest, in which fifteen 
cars were entered. This contest created great in- 
terest and each of the three following years similar 
affairs were pulled off to Mineral Wells, Waco and 
San Antonio. In 1909 R. L. Cameron sold his busi- 
ness to Roy Munger, including the agencies for 
Cadillac, Ford, Stevens Duryea, Jackson and Frank- 
lin. The first work of the Munger Company was to 
get rid of the Ford cars taken over in this deal. 
This they accomplished after considerable effort. 
Ford cars at that time listed for $900 to $1,000. To 
use the expression of the Munger Company they 
cheerfully and gladly surrendered what later proved 
to be the greatest profit maker in the industry. 
Beginning with 1909 rubber tire concerns established 
their first branches in all the distributing centers 
of the state, then came the large accessory houses 
supplying equipment that many buyers liked to add 
to their cars. 



39 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



In the early days automobiles came without tops, 
windshields, in fact with no more of the later re- 
finements in equipment than the farm wagon 
possessed, and it was not until about 1914 that they 
came equipped with these essentials, providing for 
extra tire, etc. 

During 1909 the Buick Automobile Company sold 




Wilson Building, the First LarjSe Office Building of Dallas. 
Erected by the Late J. B. Wilson 

to the Dallas Fire Department 
one of their Model 17s, which was 
the first automobile fire fighting' 
apparatus in the state. This car 
was used for four years in the 
service of Chief H. F. McGee. Be- 
tween 1909 and 1921 practically 
every department in all the larger 
cities and many of the small towns 
of Texas became motorized and 
many factories have been built in 
the North and East for the especial 
production of this class of ap- 
paratus. 

In 1910 the first hearses on 
motor trucks were bought by the 
undertakers of the larger cities of 
Texas, the number increasing 
slowly on account of prejudice for 
the motor car. Popular opinion 
-was changed to the extent that all 
well equipped undertaking estab- 
lishments have been motorized 100 
per cent by 1920. 

The first motor factory in the 
state of Texas was that of the 
Wichita Truck Company, at Wich- 
ita Falls, Texas, which began in a 
small way in 1911 and expanded 
rapidly until Wichita Trucks have 
been in use for several years in 
all parts of the world. 

The Ford Motor Company estab- 
lished an assembly plant in Dallas 
in 1914. Also one in Houston in 
July, 1914, which in 1922 had a 



capacity of 150 cars per day. However the Houston 
branch was established in 1910 as a sales and service 
branch only. 

In 1917 the Texas legislature passed a bill creating 
a highway commission authorizing same to license 
automobiles, trucks, motor cycles, etc., and in 1920 
the number of such licenses issued was 427,693, in 
1921 approximately 475,000. During the period be- 
tween 1914 and 1920 there were approximately 1,500 
automobile dealers in the state. In 1920 the volume 
of business was tremendous, amounting with the 
allied lines to $350,000,000 in the state. In 1918 
many motor truck lines were established for trans- 
portation of supplies and produce between the large 
centers and the small towns throughout the state. 

In 1918 the Texas Motor Car Association opened 
a manufacturing plant in Fort Worth for the pro- 
duction of Texan passenger cars. 

During the world war and the year following the 
signing of the armistice the automobile industry, 
together with allied lines, prospered beyond expecta- 
tions in Texas, small towns as well as the large 
cities of the state taking on great activity. Many 
tourists remarked the fact that the greater number 
of better class buildings in even the smaller towns 
were erected and used by automobile concerns, hand- 
some salesrooms as well as well equipped service 
stations and garages. 

In the beginning the automobile was looked upon 
as a plaything for the rich and considered an ex- 
pensive luxury and the citizenship of Texas did not 
dream that within a few years an automobile would 
be an essential and ordinary possession of the aver- 
age family. In the year of 1922 there is an average 
in Texas of one car to every ten persons. 




The Area Inclosed in a Circle Described by One Hundred Mile Radius Around 
Dallas, is KapidlyBecoming Threaded with Good Public Highways. 

40 



MASONRY: ITS OBJECTS AND INFLUENCES 



By SAM P. t'OCIlRAN, 33" 

Sovereign Grand Inspector General of Texas 




T' 



^HE practical object of 
Masonry has been de- 
fined as to be "the 
physical and moral ameliora- 
tion and the intellectual and 
spiritual improvement of in- 
dividuals and society." Prob- 
ably the latest definition of 
Free Masonry is that given 
in the "Declaration of Prin- 
ciples" of the International 
Masonic Association, viz: 
"Free Masonry, a traditional, 
philanthropic, philosophical 
and progressive institution, 
being based upon the prin- 
ciple that all men are broth- 
ers, holds high in its purposes 
which are: The research of 
Verity, the study and the practice of Morality and of 
Solidarity. It exerts itself for material and moral 
improvements as well as for the intellectual and 
social perfection of mankind. Its chief duty is to 
extend to all mankind the brotherly ties which 
unite all Free Masons all over the Globe." Society 
can be improved only as the constituent individuals 
are made better; and Masonry seeks to accomplish 
this by inducing in each individual consciousness, 
a deeper and stronger sense of personal responsi- 
bility and a higher and keener appreciation of the 
things of moral and intellectual worth. This is 
character building, and this is the ultimate object 
and aim of Masonry. Therefore it is that our system 
of philosophy takes the homely and practical opera- 
tion of building a structure — a temple — as a symbol, 
by means of which to illustrate, to those who have 
eyes to see and ears to hear, those great truths and 
virtues which, woven into the warp and woof of 
life by practice and experience, clothe man with a 
garment of beauty and honor, and polish and adorn 
his true character. The cornerstone of the Masonic 
structure is Truth, which is declared to be a divine 




The Scottish Rite Tempi.- 



.d and Voung Streets. 



attribute and the foundation of every virtue. From 
this cornerstone extend the foundation walls, con- 
structed of the moral virtues and intellectual ex- 
cellencies, and like the foundation of the metaphoric 
City of Revelation "garnished with all manner of 
precious stones," chief among which are Temper- 



ance, Fortitude, Prudence, Justice, Brotherly Love, 
Relief, Toleration and Patriotism. And as the physi- 
cal structure rises secure and faultless on its founda- 
tion of solid stones, so Masonry undertakes to erect 
on the foundation of these great virtues, in each 
individual consciousness, the Temple of Character — 
that temple where in each must dwell and serve, until, 
perfected by the process of God's alchemy, sweetened 







I 



rr E^ K a ^^ 






1^ 



11- 



It 




■ffy 1» ?J, ?,£ 







The Utdlus Atl\letio Club. The Finest Club Buildinii in (lie 
South. From Architects* Drawing Lan;^ &- Witchell, Ar- 
chitects 

by suffering and sanctified by love, he is prepared 
to enter in, through the gate over which is in- 
scribed, "Holiness to the Lord," into that city, made 
without hands, eternal in the heavens, in which there 
is no temple, "for the Lord God Almighty and the 
Lamb are the temple of it." (Rev. 21:22). 

The world needs today, as much as at any period 
in its history heretofore, men of sound, solid char- 
acter, like the foundation stones of a well built 
structure, and based on the great principles of our 
Order, to direct and govern its affairs, that justice 
may be done in the earth and the people no longer 
be oppressed. Is there not need for such men to 
lead and govern ? Look at Europe, where ambition, 
envy, hatred and greed, have drenched the earth 
with human blood, spreading devastation and woe 
everywhere, and almost proving the Brotherhood of 
Man to be a myth. If the Spirit of Masonry abode 
amidst those warring nations, human slaughter 
would cease and their differences would be readily 
composed on the Masonic basis of Justice, Right 
and Truth. Let us rejoice that in our own blessed 
land we enjoy the great right — which we should 
cherish and defend — of teaching and practicing Free 
Masonry without political or pontificial interference 
or restraint. 

Let us rejoice that the foundations of our Craft- 
hood are co-extensive with our national domain, our 



41 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



asylums planted in every community, and our prin- 
ciples so pervading the public consciousness and 
gaining such foothold among increasing member- 
ship, that all distinctions of sections of religions, 
or of races have been eliminated, the spirit of na- 
tional brotherhood born anew, and the possibility of 
civil strife forever banished. The Spirit of Masonry 
is making our nation great, and preparing it to play 
a great part in securing and maintaining an endur- 
ing peace among the nations of the world; and we 
need great men, inspired by the principles of 
Masonry, and possessing characters built upon its 
foundation stones, to successfully achieve this grand 
result of humanity. 

But look close at home: We see graft, bigotry 
and intolerance thriving and holding sway in our 
midst. Dishonesty in both high and low places goes 
unpunished because of fear and favoritism. Some 
churches, commissioned to teach and persuade alone, 
are insidiously or insistently thrusting themselves 
into public affairs, sometimes seeking to direct pub- 
lic or political actions, or control political patronage. 
Intolerance still blinds men as darkly as when perse- 
cution drove our hardy ancestors to settle a new 
continent, and seek to establish a land of religious 
liberty, or when the newcomers burned so-called 
witches at Salem. In our legislatures we find those 
sent to represent the people, who evince an entire 
willingness to imprison or expatriate others who 
have the temerity to differ with them in respect to 
political, religious or medical opinions or prefer- 
ences. 

We find the rule of the mob threatening our very 
political foundations, in the great strikes that keep 
the country in apprehension, when great bodies of 
men, in contempt or defiance of law and ignoring 
all legal processes — setting their own desires above 
all questions of legal restraint — seek to enforce their 
own demands by power of numbers, often in actual 
revolt and open rebellion against constituted, lawful 
authority; ruthlessly trampling upon the rights of 
others not co-operating with them, and openly — as 
well as secretly — resorting to violence against per- 
son and property. 

We find these great forces growing in aggressive- 
ness and fierceness because it frequently happens 
that the oScers of the law fail to restrain, or even 
attempt to restrain them, through sympathy or fear, 
or because of the political weight of their numbers, 
and of their influence boldly asserted and used. We 
find state courts failing to punish or restrain the 
participants in such cases, for like reasons of politi- 
cal fear or prejudice, and refusing to protect in their 
legal rights those who are mercilessly trodden upon 
or injured by the revolters. 

We see our legislatures quibbing over road laws, 
school districts and petty statutory offenses, or 
equally inconsequential matters, while the rights of 
the quiet, law-abiding and tax-paying element of our 
people are invaded. We see more laws enacted to 
hamper the law-abiding and the reins slackened on 



the vicious and turbulent; laws passed to favor 
classes of citizens large in number, and against the 
fewer. And we see our paid officials zealously prose- 
cuting for alleged statutory offenses small bodies or 
numbers of citizens of particular trades or occupa- 
tions, while those of other callings who number many 
voters in their ranks follow unlawful methods and 
practices in quiet security, seemingly unobserved 
by the official eye. In a hundred ways in less im- 
portant matters, but frequently to their great dis- 
comfort or annoyance, the rights of law-abiding peo- 
ple are invaded because no one individual has the 
courage or the time to protest. 

Do we not need great men, strong men — men with 
strong, firm characters, built up on the principles 
and virtues inculcated by our great Order — to help 
in the battle against wrong, vice, usurpation and 
oppression. 

I do not know whether J. G. Holland was a Mason 
or not, but he certainly has a very high concept of 
the principles and teachings of the Order, as beauti- 
fully expressed in the following poem, and which is 
worthy of every man's serious thought: 

"God give us men. The time demands 

Strong minds, great hearts, true faith and willing 

hands; 
Men whom the lust of office does not kill; 
Men whom the spoils of office can not buy; 
Men who possess opinions and a will; 
Men who have honor; men who will not lie; 
Men who can stand before a demagogue 
And dam his treacherous flatteries without winking; 
Tall men, sun-crowned, who live above the fog 
In public duty and private thinking. 

For while the rabble with their thumb-worn creeds, 
Their large professions and their little deeds 
Mingle in selfish strife; lo — freedom weeps — 
Wrong rules the land, and waiting justice sleeps — " 

A person only submits to wrong or injustice be- 
cause the individual has not the courage to stand 
forth alone; given trustworthy leaders the people 
will follow in every fight for liberty, justice and 
country. Masonry interferes with no religion, in- 
trudes into no political affairs, and claims no special 
favors for its votaries. It seeks to inculcate its 
great principles, that men may be made wiser and 
better, individually, and collectively, and that the 
welfare of humanity as a whole may be advanced 
through the agency of its teachings and practice. 

Men imbued with its principles are qualified to 
lead the people in their struggle upward, and those 
not appointed to lead know how to follow and serve 
in every movement for Justice, Right and Truth. 

To build the Temple of Character in men, that 
they might be fit to serve the Great Architect of the 
Universe and their fellow men, and may reap the 
reward of right-doing, is, I believe, one of the legiti- 
mate and laudable, one of the foremost, duties and 
missions of Masonry. 



42 



AUSTIN, THE HOME CITY 

Bv AISTIN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 



IX building a city of homes, homes which are al- 
ways a delight to live in, many conveniences 
must be added to the work nature has done for 
the locality in order that people may desire to live 
there. 

Nature has given to Austin and its surrounding 
territory climate, sunshine, water and scenery, and 
the hand of man has done the rest. 

In 1836, the Republic of Texas appointed a Com- 
mission whose duty it was to locate the capital of the 
Republic. A Republic whose area was more than 
one-twelfth as large as the present total area of the 
United States. This commission looked over the 
whole of Texas and then unanimously selected the 
present site of Austin. This site was near the cen- 
ter of the Republic and selected on its merit and nat- 
ural beauty. 

The city is built on the edge of the Edwards pla- 
teau with the altitude ranging from 500 to 700 feet 
above sea level. The Colorado River flows through 
the south side of the city but the water never dis- 
turbs the inhabitants along its course. The banks 
of this stream are of limestone from 40 to 60 
feet above the water. 

Beginning at Austin and going northward, the 
Colorado has cut a canyon through limestone hills 
for a distance of 250 miles. This fact makes pos- 
sible the utilization of water power without any 
great engineering difficulties, such as are charac- 
teristic of nearly all other rivers. From six to 
eight dams could be built across the rives at a min- 
imum expense. The dam which has been built at 
Austin, when completed, will generate 6,000 H. P. per 
day. This dam now forms a lake 28 miles long 
where fishing, boating, swimming and other sports 
are engaged in throughout the year. This lake is ac- 
cessible by automobile and street cars. The lake is 
65 feet deep. 

There are a number of bathing beaches, such as 
Deep Eddy and Barton Springs which provide ad- 
ditional recreation for all visitors and residents. 
The homes of Austin are beautiful throughout the 



year by every type of flower which grows in the 
south. Each season of the year produces its abun- 
dance of wild flowers in the fields, along the road 
sides, and on the hills. 

In making this a home city, the citizens of Austin 
have taken particular care to see that its water 
supply is maintained not only in abundance but of 




Lodkiiiii up t ho Nltiiti Thortmuhfaro t*i .Austin t«)wiir<ls 
the Capitol liuiUtiu^. 

the highest quality. Street car service is provided 
to every section. The city being well drained there 
are rarely ever any mosquitoes. 

There are within the city nearly 60 Churches, rep- 
resenting the principal denominations. There are 
also Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A organizations. The 
Country Club is one of the best to be found in Texas 
with beautiful grounds and scenery. 

The area of the city is 16 square miles. There are 
195 miles of streets, 35 miles of which are paved and 
tarviated. There are 69 miles of sewer mains and 64 
miles of gas mains. There are a number of high 
class theatres and moving picture shows which con- 
tribute to the pleasure of all. 

Surrounding Austin there are 340 miles of mac- 
adamized and tarviated roads which traverse the 
hills and mountains west of the city as well as the 
level farming land to the east. There are four na- 








r 




Lake Austin, only a Short Kide from the lUart of the City; A Popular Wuterii 
University Students and Residents of Austin 

43 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



tional highways passing through Austin, these are 
the Meridian Highway, The International Paved 
Way, the King of Trails and the Southern Highway. 

The business men and other citizens of Austin 
have organized a number of clubs which are working 
for the upbuilding and beautification of Austin and 
its surrounding territory. The principal one of these 
clubs is the Chamber of Commerce which has been 
working for Austin for nearly forty years. The or- 
ganization has a permanent building on Congress 
Avenue in which center every activity of the city 
and surrounding country. This organization is 
backed financially by every leading business con- 
cern of any importance in the city. The farmers 
and stockmen in the country are joining the organi- 
zation as a business proposition and are receiving 
many benefits. The Rotary Club, Lions Club, and 
Kiwanis Club are strong allies of the Chamber of 
Commerce in the work which it is doing. There is 
never any fraction between these organizations and 
the value of progressive spirit which these clubs in 
inculcating in the minds of the citizens of this city 
cannot be estimated. The Retail Merchants Asso- 
ciation and the Credit Men's Association are two of 
the most valuable assets the retailers and whole- 
salers have. Among the citizens of Austin of na- 
tional and international repute are Col. E. M. House, 
A. S. Burleson, T. W. Gregory, D. F. Houston, R. E. 
Vinson and Mrs. Percy V. Pennybecker. 

Throughout the city are located many beautiful 
parks whose grassy slopes are dotted with live oak 
trees and mountain laurel in great profusion. 
Among these parks are; Woolridge Park, Pease Park, 
the City Park at Lake Austin. One of the striking 
beauties of Austin is the wide paved streets whose 
parked centers are carefully kept. 

The public schools in Austin, numbering sixteen in 
all have the highest scholarship classification of any 
schools in Texas. There is also located in Austin 
the Texas State University which has an enrollment 
of 3,500. The Texas school of the Blind, Deaf and 
Dumb Institute, Wesleyan Oollege, Ffresbyterian 
Theological Seminary and a number of private 
schools are located here. 

Austin was one of the first cities in Texas to adopt 
the Commission form of government. The wealth of 
the city is estimated at seventy-five million dollars 
and the wealth of the country outside of the city is 
estimated at sixty-seven million dollars. The Post 
Office receipts for 1918 were $268,579.83. Austin 
has four banks and two trust companies. The clear- 
ings for 1918 were $185,372,224.38. 

The State Capital of Texas located at Austin is 
the largest building of its kind in the United States. 
This building is constructed of Texas Granite and is 
surrounded by beautifully parked grounds. A number 
of modern office buildings notably the Scarbrough 
building, Littlefield building anJ the Austin Na- 
tional Bank Building provide offices for all types of 
businesses. Accomodations are found in the hotels for 
all the travelers and strangers who visit the city. 

In the country surrounding Austin, the prospective 
home seeker will find any type of soil he desires. 
There is the rich alluvial bottom land which costs 
from $200 to $250 per acre. There is the rich fertile 
black prairie land which is worth from $125 to $200 
per acre. In the western part of the county the hilly 
land which has some farming land on it can be pur- 
chased from $5 to $10 per acre. .A.t the present time 
there are 5,097 homes in Travis county. The average 
rainfall in this county is 35 inches per year. This 



IS sufficient rainfall to produce any of the staple 
crops which are grown in Texas. The principal 
crops raised in Travis county are, cotton, corn, cane 
and a variety of hay crops. Peaches, plums and 
grapes produce abundant crops when properly cared 
for. One of the vegetable crops produced in winter 
is spinich. Austin ships annually from 200 to 500 
cars of spinich. This is the largest producing point 
for spinich in the south. The climate and soil are 
especially adapted to the production of this vege- 
table which does not do so well at many other points 
where the winter is too severe or where the soil does 
not contain such essential elements as iron. There 
are many other vegetable crops as well as farm 
crops which pay well in Travis and surrounding 
counties. 

The temperature of this section is maintained at 
a comfortable degree throughout the summer by gulf 
breezes which blow principally from the south or 
southeast. 

The normal cotton crop of Travis county is sev- 
enty thousand bales, while there are approximately 
four hundred thousand bales produced in the trade 
territory of Austin. 

The dairy industry is becoming an important fac- 
tor each year. The eradication of ticks is bringing 
into this county full blooded registered stock from 
the best herds of the nation. 

There is marketed at Austin each year around 
two hundred and fifty thousand dollars worth of 
turkeys. These are killed, picked and shipped to 
market in refrigerator cars. The field for raising 
chickens and turkeys is unlimited. 

Among the industries of Austin are the following 
factories: Canning plant for chili; factory for gas 
engines; brick; candy; bottling; cigars; flour; cotton 
seed oil; mattresses, cots, beds; mill work; doors; 
soap; ice; trunk; monuments; also creameries and 
cotton gins. 

One of the factories hardly needed to utilize the 
spare labor in Austin is a cotton mill. 

The transportation lines with railroads to Austin 
are the International & Great Northern; Missouri, 
Kansas & Texas and the Southern Pacific. The 
freight tonnage of Austin for 1918 was 1,314,900 
tons. The value of the public and High School prop- 
erty is $1,113,000.00. The minimum water rate is 
50c for 2,500 gallons. The electric power rate is 
2V2C per K. W. for over 3,000 K. W.s. 

Austin is one of the most attractive residence cities 
of the South. It particularly appeals to the highly 
cultured and educated class of citizens. A great 
many state officials often serving their term in 
office and becoming imbued with the charm of 
Austin make this Capital City their permanent place 
of abode. 

Many well-to-do or retired business men from the 
cities and ranchers from the rural district move 
to Austin to give their children the advantages of an 
education in the splendid schools or the University. 

In close proximity to Austin are many attractive 
places to go for vacation time. The Colorado river, 
above the city is noted for its beautiful scenery. 
Motor boats can go many miles up the river through 
as fine a stretch of attractive scenery as can be found 
in the South. The Colorado river is teeming with 
fish which gives an unlimited field of sport to the 
angler. Lake Austin also is a natural vacation spot 
with facilities for boating, fishing, swimming and 
picnicing. 



44 




D 



HISTORY OF DALLAS 

By E. J. IvEIST 

Propriotor of tin- Duily Times-Herald 

ALLAS was named for 

the Vice-President of 

t h e United States, 
George Mifflin Dallas under 
the president James K. Polk. 
It was formerly known as 
Peters Colony which was 
established under the instru- 
mentality of W. S. Peters a 
colonizing agent who had a 
contract with the government 
as did a number of others for 
colonizing tracts of land in 
northern Texas. 

The first family to locate 
on the site of the present 
city of Dallas was John Neely 



pjii;t to Dallas was at that time Jefferson, one 
hundred and seventy miles distant, over a very poor 
road through the wilderness. 

On March 20th, 184(5 the Texas Legislature cre- 



Bryan, a bachelor who was 
a native of Kentucky. He came here in the fall 
of 1841 with no other companion than his Indian 
pony that he had secured from the Cberokees and 
pitched his tent on a spot near the present site of 
the County Court House. He was a man of sturdy 
physique and sterling character, he lived on bear 
and buffalo meat and such food as abounded in tho 
forest and surrounding prairie. Six months later 
Captain Gilbert and wife arrived and a little later 
John Beeman with his family put in appearance. 
The lonely Mr. Bryan welcomed tht m with open 
arms and shared his provisions liberally with the ne\.' 
arrivals. Shortly afterwards the host was awarded 
for his hospitality by the gift of his former guests 
fair daughter. Margaret Beeman for a bride. This 
was the first wedding in Dallas. The three fam- 
ilies built rude huts of logs in which to live ^nd 
W. H. Beeman was the first man to break the ground 
and start farming. The following year witnessed 





Courtesy of Mrs. Charles Capy 

First Brick Court House of Dallas, on Site of the Present 
Court House. Photograph Taken in 1857 

the emigration of several families, most of whom 
settled on the land around Dallas an'^ engaged in 
farming. Dallas was then a part of Nacogdoches 
county with the town of Nacogdoches the county 
se.at over fifty miles away. The nearest shipping 



>lain and Akard Streets. Looking East, Dallas. 1887 

A \'ifw familiar to many Oallas Citizens 

ated Dallas County with Dallas as the county seat. 
Judge W. B. Ochiltree held the first court ever con- 
vened in Dallas, he was the father of Tom Ochiltree, 
who became a prominent figure in Texas history. 
The first grand jury found sixty-one indictments, one 
for murder, four for assault and battery and the 
remainder for minor offenses. 

The industries of Dallas grew rapidly, the first 
Bank established was that of Gaston and Camp. 
The first manufacturing plant was a carriage and 
wagon shop by Maxine Guillot. The first mercan- 
tile store was erected by J. W. Smith and J. M. Pat- 
terson. The first saloon was opened by Adam 
Haught. The first lawyer was John J. McCoy. The 
first man to navigate the Trinity river was Cap- 
tain Gilbert. The first Grist Mill, a hundred barrel 
a day plant was built by W. T. Overton. The first 
hotel or tavern was run by John Beeman. James 
A. Smith planted the first cotton seed in this dis- 
trict in 1851 and in the autumn of that same year 
built the first cotton gin that operated here. The 
following year a boat load of cotton was taken down 
the Trinity river as far as Porters Bluff. 

In 1848 Nat M. Buford, one of the historic char- 
acters of the early days of Dallas came to this 
city, two years later he became district attorney in 
the succeeding years he served as District Judge and 
was one of the most prominent figures in the politi- 
cal life of northern Texas. 

The Dallas Herald the first newspaper, a weekly 
was established in 1849 with J. Wellington Lattimer 
shortly retired from the paper and Mr. Lattimer be- 
and a Mr. Wallace as proprietors. Mr. Wallace 
came sole proprietor and editor. The Herald pros- 
pered under the able pen and management of the 
latter and was a political power and potent influence 
for progress through the whole history of Dallas. 
In the early files of the Herald are found many of 
the interesting facts which have preserved for fu- 
ture generations the details of the city's history. 

The city of Dallas was incorporated February 22, 
1856, Colonel Nat M. Buford drew up the charter. 



45 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



The city at that time had a population of between 
400 and 500 people. At the first election Dr. Sam- 
uel B. Pryor was elected mayor, Andrew iVIoore, 
Marshal, William Moore, Treasurer, and Samuel P. 
Jones, Eecorder. The city of Dallas burned in 1860. 
The cause of the fire was never satisfactorily set- 
tled but it was generally believed to have been of 
incendiary origin by negroes, whom it was reported 
had started many fires in this region. Three negroes 
were found guilty of the crime and hanged and 
every negro in the county was given a flogging. 
There was about fifteen business buildings and a 
great many residences went up in flames. 

At the opening of the Civil War, Dallas, which 
had been strongly in sympathy with the Confed- 
eracy, recruited a company, taking away many of 
her leading citizens, and the city's progress was 
naturally for a time retarded. After the war things 
picked up and a new era began. In 1870 the pop- 
ulation of Dallas was 2,960 and the County boasted 
of 13,329 inhabitants. The transportation was the 
one great problem, the lack of wnich greatly hind- 
ered the development of the district. Throughout 
the history of the city there has been more or less 
agitation for the improvement of the Trinity 



first edition, this paper enjoyed an era of rapid 
growth. The same year the first State Fair was 
held at Dallas and met with such success that it 
became an annual event in the life of the city. 

On March 31, 1888 an election was held consoli- 
dating North, East and South Dallas in one enter- 
prising and progressive city. That same year the 
old City Hall was completed. In 1890 the census 
showed that the population of Dallas was 62,000. 
The year of 1882 witnessed the completion of the 
present Court House. In 1894 the State Demo- 
cratic Convention was held in this city. In 1895 
the Oriental Hotel, then one of the finest hostelries 
of the south was completed and opened to the pub- 
lic. The arrival of the steamer H. A. Harvey, Jr. 
from Galveston in 1898 revived interest again in 
the navigation of the Trinity river. Three years 
later a Bill was passed in Congress appropriating 
$750,000 for the improvement of the channel. In 
1902 Dallas entertained the Confederate Union Sol- 
diers in a convention here. In 1904 the city became 
the owner of Fair Park. A company composed of 
local citizens who owned the tract of land was of- 
fered 3125,000 by an improvement company for the 
purpose of dividing it into resident lots, this offer 




Panorama of tlie Business Section of Uallas, from the Koof of lJutler JJr<)tlifrs \\lioU't.ale C^omjjany IJuildinj^ 



river to enable navigation. In 1868 a steamboat 
commanded by Captain McGarvey sailed up the 
river from Galveston and landed at Dallas loaded 
with supplies. In December of the same year the 
Sallie Haynes, the first boat built at Dallas, was 
launched. 

In 1871 the old court house was sold and the build- 
ing of a new one begun. It was completed in two 
years at a cost of Seventy-five thousand dollars. In 
the Fall of 1872 the first iron bridge was com- 
pleted over the Trinity river at a cost of fifty-five 
thousand dollars. 

On July 17, 1872 the greatest event in the history 
of Dallas occurred. It was the arrival of the first 
rail-road train over the Houston and Texas Central 
Railroad, which reached Dallas that year. A large 
barbecue was held to celebrate the event. Over 
five thousand people from the surrounding country 
attended. An interesting incident of this historical 
event was an address by the venerable John Neely 
Bryan, a pioneer citizen of Dallas, who arrived here 
on an Indian pony thirty-one years before. 

In 1876 the North Texas Fair Association was 
formed and annual fairs were subsequently held. 
That same year the Dallas County Medical Associa- 
tion was organized with Dr. A. A. Johnson as Pres- 
ident. In 1881 the population had increased U 
19,000. In 1882 East Dallas was laid out and the 
city started. In 1884 the American Exchange bank 
now the largest financial institution in Texas, was 
organized with W. A. Gaston as President. On Oc- 
tober 1, 1885 The Dallas Morning News issued its 



wp.s refused. At this time a number of public 
spirited citizens organized a movement which re- 
sulted in the city acquiring the tract thus making 
the annual State Fair a public institution. 

In another article, the History of the Fair, from its 
beginning, telling the complete story of its progress 
up to the present time, is attractively told. Much 
can be said of what has been accomplished in Dallas 
during recent years. It has become the largest 
interurban center in the South, with more miles of 
electric line radiating from the city than any city of 
its size in the United States. The city has become 
a center for education in the South. It has as many 
fine hotels and office buildings as any city west of 
Chicago. The city has twenty-two parks covering 
thirty-five hundred acres, containing tennis courts 
and playground facilities. It has a Welfare Com- 
mission engaged to look after the needy, to provide 
work for the unemployed. There are no slums or 
tenements. The new City Hall is one of the finest 
Municipal Buildings in the South. There are one 
hundred and seventy churches, active Y. W. C. A. and 
Y. M. C. A., both up to date buildings. There are 
one hundred and twelve schools and colleges in the 
city and every facility for highest education is given. 

In the foregoing article the writer has endeav- 
ored to chronicle the most interesting events, the 
high lights as it were, of the history of Dallas from 
its beginning up to a little more than a decade 
ago. The recent progress of the city will be treated 
with other articles dealing with the later activities. 



45 



INDUSTRIES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF DALLAS 

By DALLAS (UL^MIJER OF COMMERCE 



HERE one beholds a city whose march is irre- 
sistible, whose spirit is real, destiny sure, 
and whose every department pulsates with 
Progress, Prosperity and Promise. Its growth from 
a single building which still stands, to a cosmopoli- 
tan metropolis, the skyscraper center of the South 
and the West, with sixty-two buildings six to thirty- 
one stories high either completed or under construc- 
tion, and all in the life of thel one man who built 
the first Dallas house, is ample justification for the 
name Dallas has won over the Nation as the "City 
where men are looking forward." The "forward 
look" is the look of "youth," and that means com- 
radeship, confidence, faith and team work. This is 
the spirit that has brought Dallas from a city of 
42,63S people (U. S. Census in 1900 to 158,976 ex- 
clusive of suburbs which bring the total to 174,025- 
or from the S6th city in size in the Nation to the 
4 2nd, and that without any boom influence or 
artificial stimulus. Within a circle the radius of 
which extends one hundred miles from the city, ap- 
proximately one-third of the people of Texas live; 
there are 17,000 rated business concerns, and 686 
National and State banks with a combined capital 
of over $38,000,000.00; within the same territory 
there are 156,373 farms or 16.6' r of the total num- 
ber of farms in all Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas and 
Louisiana combined, with 10,000,000 acres of lard 
in cultivation yielding 17.75% of America's cotton 
crop and over 1,200 prosperous towns and villages 
from which Dallas commands a large whole-sale and 
jobbing trade as well as an extensive retail business. 

Financial and Banking Facts 

Dallas is the home of the Federal Reserve Banl; 



of the Eleventh District and has five National banks 
and 7 State Banks, besides individual institutions and 
Trust companies. In 19 20, the bank deposits 
amounted to $140,000,000 and the bank clearings 
were $1,868,685,312. The wholesale business for 
the same year totaled $600,000,000. The wholesai» 
business in all automotive lines is approximately 
$200,000,000, while the Federal Census of Manu- 
facturers for the Dallas Industrial District indicate 
the output of "made in Dallas" articles as over 
$100,000,000 a year. In Express business Dallas 
ranks first per capita of all the cities of the United 
States and is seventh city in the volume of express 
business. Dallas' building permits for 1920, totaled 
$13,363,157, giving the city 19th rank among the 
Nation's builders. While Dallas is 4 2nd city in 
size, the rank becomes 24th, in Postal Receipts 
which amounted to $2,363,380 for 1<)20 and only 
six cities in the union pay more money orders. Fire 
Life and Casualty Insurance covering several states 
is an important factor in financial activity of Dallas. 
More than 100 fire insurance companir's and 40 life 
insurance companies are represented by General 
Agents in Dallas. Four of these Life Insurance 
Companies have their palatial office building home'j 
and their income approximates $6,000,000 per an- 
num. 

Dallas is the farm center of the southwest. Ac- 
cording to the census, 91.8';r of the total farm 
mortgage loans of the state are held by Dallas com- 
panies. 

Distributing- Center 

Because of its location and transportation facul- 
ties, Dallas is the logical jobbing and wholesale cen- 
ter for a territory, larger than the New England and 




(PbotosFiptied by Howard K. Neal, .\irpla'ie Ph)t3?rapher, Telephone C-069S) 
BusLnes-s Center of Dallas, as Seen from an Airship 
The Federal Reserve Bank and Cotton Exchange are seen in the foreground. In the Center is the Magnolia Building 
with group of Hotels and Office Buildings. The City Temple and the new Post Office Site are in th? back ground. 

47 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



the Middle Atlantic states combined. Practically 
every important wholesale house in the United 
States has its southwestern headquarters in this 
Texas metropolis. There are 7 50 wholesalers and 
manufacturers, 256 of which are- of national im- 
portance. Dallas leads the world in the manu- 
facture and distribution of cotton gin machinery, 
and in saddlery, harness and leather goods. This 
city ranks among the three largest distributing de- 
pots for farm implements and machinery in Amer- 
ica. Dallas ships more galvanized corrugated tanks 
to oil fields than any other city in the United 
States and is the geographical center of the oil 
territory of the Southwest. Dallas is also famed as 
the largest film distributing- center in the world. 

Dallas is the largest inland cotton market In the 
world, having financed 1,500,000 bales in one 
season. 

Transportation Facilities 

Nine trunk line steam railroads enter the mag- 
nificent $6,500,000 Union Terminal Station, from 
which eighty-nine passenger trains are operated 
daily. A network of 282 miles of interurban elec- 
tric service operates out of Dallas in every direction 
which fact makes this city rank with America's great 
est interurban centers. The $1,600,000 Interurban 
Terminal Station handles 1S6 trains daily and has 
a yearly capacity for 4,000,000 people. Freight 
and Express are transported by steam, electric and 
automobile truck lines with a dispatch not equalled 
by any other city in the southwest. To the present 
e.xisting system of good roads, a number of which 
are concrete highways, Dallas has voted an extra 
$6,500,000 to be appropriated for road construction. 





The New Home of the Dallas Chamber of Commerce 



Main Street "Canyon." Dallas Looking Kant from the Top 
of the Southland Hotel 

Other Public Utilities 

Dallas has more miles of direct service telephone 
and telegraph lines than any other city in the 
southwest and has the greatest telephone develop- 
ment per capita of any city in the world. 296 
telephone toll and long distance circuits lead out of 
the city to nearly 2,500 cities and towns. This 
places Dallas with the three leading metropolitan 
centers of the United States in the matter of tele- 
phone development and service. Dallas is the head- 
quarters of the entire Southwest in the telegraph 
business. All the large telegraph companies have 
southwestern headquarters here, and there are only 
five cities in the Nation that do more telegraph 
business than Dallas. 351 telegraph circuits ter- 
minate here. Dallas has 160 miles of improved 
streets, many miles of boulevards, a million dollar 
concrete viaduct one and one-eighth miles long con- 
necting the city propsr with Oak Cliff residential 
section, a big water filtration plant supplied thru 
a series of dams in the forks of the Trinity River 
and a reserve supply in the great White Rock Lake 
which forever dispell danger of water shortage or 
drought. 

In educational and religious advantages, Dallas is 
second to none. The Southern Methodist University 
with its magnificent buildings is situated north of 
town on 2,660 acre tract. To this sear of learning 
come hundreds of young men and women from all 
parts of the south. The University of Dallas, a pre- 
mier College in this section, Baylor Medical College 
and the Baylor Dental College, and three nurses' 
schools besides many vocational, music and fine 
arts schools give to the youths of Dallas as choice 
opportunities as are afforded by any locality. 



48 



DALLAS BANKING HISTORY 

By E. M. REARDON 

ProNidoiit Americjin Exchange National Bunk 




FROM the standpoint of 
Banking, Dallas has en- 
joyed an era of con- 
servative, yet continual pro- 
gress. The history of Dallas 
banks extends over a period 
of half a century and in the 
memory of a number of citi- 
zens still active in Dallas 
circles, the banking business 
of Dallas was born. 

Among the Beacon Lights 
of the banking history, who 
have been identified with the 
financial institutions of this 
city, is the venerable Royal 
A. Ferris, pioneer banker, 
who for half a century was 
actively associated with the 
banking business of the State, nearly forty years of 
which was with the Dallas Banking Institutions, 
having come to this city to live in 1884. Another 
pioneer banker still living is, William H. Gaston, 
who has been connected with the banking business 
here since 1870. 

The T. C. Jourdan & Companys institution was 
superceded by the firm of Gaston & Camp, a private 
concern also, in 1870. Three years later, 1873, 
marked the beginning of Dallas' oldest Bank now 
operating — the City National Bank. In 1884 the 
Exchange Bank, a State Bank in its affiliation, was 
chartered and began business. In 1887 it was 
nationalized by Royal A. Ferris, then its Vice-Presi- 
dent, with Col. John A. Simpson, President, and 
was then known as the National Exchange Bank. 
In 1898, Mr. Ferris was called to succeed Col. Simp- 
son as president of the institution which in 1905 
was consolidated with the American National Bank 
and the new name was taken by which it is now 
known to the public. The American Exchange 
National Bank. This is one of the most solid banks 



out fifty years in active banking service at the date 
of his resignation, the longest term of active service 
enjoyed by any living banker in Texas. 




City National Bank Building, Devoted Exclusively to tiie 
Uses of the Bank 

of the South. Mr. Ferris continued as its president 
until 1920, the year of his retirement. E. M. Reardon 
was chosen as his successor. Mr. Ferris had rounded 




fri-^ 



^Bl 



;;; ;,i.n 'n..., 



i";;i!i!"! 

;;i!ll""" 




The American Exchange .N'ational Bank Buildinc, Dallas' 
Home of Texas' Largest Banking Institution 

The third oldest Dallas Bank is the National Bank 
of Commerce, chartered in 1889. As present 
charters run, next came the Dallas Trust & Savings 
Bank in 1903. In 1911 the Oak Cliff State Bank & 
Trust Company was organized. The Central State 
Bank and the Security National Bank in 1914 and 
the Dallas County State Bank in 1917. The year 

1920 marked the beginning of two banks in their 
present form — The Dallas National Bank and the 
Guaranty Bank & Trust Company. The Dallas 
National Bank had enjoyed a splendid previous 
history as The Banking House of E. O. Tennison. 
The Guaranty Bank & Trust Company marks a new 
departure in banking hours, being popularly known 
as the "Day and Night Bank," — the only one of its 
kind in the city. In 1919, the Liberty State Bank 
was organized. In 1919, the Security National Bank 
absorbed the First State Bank of the city and in 

1921 this institution took the name of the Southwest 
National Bank. Early in 1922 it moved to its present 
quarters in the Magnolia Building. 



49 



THE GROWTH OF DALLAS 

By JOHN W. PHI LP 



Postmaster 




A 



city where men are 
looking forward — a 
city of cosmopolitan 
spirit, a city of inetropolitan 
atmosphere whose onward 
march is irresistible, a city 
whose past achievements are 
soon eclipsed by the results 
of greater enterprise today 
and where the enthusiastic 
and virile citizenship give 
positive assurance of the 
future greatness of their be- 
loved Dallas. 

Although the growth of 
Dallas has been indeed rapid 
and although the hustle and 
ginger of a northern city is 
found here, where the game 
of life is played with a vigor, still the spirit of 
Southern hospitality has not been permitted to fall 
into decay, and strangers who for social, industrial 
or busmess reasons come here are soon made to 
feel that they are among friends and are welcome 
with a hand of good fellowship. 

Dallas has ever been a beautiful and thriving city. 
It not only looks after the home planning of its 
citizens but takes a keen interest in the develop- 
ment of its industries. In order to co-ordinate the 
growth of the various sections of the city, a Muni- 
cipal Plan Commission was formed which reviews 
and passes upon the merits of proposed city enter- 
prises. Working in conjunction with the Municipal 
Plan Commission is the Metropolitan Development 
Association whose particular duties are to assist in 
apportioning improvements to each section of the 
city having in mind the mutual benefits of all 
citizens. 

An idea of the unusual growth of Dallas may be 
had from the statement of a few facts. In 1909 
there was not a single building ten stories. Today 
there are eight buildings of eleven or more stories, 
one of twenty, two of sixteen, one of eighteen, and 
one of twenty-eight stories. Collier's Weekly de- 
scribed the skyline in a recent issue as follows: 
"Dallas from its three-quarter million dollars con- 
crete viaduct, presents the most imposing skyline of 
any city, save New York. 

There are 76 schools and 154 churches here, and 
located so that every part of the city is served. 
The school system includes one school for the deaf, 
and five schools for negroes, including a negro high 
school. Higher education is not neglected here for 
Dallas is the home of the Southern Methodist Uni- 
versity, Baylor Medical College, the Dallas Uni- 
versity, Terrell School, St. Mary's College, Ursuline 
Academy, and a large number of art, music and 
vocational schools, nurses training schools, business 
colleges and similar institutions. 

Dallas is in the midst of the oil fields of Texas 
and Oklahoma and many of the large companies 
have their offices and refineries here. Dallas is 
automobile headquarters for the Southwest and dis- 
tributes annually more automobiles throughout this 
territory than any other city. Dallas is also the 
largest banking center of the Southwest, the home 



of the Federal Reserve Bank of the 11th Federal 
Reserve District, which now occupies it's own mag- 
nificent structure recently completed at a cost, in- 
cluding equipment, of approximately two million 
dollars. Dallas is the largest publishing center of 
the Southwest, having over seventy regular publica- 
tions issued here. 

Dallas receives mail from foi'ty-one trains daily 
from all parts of the United States and sends out 
162 dispatches daily. The postal receipts for 1921 
totaled .$2,400,000. Dallas has the unique record of 
never having shovm a decrease in postal receipts 
for the past thirty years, a record equaled by few 
if any, and excelled by none. The geographical 
location of Dallas makes it possible to communicate 
with any city in Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas or Ok- 
lahoma in less than 24 hours. 

There is but one city in the United States that 
distribues more agricultural implements than Dallas. 
There are thirty-eight wholesale houses selling 
implements with an annual business of over $50,- 
000,000. There are more than 500 wholesale and 
jobbing houses in Dallas with an annual business of 
over $300,000,000. This city is the largest inland 
cotton market in the world, where the cotton ex- 




Soi 



I'riiK-ip-.l I Ml], c I',, M M 
Section tti Dalliis 



changes handle more than 1,500,000 bales annually. 
In the manufacture of harness, saddlery and cotton 
gin machinery, Dallas leads the United States. 

Dallas is well paved, well lighted, and properly 
cared for in every way. 



50 



DALLAS, MEDICAL CENTER OF THE SOUTHWEST 

By EDWIN H. C.U?Y, M. D., F. A. C. S. 

('lijiirnian. Stuff Fucuity and Advisory Board of IJnylor University School of Medicine 
Ex-Pr**sidei\l, Soutlxern Medical Association 




I 



X this article, I shall not 
lake up the personnel 
of the Medical Profession 
here, altogether their his- 
tories would no doubt prove 
interesting, for while some of 
our great men have already 
passed to their reward, many 
are yet living and laboring' 
for us. So it is the movement 
and not the men back of it, 
that I shall review. 

In 1900, Dallas was a city 
of a p p r o X i m a tel y 40,000 
people; she had a very ener- 
getic Medical Profession, and 
some members of whom were 
ambitious enough to dream 
of a medical school here, 
thinking they could establish as good a one as were 
existing elsewhere Dr.Abraham Flexner had not at 
that time, investigated medical education, he had not 
wi-itten his book. And the people at large had not 
become alive to the fact that medical schools as 
such, were with few exceptions in the United States 
owned by medical men, and were necessarily open 
to the charge of being run for professional aggrand- 
izement. This condition was entirely inconsistent 
with the high ideals of medical education now, whicli 
standards have been considerably raised. 

When we stop to think that in l!f04 there were 
approximately 160 medical schools in the United 
States with some 2S,000 students, and know ihax. 
at this time there are only about la medical schools 
and 13,000 students, some idea is gathered as to 
what had been happening to the schools in the past 
fifteen years. During this time of course, son:e 
20,000,000 people have been added to the popula- 
tion of the United States, yet the number of medi- 
cal schools and students have steadily decreased. 
In Dallas, in 1904, there were four so-'-alled medical 
schools, and the population had not materially in- 
creased beyond the figures given in the 1900 cen- 
sus. 

It is not the purpose of the article to show iust 
what were the influences that rid the country of so 
many aspiring institutions which seemed to have 
the interest of the public at heart; but we CAN say- 
that it was brought about by the expressior. of the 
great body of medical men, through their society, 
the American Medical Association, advocating; pub- 
licity, improvement of standards and adherence to 
ideals. There was no pressure brought to heac from 
outside; the medical men themselves have led the 
fight, and eliminated those medical scnools which 
needed to be done away with. 

The growth of Dallas in its population and wealth, 
with the gradual elimination of all medical schools 
except Baylor University School of Medicine, brought 
about two things: first, the members of the pro- 
fession found, with an enlarged clientele, that the 
personal element in the practice of medicine was 
being eliminated, and next that the profession seri- 
ously became interested in having a first class med- 
ical school in Dallas, regardless of whether or not 



the individual had any part in it, because he was 
made a better doctor by working in the medical 
center with all its advantages. In 191 H, the med- 
ical department of Baylor was formally put in class 
"A" by the Council on Medical Education of the 
American Medical Association, and its graduates be- 
came recognized by every medical examining boai-d 
throughout the United States. This classification, 
w-ith the ever-growing requirements for entrance in 
to medical SL-hools, made it difficult for the school 
in Ft. Worth to continue, and in 191S that sclicol 
was absorbed by Baylor University School of Medi- 
cine. This leaves but two medical col'u;.',es in Texas, 
this one at Dallas and the medical depaitment of 
the University of Texas, which is situated in Galves- 
ton. Both colleges exact two years of University 
work, as a minimum entrance requiren'ent and both 
adhere to as high ideals in medical education as 
found in any school in the country. 

The friends of Baylor University rea'i/ing more 
and more the great value of the medical department 
to the citizenship of Dallas, the great possibilities of 
service to humanity which this department gives to 
the parent University, a campaign was launched 
to bring about improvements, which campaign has 






Ml 



r T 



1 








The New Medical .\rts Building, Dallas, the Medical 
Center of the Southwest 

proven successful. The medical school having al- 
ways been closely affiliated with the Baptist Sani- 
tarium and being roused in a building on the same 
grounds, these two institutions entered into a cani- 



51 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



paign wherein $1,600,000 worth of buildings would 
be built, and $500,000 would be set aside as a mini 
mum endowment for the medical department. When 
you understand that after this campaign was en- 
tered upon, a governmental appraisement of the 
property occupied by the sanitarium and medical 
school, placed their value at $1,300,000, you can see 
that the addition of $1,600,000 worth of buildings 
will make a formidable showing, and create in Dal- 
las one of the few really great medical centers of 
the country. 

The clinical possibilities presented by a population 
of some 17 5,000 people such as Dallas has, are con- 
stantly being augmented by thousands who come 
to Dallas for treatment each year, as it is a center 
of a densely populated section. The medical students 
have the advantage of all this, and the environment 
is the very best, inasmuch as there is a disposition 
of all the population of Dallas to encourage su.h 
students. A notable indication of this being a re- 
quest on the part of the medical profession here, that 
the City Hospital, the great charity institution of 
Dallas, should from the time of the school session, 
be entirely in the hands of the men who teach medi- 
cine and surgery in Baylor University School of Med- 
icine. 



At the present time Baylor University has three 
departments in the city, with the following number 
of students: medical, 146; dental, 75; pharmacy, 55. 
The Texas Baptist Memorial Sanitarium School of 
Nursing utilizes the teachers of the medical depart- 
ment, there being some hundred students in nursing 
in the school. It is expected these various depart- 
ments will fron. now on, have nnlarged enroUmert; 
this will be due in part to the fact that the pres- 
ent requirements have been in force long enough for 
there to be accumulated in the Universities a larger 
number of students ready for entrance, than here- 
tofore. 

Medical education opens a broad field for scien 
tific work, social welfare work and properly ap- 
plied charity, in ministering to the sick, and the 
care of those who need help which they car. not pay 
for. It creates in this section a training-school for 
all the various scientific departments, and makes it 
possible for us to meet the crying demand for doc- 
tors, dentists, pharmacists and nurses. The hard 
work of building up Dallas as a medical center, t» 
now over; the start is made, and large endowments 
will now flow into the coffers of the Medical Depart- 
ment; the scientific work and Humanitarian possi- 
bilities which only broaden as the years go by. 



HISTORY OF THE BENCH AND BAR OF DALLAS 



Bv F. M. ETHERIDGE 




rr\i 



\HE history of the bench 
and bar of Dallas can 
be written within the 
limits of this paper only in 
general terms. It is a history 
of achievement and distinc- 
tion. The bar of Dallas has 
maintained the best tradi- 
tions. In trying cases from 
New York to Los Angeles 
and from St. Paul to New 
Orleans I have been asso- 
ciated with and opposed by 
some of the best lawyers of 
various states, with the re- 
sult that I can truthfully say 
I have found my best sup- 
port, as well as my most 
formidable adversaries, 
among the members of the Dallas bar. The Dallas 
bar has furnished the Supreme Court with a num- 
ber of distinguished members, among them Sawnie 
Robertson, John L. Henry and Nelson Phillips. 
Judge Sawnie Robertson was an accomplished lawyer 
and one of the most likable men I ever knew. Judge 
John L. Henry was a prince among good men and 
bore the merited and distinctive designation of 
"the gTand old man." Judge Nelson Phillips, ex- 
Chief Justice, has proved himself a worthy successor 
of a long line of the illustrious chief justices that 
preceded him. 

The Dallas bar has furnished the Court of Civil 
Appeals for the Fifth District two distinguished 
members. Judge John Bookhout, now deceased, and 
Judge Charles A. Rasbury, who recently resigned 
to re-enter the practice. It furnished to the nation 
Judge Seth Shepard who, under appointment of 
President Cleveland, was for many years Associate 
Justice, and later and until his death Chief Justice 
of the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia. 



Judge Shepard became a close and scientific student 
of the law and his opinions are comparable with 
those of the most illustrious of our judges. 

The Dallas bar has furnished the university a num- 
ber of distinguished members that immolated them- 
selves upon the altar of the noble profession of 
teaching. It contributed to the university Thomas 
Scott Miller, now deceased, a Harvard graduate, 
a genial gentleman and a profound lawyer. Judges 
W. S. Simkins and Lauch McLauren are now and 
for years past have been, each at a great personal 
sacrifice, rendering distinguished service as teachers 
in the university. 

The Dallas bar has had an illustrious membership. 
It comprised, among others, such distinguished 




'III.- I)alhi> CciiiilK ('.,.iiil lienor 

names as those of Colonel John C. McCoy, Judges 
Zimri Hunt, H. Barksdale, Nat M. Burford, E. G. 
Bower, Alex White, Olin Wellborn, N. W. Finley, 
M. L. Crawford and John M. Stemmons, A. H. 



52 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



fields, Major B. H. Bassett, Colonel W. W. Leake, 
Major Jerome C. Kearby, J. L. Harris, Colonel W. L. 
Crawford, General A. P. Wozencraft, W. B. Gano, 
George H. Plowman and many others of enduring 
reputation. 

Colonel John C. McCoy was the most noted of the 
pioneers. His life, character and services at the 
bar were such as won him enduring fame. Judges 
Hunt, Barksdale and Buford were pioneer district 
judges. They were cast in large mold and left their 
impress upon our jurisprudence. Judge White was 
originally from Alabama. He was of counsel in 
many important cases in the Supreme Court of the 
United States that went up from that state. After- 
wards he was on the Supreme bench of Utah and 
later came to Dallas. He was possessed of a vast 
wealth of learning and was a lawyer of exceptional 
ability. Judge Olin Wellborn for a long time repre- 
sented this district in congress, and afterwards re- 
moved to Los Angeles, where for many years he 
served with distinction as a judge of the United 
States District Court. Judge M. L. Crawford had 
been a district judge prior to his removal to Dallas. 
He was an accomplished lawyer, an indefatigable 
worker and one of the acknowledged leaders of the 
bar. John M. Stemmons and Judge A. H. Field were 
partners and their firm deservedly enjoyed an en- 
viable reputation. Major Bassett was one of the 
foremost lawyers of his time. He was ambitious 
to round out his career by becoming a professor of 
law in the university. He was unanimously elected 
to a chair in that institution, but unfortunately 
died before occupying it. Colonel Leake, in his time, 
was the nestor of the Dallas bar. He was a pro- 
found lawyer and a man of rare culture and refine- 
ment. His example at the bar was worthy of emula- 
tion. Major Jerome C. Kearby possessed a keen 
intellect and was easily in the front rank of the 
greatest of the Texas advocates. Judge Finley was 
for many years a member of the Court of Civil 
Appeals for the Fifth District and his many opinions 
attest his industry, acumen and capacity. General 
A. P. Wozencraft became a specialist in the law of 
corporations and was an acknowledged authority 
upon that subject. J. L. Harris was a prodigious 
worker, a close and constant student and was aston- 
ishingly resourceful. W. B. Gano was ornate and 
scholarly jrnd as a practitioner he had no superior 
and but few equals. George H. Plowman was a 
Harvard graduate and one of the most indefatigable 
workers I have ever pnown. Judge E. G. Bower 
possessed an indomitable spirit, and our present 
court house constitutes a memorial to his untiring 
effort. Whilst that court house has practically sur- 
vived the period of its usefulness, it was, neverthe- 
less, a gigantic undertaking in Judge Bower's time. 
Colonel W. L. Crawford, recently deceased, was a 
man of transcendent ability and personal magnetism. 
He was a power before the court, as well as with the 
jury. He was the greatest forensic orator within 
the range of my acquaintance. 

The mention of the foregoing names is not de^ 
signed to be exclusive and, would the limits of this 
paper permit, many others equally conspicuous would 
he added. 

The Dallas bar has contributed to the bar of New 
York a number of distinguished lawyers, among 
them and notably Isaac R. Oeland and Martin W. 
Littleton. The judges who have occupied the vari- 
ous benches of Dallas have all been distinguished 



by their learning and probity. Many distinguished 
men in public life are numbered among the members 
of the Dallas bar, notably Charles A. Culberson, 
senior senator, Thomas B. Love, formerly assistant 
secretary of the treasury, Hatton W. Sumners, con- 
gressman, as well as many others. 

The Dallas bar, from small beginnings and ir- 
regular and inefficient organization, emerged some 
years since into a corporate body of which there 
were one hundred charter members, and since its or- 




*^iwfci#^™" 



'«niisi[i" 




Dallas County Criminal Court Buildini5 and County Jail 

ganization nearly every reputable member of the 
Dallas bar has become a member of the Dallas Bar 
Association. Many of the members of the associa- 
tion have given generously of their time to the 
work of furthering the administration of justice and 
of inculcating the highest professional ethics and of 
teaching the younger members of the bar. 

I do not hesitate to say, that the standard of prac- 
tice of the members of the Dallas Bar ranks very 
high in comparison with the lawyers of other cities, 
her membership will rank very favorably with the 
best. With the passing of many of the most able 
representatives, there are many young and possibly 
just as capable young lawyers growing up to take 
their places and the standards are no doubt being 
raised rather than lowered. 

The young lawyers club composed of many of the 
most capable and progressive young attorneys, has 
done much toward the progress of the young men of 
the profession and is worthy of commendation. 

I cannot particularize among the existing mem- 
bers of the bench and bar of Dallas, but I can truth- 
fully say, having before me the criterion of contact 
with the best legal talent of other states, that the 
bench and bar of Dallas is today the equal of any. 

I may add that the Dallas bar comprises very 
many younger members that give full promise to 
maintain its standards of excellence when the elder 
ones shall have retired or passed away. 



53 



THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF DALLAS 

By JUSTIN F. MMBALL 

Superintendent 



ONE of the significant characteristics in the 
history of the growth of Dallas as a city in 
the last decade is the development of its sys-' 
tern of public schools. From an attendance ten years 
ago of less than 15,000, the attendance in the schools 
has increased to more than 35,000 for the present 
school year. During the last scholastic year prac- 
tically every child of school age in Dallas was in 
attendance in school, either in private or public 
schools. The most remarkable growth in the schools 
has been in the high schools and in the night schools, 
both of which minister to the educational needs of 
the young manhood and womanhood of Dallas. From 
an attendance in the white high schools of 1,300 
ten years ago, taken care of in one high school 
building, Dallas has grown until it has four magnifi- 



school rooms, 40 being the standard maximum class 
in the elementary schools and 30 in the high schools. 
Likewise the permanent buildings that have been 
erected have all been fireproof, modern in their plan- 
ning, beautiful in architecture, economical of space 
and efficient in administration. The city of Dallas 
maintains a special public day school for deaf chil- 
dren and three special day schools for children whose 
mentality is so different from that of the other 
children that they cannot be taught to the highest 
advantage in the usual school. The courses in the 
high schools afford an unusual range of oppoi'tunity 
for the young people of the city, giving instruction 
in many courses that train for practical lines of 
work in the business world on leaving school. More 
than 60 per cent of the graduates of the Dallas 




Diillas IlaU, (he Main Class Room and Administration Building at Southern Methodist V 

One of the I.eadinc Educational Institulioiis of the South 



cent modern high school buildings, with an attend- 
ance of 5,500 students. Last year among the cities 
of the United States of similar size, Dallas stood 
fourth in the nation in its ratio of high school at- 
tendance, being surpassed only by Seattle, Portland, 
Oregon, and Oakland, California, all of these being 
towns that have no large negro or foreign popula- 
tion. 

The rapid growth of the city of Dallas has taxed 
the department of education to its utmost to keep 
adequate facilities for instruction of the rapidly 
increasing roll of students. The city has responded 
to the demand for larger quarters and additional 
school houses have been erected to give housing 
facilities to the rapid growing addition, and schools 
ai-e provided in easy access to nearly every section 
of the city. 

To house these public schools Dallas has a perma- 
nent investment of about $11,000,000 and expends 
annually for their maintenance nearly $2,000,000 and 
employs more than a thousand teachers. 

During the same decade the board of education 
have held steadfastly to the policy of giving every 
child in school a full day at school, in a room not 
overcrowded and have been successful in avoiding 
the necessity of half-day sessions and overcrowded 



high schools attend college after leaving the public- 
schools. Approximately 2,000 high school boys 
each year are given military instruction, uniforms 
and equipment by the United States govei-nment 
through army officers detailed to the Dallas high 
schools. The board of education operates more than 
30 school cafeterias and lunch rooms, in which 
lunches of high quality are served at actual cost to 
the children. 

Another noteworthy feature of the Dallas schools 
is the detailed attention that is given in the ele- 
mentary schools, to accuracy in numbers, to correct- 
ness in spelling, to the hearing and appreciation of 
good music and to good penmanship. Last year 
there were more than 9,000 children in the elemen- 
tary schools of Dallas whose handwriting was su'fi- 
ciently good to meet official approval under the 
recognized writing standards used in the best school 
systems in the United States; while the unusual 
achievement of the Dallas school children in musical 
appreciation of high class music and in music mem- 
ory contests has won national recognition. In all 
these details of elementary instruction the most care- 
ful statistics are kept of the quality of the work of 
the children in order that it may be compared with, 
the best standards obtainable in the United States- 



54 



DALLAS MUNICIPAL ACTIVITIES 

Bv SAWXIK ALDREDGE 




FROM year unto year in 
Dallas' Municipal life 
there is being realized 
a remarkable record of pro- 
gress, not only in material 
things for which the public 
looks to its municipality, but 
in the ever widening scope 
of a less material but none 
the less necessary activity 
which tends to make a city 
more livable and to give to 
it a "soul." Two operations 
are found essential in the 
building of every worth- 
while garden, or worth-while 
life or a great city — and 
these operations are the same 
throughout: uproot the Ugly 
and plant deep and well the beautiful. While sensa- 
tionalism plays up the former, yet how much more 
does the latter abound! Not only have the results 
achieved helped to fill the needs of Dallas, but "they 
have also attracted widespread attention from other 
cities wrestling with the same problems, and again 
and again letters have been received, even from the 
great metropolitan centers, asking just how Dallas 
has solved these problems. Not only has stress 
been laid upon the paving of streets, the supplying 
of the physical needs of the citizenship and the 
better development of the public utilities in recent 
years, but also upon better sanitation and health 
conditions, welfare work, development of Dallas ac- 
cording to the Kessler Plan, and upon provision of 
more extensive and better equipped parks and other 
public amusements for the people. 

By municipal action important changes have been 
brought about in the city's Emergency Hospital 
which include the employment of graduate and hos- 




Carnci^ie Puljlii- I.iljriiry iit Coninn'ii 
Streets, Dallas 



id Ilii 



jured; there has been effected an improvement in 
the sick-visiting service of the city, and a city-county 
clinic established, while the City Hospital has been 
given a larger and better trained staff, additional 
and needed equipment of the latest type, and for 
the first time brought into first class recognition by 
the American College of Surgeons. This latter in- 
stitution has received a $500,000 bond issue, is jointly 
owned by city and county and is placed under a 
committee system at present governed by a Hos- 
pitable Board appointed by the mayor. 




__^.^ 



pital-trained physicians and surgeons only, to handle 
all work instead of a staff of "student doctors," and 
the placing on duty of a graduate doctor on every 
ambulance call so as to insure first aid to the in- 



Municipal 15iiiliiinu. Dallas 

Welfare work of recent years worthy of note are 
the establishment of a working mothers' home, im- 
provement of working g'irls' lodge, relief in Mexican 
housing, extension in negro welfare work and an 
employment service recognized by the government. 

Nothing is more fundamentally necessary to the 
proper development of a city than an adequate sys- 
tem of beautiful and well equipped parks. Dallas 
has twenty-two parks covering 3,.500 acres. They 
include playground equipment, wading and swim- 
ming pools, free moving pictures and band concerts 
in the evenings of summer for both children and 
adults. "Swimming holes" have been provided at 
the City, Oak Lawn, Buckner, Exall, Garrett, Alamo 
and Colonial Parks. More than 150 free moving 
picture shews have been given at each park and band 
concerts and public sing-songs have been inaugu- 
rated. Athletic activities in parks have been ex- 
tended and the summer playground system placed 
under paid leaders. As a result of such park system, 
Dallas has the largest park attendance in proportion 
to population of any city in the United States. In 
the summer of 1920, there came to Dallas parks 
1,689,865 visitors while 53,150 children used the 
swimming and wading pools and 17,620 persons had 
free baths furnished by the city parks. Besides 
these improvements, the municipality has added new 
parks to its list. The Ferris Plaza, a sunken garden 
beauty spot, greets the Dallas visitor as he steps out 
of the Terminal Station; Booker T. Washington 
Park, as its name indicates, is a new park for ne- 
groes; Parkview has been donated to the city, a strip 
of land has been added to Forest Park and other 
tracts added to park properties. 



55 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



Dallas has the distinction of being the first city 
to create a music commission as a regular phase of 
its municipal life. Under its direction have been 
brought about the public sing-songs, the annual 
oratoric, and the annual music memory contests for 
public school children. 

A $450,000 filtration plant is at present under con- 
struction and will be in operation by .July, 1922, at 
White Rock, and plans for a big reservoir on Denton 
Creek, larger than Medina Lake at San Antonio, 
lead to a water supply that will be adequate for 
Dallas when the municipality is many times its 
present size. 

One of the greatest municipal projects is the de- 
velopment of Dallas according to one great plan, the 
Kessler plan that issues in beauty and utility and 
practicability. The Pacific Avenue track removal, 
sought for thi-ough more than ten years under five 
mayors, has been consummated under Mayor Al- 
dredge. A storm sewer costing approximately 
$300,000 is under construction, after which the 
street will be paved and beautified. This street 
will, undoubtedly, in the near future, be a model 
business thoroughfare, from Lamar to Harwood, 
both of which are to be widened, and a second great 
and attractive retail business center will be cared 
for. Hasten, a third street, has already been 
widened. Concurrent to the Pacific Avenue improve- 
ment, will be the creation of an industrial section 
west of Akard, south of McKinney, north of Ross 
Avenue, and east of Lamar. South Lamar will be 
widened and extended to connect with Forest Ave- 
nue and Kentucky Street opening has given a new 
connection with Fair Grounds from Commerce 
Street. The elimination of grade crossings, those 
of the Katy in north Dallas already accomplished, 
and removal of the H. & T. C. tracks from Central 
Avenue, which, when effected, makes possible a wide 
and direct boulevard from the business district to 
North Dallas and Highland Park, or a boulevard 
between North and South Dallas via the eastern 
section of the city. A belt boulevard around the 
city includes many advantages; Davis Street, con- 
necting one with the concrete Pike to Foi't Worth, 
is being paved, the row of narrow blocks between 
Davis and Seventh Streets are to be bought and 
taken over for park purposes. Surely, through each 
succeeding year, the Kessler Plan is materializing 
and Dallas will have a great boulevard system which 
for beauty and directness and views will compare 
favorably with any city of the world. Trees are 
to be planted on every street — 167,048, of which 
40,000 are already out and a rate of 10,000 a year 
has been set. 

Add to the above advantages, such recent acquire- 
ments as an adequate gas supply effectively secured, 
better street car and telephone service with regards 
to which the city is active, an increase in salaries 
of policemen and firemen, institution of the double 
platoon system for the fire department, together 
with its complete motorization, fire prevention cam- 
paigns, the addition of power flushing machines to 
the street cleaning department and many details 
of alertness too numerous to mention, and one sees 
a great hustling growing metropolis that is succeed-' 
ing in the highest sense. All this has been done 
or is being accomplished, without an increase in 
tax rate for these purposes. Partisanism is kept out 
of the way — as is illustrated by the fact that de- 
partment heads who were efficient have been re- 



tained through changes of mayoralties and all press 
on for one great goal in the City Where Men Are 
Looking Forward. 

The municipal progress of Dallas has gone hand in 
hand with the business development and in this re- 
gard it has justifiable cause for optimism. During 
the year 1921, the city broke all its previous records. 
There are more large office buildings here than in 
any other city in Texas, there being at present, 
sixty-four buildings that are six stories and upwards 
in height with a number of additional ones now in 
construction. There were six hundred new business 
concerns started here during the year 1921 and 
several hundred more promised to locate here during 
the year 1922. Several new factories also are being 
contemplated. 

The opening up of new electric lines offers another 
avenue for the retail trade, already the largest retail 
market in Texas. It is stretching its lead by an in- 
creasing margin. The building of paved highways 
throughout Dallas County has been rapidly progress- 
ing and adding much toward the facilities for trans- 
portation and incidentally improving the routes for 
motoring, making an added attraction for tourists 
as well as residents. 

The living conditions of Dallas are far superior 
to those in most cities. There are no slums or tene- 
ments. Proper housing has been made a matter of 
care by the business men who realize the importance 
of proper living conditions for those who come to this 
city to reside. New tracts have been opened up in 
the outlying sections and fine residence districts have 
sprung up like magic. Working people, as a rule, 
have sought modest cottages in the outlying sections, 
rather than seeking homes near the crowded business 
sections. 

The city of Dallas has a representative committee, 
appointed from the leading citizens, who are can- 
vassing plans for the erection of a magnificent 
municipal auditorium to cost in the neighborhood of 
$2,000,000. This committee has worked out a con- 
crete and definite plan of action. 

The city of Dallas is engaged in a street paving 
program of magnitude. A bond issue of $1,250,000 
for street improvement was voted in April, 1919, 
and expended. A bond issue of $1,250,000 was voted 
in September, 1921, at a special election called for 
that purpose, and street paving and other street 
improvements are now under way in various sections 
of the city. Dallas has 135 miles of paved streets at 
this time, as well as 87 miles of macadam streets or 
streets that have been treated with a surface ma- 
terial. 

Building permits for the city of Dallas were in 
excess of $15,000,000 during 1921, of which a large 
portion were for homes, signifying a very healthy 
improvement. 

The Lake Cliff Municipal Swimming Pool was 
completed and opened to the public in June, 1921. 
During the summer months of 1921 a total of 131,654 
people took advantage of the pleasures offered by 
this pool. The city has authorized the construction 
of a swimming pool at the Hall Street Negro Park 
for negroes, which will be completed during the 
spring or early summer of 1922. The Lake Cliff 
Municipal Pool is the largest and finest municipal 
pool in the entire Southwest, receiving favorable 
comment from visitors from all over the United 
States who are interested in municipal recreational 
facilities. 



56 



FT WORTH COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 

Bv FORT WORTH CHAMBER OF COMMERC.E 



FORT WORTH is brimming with wealth and 
prosperity. She has absorbed thousands of dis- 
charged officers and men from the military 
camps and flying fields of Texas. Her population has 
recently been enhanced by many 
other thousands of newcomers, at- 
tracted first by the vast oil develop- 
ment in the adjoining territory, and 
later by the greatly stimulated com- 
mercial activity attending the oil 
development. 

Since shortly after the establish- 
ment of the military post known as 
Fort Worth in 1849, the city had been 
famed as the Capital of the Cow 
Country and this she will remain. 
Fort Worth distributes more food 
than any city of her size in the coun- 
try. She is the grain and milling 
center of the Southwest, with an 
elevator capacity of 5,000,000 
bushels. 

From 1900 to 1910, according to 

the Federal census. Fort 'Worth ^^^^ ^ 

gained 174 per cent in population. 
She is growing faster today than any time in her 
history. The increases in population is from 3,000 
to 5,000 per month and she has a present population 
of 150,000. 

A building era almost unprecedented in Texas, 
is upon Fort Worth. The great territory of West 
Texas, to which she is the gateway, is teeming with 
wealth and is increasing in population at a greater 
rate than any similar area in the country. Not is 
this wealth coming solely from oil development. 
Never in its history has West Texas had more abund- 
ant crops than in the past few years. 

Farms are being improved. Roads are being built 
and new railway projects are being launched. 



Fort Worth is the transportation center of the 
Southwest and her iron arms reach out to all the 
areas in Central, North Central and West Texas 
where the oil development is under way. She has 




[-1 Aroiinti KiverrrOHt ("oi 
from tin- ('llll) House 



itry ("luli, Tilkou 




eleven railroads with seventeen outlets, which give 
her direct communication with all the new producing 
fields. 

Five hundred oil companies maintain offices in 
Fort Worth. Ten refineries are in operation and 
several under construction. With the completion 
of these she will have a refining capacity of 75,000 
barrels daily. Projects are on foot to bring to Fort 
Worth from the great gas wells that have been 
opened in West Texas, an additional supply of 
natural gas. This fuel, in competition with the al- 
most unlimited amount of fuel oil furnished by her 
refineries will give Fort Worth the cheapest fuel 
in the country. 

• Her water sup- 
ply is obtained 
from Lake Worth, 
which is fourteen 
miles long, two 
miles wide and has 
a capacity of thir- 
ty billion gallons. 
The lake abounds 
in fish. Hundreds 
)f power boats, row 
boats and canoes 
ply its water. At 
the municipal bath- 
ing beach throngs 
of citizens and vis- 
itors from all parts 
of Texas find re- 
laxation during the 
summer. 

Fort Worth is 
the third largest 
packing center in 
the country, and 
the second largest 
horse and mule 



Fort Worth, Looking North on Main Street from Tenth. The Texas Hotel in Center on Right. 

F. & M. Bank Building on the Left 

57 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



market. One and a half million head of live stock 
are slaughtered annually. From the plains of West 
Texas and New Mexico and from Old Mexico, come 
to Fort Worth, long trains loaded with cattle. From 
these plains come hundreds of trains loaded with 
grain. Fort Worth mills have a daily capacity of 
2,000 barrels of wheat flour and an equal amount 
of corn products. 

Five large wholesale grocery houses in Fort Worth 
including one of the largest in the country. A roll- 
ing mill employes 700 men. A Fort Worth furniture 
factory is the largest in the South. The Fort Worth 
Power and Light Company's plant is the largest 
in the Southwest. She has twelve banks and trust 
companies, one of which, the National Bank of Com- 
merce, has recently been chartered with a capital of 
$1,000,000. Her bank deposits are more than $55,- 
000,000 and bank clearings are increasing each year. 

The growth of the city is indicated by tremendous 
increase in the bank clearings, the building permits 
and the post office receipts. 

Building permits in 1917 amounted to $1,790,612. 
In 1918 they amounted to $2,267,887. On September 
1, 1919, the permits had exceeded $9,000,000. Per- 
mits for the month of August were in excess of 
$3,000,000. In 1920 and 1921 the building permits 
have been far above normal. 

Post office receipts show steady growth. They 
have doubled in five years. 

In spite of the departure in July, 1918, of approxi- 
mately 45,000 troops who received their mail through 
the Fort Worth post office, the receipts have in- 
creased rather than diminished and continue to grow 



buildings were recently completed at a cost of 
$6,000,000. 

Fort Worth has more than 100 miles of paved 
streets; twenty-seven parks with an area of 6,427 




t 




W . T. W'ajigoner Bxiildiiig. Twenty Stories of Offices 

rapidly, due to the great influx of new population. 
Fort Worth has one university, two class A col- 
leges, nine private and preparatory schools and 
twenty-seven public schools. Three new high school 



The Texas, Fort Worth's Now .S 1,II0I),()(HI. 01) Hotel, 

the Finest Hostelry in the South. There are 

Si.\ Hundred Guest Rooms, all with Bat-x 

acres and 64 miles of street railway within the city. 

There are 100 churches in Fort Worth and ten of 
these occupy buildings which cost more than $100,000 
each. The largest Sunday school in the country is 
located in Fort Worth. 

The Shrine Mosque is located on Lake Worth, is 
the headquarters of Moslah Temple and was recently 
completed at a cost of $300,000. 

Building operations recently completed in Fort 
Worth involve a total of twenty-five million dollars. 
According to careful estimates there are under con- 
struction seven hundred residences and apartment 
houses, sufficient to accommodate three hundred 
families. The latter group includes the Lucerne 
Apartment which was recently completed and which 
contains 119 three, four and five-room apartments. 

The W. T. Waggoner Building, completed in 1921, 
offers the much needed office space. This building 
occupies a ground space of 75x95 feet, and is twenty 
stories in height with a double basement and is lo- 
cated at Eighth and Houston Streets. 

The Farmers and Mechanics National Bank Build- 
ing, completed in the latter part of 1921, is a twenty- 
four story structure at Seventh and Main Streets. 
This building is one of the tallest in Texas and cost 
over $1,500,000. The bank owned part of the corner 
and recently purchased the balance. The dimensions 
of the building are 100x100 feet. 

The Livingston Oil Corporation recently purchased 
a site on Third Street between Main and Commerce 
Streets and have announced their intention of build- 



58 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



inp a ten story office building, at a cost of about 
$700,000, in the near future. 

Pierre Levy and associates have purchased a site 
in the 900 block on Main Street extending through 
to Commerce Street and will erect an eight story 
building to house a large motion picture theatre and 
offices. 

The Citizens Hotel Company recently erected at 
Eighth Street between Main and Commerce Streets, 
the new Texas Hotel, which cost two million dollars. 
The company, made up entirely of Fort Worth citi- 
zens, paid $350,000 for the site, which is 100x120 
feet. The hotel contains 450 guest rooms and is 
fifteen stories in height. 

E. N. Schenecker has recently purchased a lot, 
100x200 feet on East Seventh Street between Cal- 
houn and Jones Streets and announced his intentions 
of erecting an eight story building to house a whole- 
sale grocery establishment. 

The United States Navy constructed a Helium gas 
plant two miles north of the city at a cost of four 
million dollars. Several petroleum refineries have 
been completed within the last two years and more 
are to be built. These new plants, when completed, 
will give Fort Worth an additional refining capacity 
of 75,000 barrels per day, and if present plans are 
carried out the total expenditure on these plants will 
be in excess of fifteen million dollars. 

The Monnig Dry Goods Company has recently pur- 
chased a lot, 75x500 feet, extending through from 
Main Street to Commerce Street near Fifteenth 
Street, and will erect a seven story building to house 
its wholesale department. 

W. C. Stripling, a dry goods merchant who owns 
the entire block between Main, Houston, First and 
Second Streets has made additions to his store which 
give him a seven story building covering the entire 
block. 

The Texas Motor Car Association has just com- 
pleted an addition to its plant at a cost of $300,000. 

The Chevrolet Motor Car Association recently 
made an addition to its assembling plant which cost 
$250,000. 

The Alexander Lumber Company has just com- 
pleted a plant for the manufacture of interchange- 
able unit houses, which cost $250,000. 

The Texas Creosote Manufacturing Company has 
finished its plant in which it has invested $200,000. 

The Star-Telegram, an evening paper, has erected 
a building at a cost of $400,000. 

Oil well supply concerns in Fort Worth during the 
past two years have taken out permits for ware- 
houses which cost in excess of $2,000,000. 

The city of Fort Worth is doing its share toward 
caring for the rapidly growing population. The 
filtration plant was recently completed by the city 
cost $.300,000. Dunng April, 1919, a bond issue of 
$1,890,000, was voted to provide for sewer, water and 
street improvements and extensions for the construc- 
tion of a sewage disposal plant. 

Recently Tarrant County, of which Fort Worth is 
the county seat, and which already has the best road 
system in the state of Texas, voted $3,450,000 ad- 
ditional bonds for good roads. 

The Southwestern Telegraph and Telephone Com- 
pany is spending $460,000 on improvements and ex- 
tensions on its system in the city and more than 
$1,000,000 on improvements in the long distance serv- 
ice to the various towns in Texas and Oklahoma oil 
fields. 



Building operations in Fort Worth are limited at 
this time only by the inability to get more build- 
ers and laborers. Already a large army is employed 
and recruits are being sought to double this army 
if possible. New houses have been built and are 
being built in every part of the city, and yet the cry 
for more residences is becoming louder and louder 
as thousands after thousands of new homeseekers 
continue to pour into the city. Among the recently 
constructed buildings are: The twenty-story W. T. 
Waggoner Building, the twenty-story F. & M. Bank 
Building, one of the tallest buildings in Texas, and 
the $2,000,000 Texas Hotel . 

Fort Worth is growing and growing fast and 
seems in a fair way to realize the forecast that the 
population of the city will reach a quarter of a 
million people when the next census is taken. 

Banks of a city may be considered an index to 
its prosperity and the growth of the Fort Worth 
banks are an indication of the city's rapid growth. 
They have more than 50,000 individual accounts and 
deposits are in excess of $50,000,000. Several of the 
banks have been compelled to enlarge their quarters 
to handle the business that has come to them and 
yet some of them continue to work in cramped quar- 
ters. There are five national and four state banks 
and not one of them has failed to share in the pros- 
perity caused by the growth of the city. 

Fort Worth is superlative in a number of things, 
but among them may be mentioned its distribution 
facilities by means of the seventeen railroads and 
splendid paved highways extending in every direc- 
tion; the center of the oil industry of Texas, many 
of the largest producers having established their 
headquarters here; its refinery and pipe line facili- 
ties, reaching to the various oil fields of Texas, and 
Oklahoma; its packing houses, cotton gins and cotton 
seed and peanut oil mills; its industries of every 
kind and unexcelled general commercial conditions; 
its schools, which rank among the finest in the state, 
both in teaching talent and in buildings, and its cli- 
mate, water and people — everything that makes a 
city desirable as a home. 

Fort Worth offers two special advantages to home 
seekers in its schools and churclies. For grade and 
high school work there are a number of private and 
church schools in addition to the public schools, 
and for those wishing to take college courses there 
are no schools of higher education offering better 
advantages that the Texas Woman's College, under 
direction of the Methodist Church, and the Texas 
Christian University, under direction of the Christian 
Church. 

Practically every denomination is represented 
among the churches of Fort Worth and each has 
a substantial following. Many of the congregations 
have built houses of worship that would be an ad- 
vantage of any city in the country and several 
have established and are conducting) institutional 
churches with great success. One church in the city 
has a membership roll of about 4,000 communicants 
and has the largest Sunday school in the world. 

Fort Worth is the capitol of the "land of liquid 
gold," not in the sense of the city where laws are 
made, but as a city which reflects in its culture 
and prosperity the contentment and happiness of a 
united commonwealth. 



59 



HISTORY OF FORT WORTH BANKS 



By G. H. COLVIN 

ChalriTiaii of Board. F. & M. Bank 




T 



VHE growth and develop- 
ment of any communi- 
ty or state is commen- 
surate with the strength of 
its financial resources. Capi- 
tal and labor, in the hands of 
integrity and industry, make 
an irresistable combination, 
and a community so blessed 
with these forces can only go 
forward to success and bigger 
things. 

The city of Fort Worth 
was fortunate to have within 
its bounds in its pioneer days 
such type of men; yet they 
dared to stake their judgment 
and loan their money on many 
a proposition for the up- 
building of their town that today would be consider- 
ered as foolhardy speculation. A study of these men 
and their methods reveals to a large extent the rea- 
son for the steady, sturdy and continuous growth of 
this very important city in the Lone Star State. 

On the pioneer pages of History of this small 
Army Post, we find written the names of these men; 
Col. Van Winkle, Major K. M. Van Zandt, Thos. A. 
Tidball, Capt. M. B. Loyd, J. F. Ellis, W. J. Boaz, 
Capt. H. C. Edrington, J. Marklee, Jno. Nichols, A. 
B. Britton, S. W. Lomax and others. Of these men, 
only one today is with us; Maj. K. M. Van Zandt, 
still at the helm of the institution he organized, the 
only president this institution has ever had. The 
first bank interests were established here in 1872, W. 
J. Boaz and J. F. Ellis under the firm name of 
Boaz & Ellis conducted a general merchandise store 
and in connection with this did a loan and exchange 
business, which was at the time the principal func- 
tions of a bank. A little later Geo. H. Van Winkle 
and A. W. Wroten opened the private bank of Van 
Winkle & Co. The following year, Thos. A. Tidball, 
Wilson & Co., which was reorganized in the latter 
part of the same year to Tidball, Van Zandt & Co., 
with Tidball, Van Zandt, J. J. Jarvis and J. Peter 
Smith as members of the firm. After this reorgan- 
ization, in the same year, Capt. M. B. Loyd and J. 
Marklee formed the bank of Loyd, Marklee & Co., 
also known as the California and Texas Bank. 

When the National Bank Act was passed in 1876, 
Capt. Loyd organized the First National Bank. La- 
ter the City National Bank was organized, and in 
1882 W. J. Boaz and associates obtained the char- 
ter for the Traders National Bank. 



The combined resources of the Fort Worth banks 
in 1882 totalled $1,502,959.52. The total resources 
of the Fort Worth banks today are over $65,000,- 
000.00. Fort Worth deposits in 1882 were $915,000. 
Today the total deposits are $55,000,000.00. 








I s- !• Hi 



8' ;-- . 



Farmers" and Merchants National Bank Build- 
ing, wKich <»n Completion in 1!)21 was 
tile Tallest Building in Texas 

In 1888 The Fort Worth Clearing House Associa- 
tion, was formed with a membership of six banks. 
The First National Bank, The City National Bank, 
The Traders National Bank, Fort Worth National 
Bank and Merchants National Bank. There are to- 
day ten member banks in the association; First 
National Bank, Fort Worth National Bank, Far- 
mers & Mechanics National Bank, Stock Yards Na- 
tional Bank, Continental Bank & Trust Company, 
Exchange State Bank, Texas State Bank, Ft Worth 
State Bank, Guaranty State Bank and National Bank 
of Commerce. 

The daily clearings in 1888 averaged about $45,- 
000.00. Today, this average is nearer $3,000,000.00 





' fi^^^-^r^i^.=^^^ 



Fort \Vorth's New Skyline. Buildings Costing Over $10,000,000.00 have been Erected in this Business 

District in the Past Two Years 



60 




HISTORY AND PROGRESS OF FORT ^VORTH 

By J. H. ALIJSON 

Proprietor of Fort Worth Record 

ORT WORTH is a won- a trading post it has attracted the ranchman from 



FC 
derful city with a glow- 
ing future. The pioneers 
must have had a prophetic 
vision when they built their 
block houses on the banks of 
Trinity River and made it a 
haven of refuge for settlers 
when, as occasionally hap- 
pened, they were driven from 
their ranches and farms by 
Indians; the United States 
government looked ahead 
when it established a military 
post at this point in 1849 and 
gave it the 
name the 
city now 
bears; the 
cattlemen who made it their 
marketing point, the early day 
traders and the later day mer- 
chants, the railroad men, the cap- 
tains of industry, the tourist who 
came to see and stayed because 
they saw the possibility for happy 
homes — all appear to have recog- 
nized the spot as most admii'ably 
located by reason of climate, 
geographical position and natural 
resources and advantages as the 
ideal place for residence, for com- 
merce, for agriculture, for a domi- 
nant station among the great cities 
of this fair land. And yet none of 
them knew and until very recently 
none has known that they were 
establishing themselves in the "land 
of liquid gold." 

For many years Fort Worth grew slowly, but 
even so, she has kept pace year after year vt-ith 
every other growing city of Texas, has outstripped 
many and now bids fair to outstrip all of them. As 



near and distant points, and the cow boys and the 
cow owners made periodical visits for both business 
and pleasure. Strong men located here, men who 
looked ahead, and they made it an industrial center, 
small at first, but having a foundation capable of sus- 
taining a large growth. 

It was natural that having become established as 
one of the most enterprising and substantial cities 
of Texas, Fort Worth should have attracted the 
railroads. They came one after the other, until at 
this time thirteen trunk lines of railway converge 
at this point and radiate in seventeen different di- 
rections. With their connections they cover all points 
in Texas and all Oklahoma. Three lines lead to 



; t »im 



i Mgry * 





Forest Park is a Beautiful Area, Comprisine Seventy-Fivo 
Acres. A Glimpse of the Zoo is Shown at the Right 

61 



Lookind Across Lake Worth from the Meanderine Road 
The Old Shriners' Mosque is Seen on the Farther Shore 

Denver, three to New Mexico, five to St. Louis, four 
to Kansas City, five to Houston and Galveston and 
two to the Mexican border. 

The railroad yards in Fort Worth have storage 
for 15,000 cars and none larger may 
be found South of Kansas City. 
About 80 per cent of all railroad 
traffic entering Texas passes through 
Fort Worth and more than one and 
one-quarter million freight cars are 
interchanged here annually. 

The railroads have the steady 
growth of agriculture throughout 
the surrounding country contributed 
to the continued gTowth of Fort 
Worth and the city gained more and 
more until the population had 
■eached close to one hundred thou- 
sand. Natural gas was piped in 
from Oklahoma fields, and cheap 
"uel, both gas and lignite coal from 
he Thurber mines, only a few miles 
iway, give encouragement to indus- 
ry. And then came the discovery 
)i oil with Fort Worth in the center 
of the new oil field, and new men 
and new money poured in. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



Time was when men sought for gold in the river 
beds and cradled it out of the sands, later they mined 
it in rocks which they crushed to extract the yellow 
metal, now they drive a drill many feet into the 
earth and penetrate to the pools where oil is to be 
found and then they realize the truth that they are 
living in the "land of liquid gold." 

Fort Worth will not be dependent much longer 




# 






r 






on natural gas from Oklahoma, although that has 
served its purpose well. Two pipe lines now are 
being constructed, one by the government which 
purposes bringing gas of a superior quality from 
Petrolia, a few miles north, to manufacture argon 
gas or helium for use in balloons and another from 
the Ranger field, about one hundred miles to the 
west, which will bring to the city Texas gas for 
heating and power purposes. 

The discovery of Texas oil fields adjacent to Fort 
Worth gave a new stimulus to the city. Oil de- 
velopers and oil producers flocked here from all 
parts of the country bringing money for investment 
not only in oil lands, but in pipe 
lines, in refineries, in new indus- 
tries and in homes. Deposits in 
the banks doubled and trebled and 
kept on growing and new banks 
were established. The Pierce Oil 
Corporation had a refinery in 
operation here with a daily ca- 
pacity of 15,000 barrels before 
the discovery of the new oil fields, 
the Magnolia Petroleum Company 
had a refinery with a daily capacity 
of 12,000 barrels and the Gulf Re- 
fining Company had a refinery with 
a daily capacity of 6,000 barrels, a 
total daily capacity of 3-3,000 bar- 
rels. Since the new oil fields were 
opened ten new refineries have been 
constructed or are in progress of 
construction which will increase the 
daily refining capacity to 75,000 



of wells are being drilled in every part of the field. 
Many of these wells become producers, some of them 
prove to be merely dry holes, the latter often oc- 
curring within a few feet of a good producing well, 
but the .?50,000 or so expended in a dry hole is not 
lost, for the money has been paid out in large wages 
to the men employed on the work and through them 
has passed into the various channels of trade, and as 
a general thing the company which 
has paid out its money for a dry 
hole, makes it up and much more 
too, soon afterwards by bringing in 
a good producer. 

One of Fort Worth's greatest at- 
tractions is Lake Worth, said to be 
the largest artificial body of water 
in Texas. It is about 14 miles in 
length and two miles wide and 
covers 5,000 acres. It was con- 
structed by damming the west fork 
of the Trinity River and impounds 
thirty billion gallons of water, suffi- 
cient to provide for the needs of a 
city having 500,000 population. 
The dam is 3,300 feet in length and 
the spillway is 700 feet long. The 
water is soft and may be used in 
boilers. By the use of an elab- 
orate filtration system, the water 
attains a high degree of purity and 
is distributed to every part of the city. 

The lake is one of the chief pleasure resorts of 
the city. It has a bathing beach where thousands 
go during the summer to enjoy the inland sea, this 
bathing beach being sufficiently distant from the 
intake to the filters to avoid any risk of contaminat- 
ing the water. The lake is popular for boating, pro- 
vides splendid fishing for those who like that sport, 
and the shores on every side are dotted with summer 
homes and camps, in addition to several chautauqua 
grounds. It is in fact one of the most delightful 
recreation spots to be found anywhere. 

Fort Worth's trade territory is very large, extend- 











barrels and other regneries hav 
ing plans to increase the daily out- 
put by about 15,000 barrels are 
planning to locate here. 

Upwards of one billion dollars are said to have 
been paid for oil leases in the Fort Worth area of 
the West Texas oil field and at this time hundreds 



Neil p. Anderson Biiildina. Homo of tlic Cirain and Cotton Exchange, as well 
as Many Dealers in Grain and Cotton Products 

ing throughout North Texas, far up through the 
Panhandle country to the very edge of Colorado and 
New Mexico, embraces the greater part of West 
Texas and reaches far into Oklahoma. 



62 



CATTLE RAISING IX TEXAS 

By E. B. SPILIJ<:K 

Secretary. Texas niid Southwcstorn Cattle Kaisers* Association 




T" 



cattlemen, their long journeys over the trails with 
vast herds of cattle en route to Kansas and other 
states befoi-e the days of the railroads; and the evo- 
lution of the Texas steer from the longhorn of years 
ago to the modern market-topping and prize winning 
steer of today. 

The mild climate over most of the state and the 
succulent native grasses which need be supple- 
mented with other feed only on rare occasions, make 
it possible to breed cattle in Texas more economic- 
ally than in any other state in the United States. 
The principal beef breeds of cattle are Herefords 
or white faces, Shorthorns, or Durhams, and Aber- 
deen-Ang-us or black muleys, with the Herefords 
leading numerically. Along the Texas coast the 
Brahmas because of their power to resist ticks, flies, 
mosquitoes and other pests, and ability to thrive 
evin in times of short range, are becoming very 
popular. Many breeders prefer a cross of Here- 
fords and Shorthorns, and others are crossing the 
Angus and Brahmas with Herefords and Shorthorns 



^HE live stock industry 
is one of the largest 
and in many respects 

the most important industry 

in the United States. The 

value of the live stock in the 

United States is estimated at 

more than $3,000,000. Aside 

from the vast investment the 

importance of the industry is 

found in the necessity for live 

stock to maintain the fertility 

of the soil, and to consume 

the products of farms and 

ranges, 80 per cent of which, 

according to census reports is 

fed to live stock; and the 

further fact that animal food 

is a very essential factor in 
the diet of the American people of today. 

Texas is the leading cattle breeding state of the 
Union, and annually furnishes steers for the feed 
lots of the corn belt 
states, and the 
ranges of Okla- 
homa, Kansas, Col- 
orado and other . ' 
range states. Vol- 
umes would be re- 
quired t o review 
3 v e n briefly the 
magnitude of the 
business in Texas 
and the far-reach- 
ing influence which 
the breeding, fat- 
tening and market- 
ing of live stock 
has upon the social 

- i? ,1 T One of tlie Herds of Thorouj^hbred Cattle which Graze on the Larde West Texas Ranches 

fare of all hnes 

of industry. In the short space alloted to me I must with highly satisfactory results. 

be content with a few general observations and re- Splendid herds of registered and grade breeding 

frain from reference to the hardships of the pioneer cattle are found in all sections of the state, but 

because of the severe weather, 
which sometimes visits the Pan- 
handle, cattle breeding is conduct- 
ed more successfully in the western, 
southwestern and southern portions 
of the state. By using good bulls, 
culling the herds of undesirable 
animals annually, careful herd man- 
agement and good business meth- 
ods, the leading stockmen of Texas 
have succeeded in raising the qual- 
ity of their range herds to a very 
high plane. Breed improvement has 
progressed more slowly in the 
eastern part of the state, but the 
doctrine of "better sires" is spread- 
ing, and soon the "piny woods 
scrub," like the longhorn will be a 
relic of the past. 

Some stockmen keep only their 
breeding herds and sell the increase 

The Packing House District of Fort Worth as Viewed from an .\irplane aS CalveS; others keep Up their 

63 





ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



breeding' herds and hold the increase until one or 

two years old, and still others handle only steers. 

Many Panhandle stockmen buy calves, yearlings or 

one or two-year-old steers, hold them for a short 

time and either feed them for market or sell to 

grazers and feeders in other states. Cattle bred on 

the Texas ranches and fed in the corn belt states 

have won many prizes, the championship at leading 

stock shows — topped the markets hundreds of times. 
In normal years 

cattle may be 

wintered in most 

sections of t h e 

state without feed 

other than the na- 
tive grasses. In 

the Panhandle it 

i s customary t o 

feed cattle thru 

the winter to have 

them in good 

flesh in the 

spring, and many 

are "full fed" in 

order that they 

might be fat and 

ready for the 

spring market. 

The principal 
feeds used for 
wintering- and fat- 
tening cattle are 
cotton seed cake, 
meal and hulls, 
hay, silage, sorg- 
hum, kaffir and 
other forage 
crops. Because of 
the tropical clim- 
ate in the south- 
ern part of the 
state stockmen of 
that section usual- 
ly have grass fat 
steers for the 
early spring 
markets, and 
realize good 
prices from them. 
While Port Worth 
is now the third 
larg-est market in 
the United States, 
and receipts o f 
this market are 
confined almost 
entirely to Texas 
cattle, one cannot 
get a fair idea of 
the volume of the 
cattle business in 
this state from 
this alone. In ad- 
dition to the very 
large number of 

cattle handled at the Fort Worth market, thousands 
are sold and slaughtered at the markets at San An- 
tonio, Houston and El Paso, and much greater num- 
bers are shipped direct to markets at Kansas City, 



St. Louis, Oklahoma City, Wichita Palls, St. Joseph 
and New Orleans, or from pastures in other states, 
and many of the choicest fat cattle sold at the 
Chicago market are bred in Texas and fed in the 
corn belt. 

Texas cattle pulled the chattels of the pioneers 
to the plains of Texas, drew the plows which first 
cultivated the soil, converted grass and weeds into 




Whero the Live Stock from the \V 
vVrnioiir Packing Plant. Center: 



est Texas Plains is Converted into Meat. Upper: The 
The Stock Exchoni^e. Lower: Swift Packing Plant. 

milk and beef, and hauled to market the products 
of the fields. They were the foundation of our 
modern civilization; without them the wheels of 
commerce would grind more slowly. 



64 



FORT \\'ORTH AS AN OIL CENTER 

Hv T. U. IIOKl'TiR 




H 



ER geographical loca- 
tion and the fact that 
her transportation fa- 
cilities excel those of any city 
southwest of Kansas City 
were the principal factors 
which combined to make Fort 
Worth the now undisputed 
center for o i 1 companies 
operating in the new fields in 
North Texas. Within a radius 
of a little more than a hun- 
dred miles are located prac- 
tically all the fields which are 
now contributing to the large 
oil production of North Cen- 
tral and West Texas. Burk- 
Imrnett is 115 miles north- 
west, Electra 12.5 miles, Holi- 
day 105 miles, and Petrolia 105 miles in the 
same direction. Breckenridge lies 90 miles di- 
rectly west, Caddo 80 miles west, Strawn, 70 miles 
west and Ranger 80 miles west and a little south. 
The Desdemona field is 80 miles southwest of Fort 
Worth. With the vast amount of the present pro- 
duction coming from Wichita, Stephens, Eastland 
and Comanche counties, Fort Worth finds herself 
the nearest large city having direct rail communica- 
tion with all these areas. 

Her seventeen railway outlets, moreover, are a 
tremendous asset to large companies operating in 
the city as through them all important points in the 
country can be reached. These transportation facil- 
ities enable the operator to bring and concentrate 
supplies, and to ship petroleum with little difficulty. 

Fort Worth will benefit 
in many ways from the de- 
velopment of the oil fields. 
Her population has al- 
ready increased by many 
thousands. Business i n 
every line has been stimu- 
lated. Bank deposits have 
increased enormously, and 
her trade territory with- 
in which lie practically all 
the new fields, has not 
only increased the popula- 
tion and wealth, but it is 
finding the means for 
rapid development. Better 
roads, better homes, better 
schools and generally im- 
proved living conditions 
throughout the district are 
assured through the vast 
amount that has been paid 

for leases and in royalties to land owners. The 
wealth brought to North Central and West Texas 
through this oil development will result in this ter- 
ritory developing in a few years to an extent which 
otherwise would have required several decades. 

A score of larger producing and refining compa- 
nies have shown their faith in the future of the city 
of Fort Worth by establishing operating headquar- 
ters here. The list includes the following: Gulf 



Production Company, Empire Gas & Fuel Company, 
Humble Oil & Refining Company, Sinclarr-Gulf 
Oil Company, Pierce Oil Corporation, Cosden & Com- 
pany, Magnolia Petroleum Company, Invisible Oil 
Corporation, The Texas Company, Transcontinental 
Oil Company, Inland Refining Company, Evans- 
Thwing Refining Company, Home Oil & Refining 
Company, Star Refining Company, Imperial Refin- 
ing Company, Beaver Valley Refining Company, 
United Producers Pipe Line Company, Crcw-Levick, 
Southern Oil Refining Association, Federal Oil & 
Refining Company, Texas Producing & Refining 
Company, Panther City Oil & Refining Company, 
OK-IN Oil & Refining Company. 

Since the discovery of oil in west Texas two pipe 
lines have been laid from that area to Fort Worth, 
those of the Gulf Pipe Line Company and the United 
Producers Pipe Line Company. The Gulf Pipe Line 
Company is now laying a line from Burkburnett to 
Fort Worth and at least one additional line is pro- 
jected between Fort Worth and west Texas. 

In addition to the larger concerns who have es- 
tablished offices in Fort Worth, more than four hun- 
dred smaller companies have offices there. Some of 
these have secured production and others will do so. 
Some are destined to fail but the day of the fake 
promoters in Fort Worth is rapidly passing. Wild 
speculation in leases has subsided, and within a short 
time it is likely that the froth will be cleared from 
the situation and the new fields, especially those 
in West Texas, wil be on business-like basis. 

Outside of the Petrolia and Electra fields which 
have a joint production of about 11,000 barrels per 
day, practically all of the production of North Cen- 
tral and West Texas has been developed within the 




One of the Oil Refineries Near Fort Worth 

past two years. The record production of this area 
was 265,000 per day established during the month 
of August, 1919. The potential production is consid- 
erably in excess of this amount and there is little 
doubt that upon the completion of pipe lines now 
under construction to care for the surplus in the 
Desdemona field and the Northwest extension of 
the Burkburnett field, a daily production in excess 
of 300,000 barrels will be obtained. 



65 



WICHITA FALLS, THE CITY THAT FAITH BUILT 

Bv MICIIITA FALLS CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 



A Ni^hl View 



REALIZING the discovery of great oil fields 
in Wichita County as a remarkable bit of 
good fortune, and also as a commanding op- 
portunity for new civic advancement, Wichita Falls 
has started activity on an enlarged program of solid, 
substantial improvements. It is ambitious as a city 
to become known, not only for its wealth in oil, 
wheat, cattle and cotton, but as a delightful city in 
which to live and to rear children, as well as to make 
a living. 

While oil has played a big part in the growth of 
Wichita Falls, it is a mistake to consider that it is 
merely an oil town. Wich- 
ita Falls had 8,200 people 
in 1910 and in 1917, before 
the discovery of the Burk- 
burnett oil field, it had in- 
creased more than 100 per 
cent to a population of 18,- 
000 based upon its agricul- 
tural and jobbing and 
manufacturing resources. 
Following the discovery of 
oil in 1018 at Burkburnett, 
Wichita Falls leaped into 
the city class and the 1920 
census gave it a population 
of 40,079. This made the 

percentage of growth in the ten years from 1910 to 
1920, 388 per cent. 

The oil fields of Burkburnett, Iowa Park, Electra. 
Petrolia, Holliday and other parts of northwest 
Texas, with a daily production of nearly one hun- 
dred thousand barrels are an important factor in 
Wichita Falls. Wichita County produces more oil 
than any other county in the United States. There 
are about thirty refineries in the Wichita Falls oil 
district, thirteen of these being in Wichita Falls. 
Wichita Falls is the headquarters of hundreds of oil 
companies and of thousands of individuals who fol- 
low the oil business in one or another of its various 
phases. New oil producing territory is being steadily 
developed. 

Wichita Falls does not look to oil alone for her 
substantial prosperity. The city is a wholesale 
center for a large portion of northwest Texas, and 
southwest Oklahoma, and is constantly adding to its 
wholesale trade. It is the retail center of a pros- 
perous district. There are about fifty manufactur- 
ing plants in the city, their products including flour, 
motor trucks, glass jars, window glass, refinery 
products, brooms and brick and tile material, oil 
field tools and equipment, building material, roasted 
coffee, foundry products and other articles. The 
Wichita truck, manufactured in Wichita Falls, is 
sold throughout the civilized world, and the scope of 




\\ ithitn I'lills 



its distribution is scarcely less extensive than that 
of other Wichita Falls products. 

Wichita Falls is the center of a prosperous farm- 
ing community, for which the city is both the mar- 
ket and the source of supplies. Wheat, oats, corn, 
forage crops, cotton, fruit and truck are produced 
and the farm production is to be greatly increased 
when the $4,500,000 irrigation project is completed. 
Already large tracts near the city are under irriga- 
tion, and such records as $7,500 worth of melons, 
$400 of tomatoes, 150 bushels of sweet potatoes and 
1,000 bushels of cucumbers, from one acre, have been 
made. The new irrigation 
project will add 150,000 
acres of irrigated land and 
will also insure a perma- 
nent ample water supply 
for the city. Grain finds 
a ready market in Wichita 
Falls, there being four 
elevators with a combined 
capacity of 1,180,000 
bushels. 

Wichita Falls is division 
headquarters for both the 
Ft. Worth and Denver, and 
Missouri, Kansas and 
Texas systems, which con- 
trol all of the seven rail outlets. More than 3,000 
men are employed in the offices, shops and yards of 
these i-ailroads. Two new railroads are soon to 
reach Wichita Falls, one is the Wichita Falls, Ranger 
and Gulf, financed largely by home capital, to con- 
nect with the oil fields of central West Texas; the 
other, the Rock Island soon to be built from 
Waurika, Okla. 

No city in the United States saw more new build- 
ings erected, in proportion to population, than did 
Wichita Falls in 1919-1920, it being estimated that 
a total of more than $20,000,000 was expended. 

The city school system comprises a high school, a 
junior high school, seven ward schools and a negro 
school. During 1920 a total of $300,000 was spent 
by the Board of Education in erecting new buildings. 
There are 30 churches and missions in the city, and 
the larger denominations are housed in splendid 
buildings of worship. One congregation recently 
constructed a $250,000 building and two others have 
plans under way for buildings rivaling this. 

Wichita Falls Chamber of Commerce is stronger, 
numerically and financially, than that of any other 
city in America of less than 100,000 population, hav- 
ing a membership of 2,500, and an annual revenue 
of $60,000. Wichita Falls offers innumerable oppor- 
tunities for commerce, industries, manufacturies and 
agriculture, and invites all those who are in any way 
interested to write the Chamber of Commerce. 




sizsj^ 




Skyline of Wichita Fulls today. The Oil Metropolis o£ Xorth Texas 

66 



WICHITA FALLS IRRIGATION PROJECT 



liy .1. A. KEMP 

C'hairiiwiii of Ituiiril, City Nntionnl Bank <»f ('(uuniiTce 




A 



N important election 
was held on Septem- 
ber 7, 1920, by the 
Wichita County Water Im- 
provement District No. 1, 
which comprises the city of 
Wichita Falls and some acre- 
age of farm lands to the 
north and to the south of the 
oity, and voted bonds in the 
amount of $4,500,000 to com- 
plete the irrigation project. 
The bonds have been sold and 
the construction work begun. 
This project is to furnish the 
city of Wichita Falls with 
a permanent and adequate 
supply of pure water and 
also to irrigate approxi- 
mately 150,000 acres of the rich Wichita Valley land 
lying on both sides of the Wichita River in the 
vicinity of Wichita Falls. 

A large dam will be constructed across the Wichita 
River in the north central part of Baylor County, 
thus forming an artificial lake covering some 17,835 
acres of land and holding 444,168 acre feet of water, 
an acre foot being water one foot deep over one 
acre of land. In addition to the large reservoir there 
will be a diversion dam and reservoir built some 



lAiS 




The City National Bark of Goininerce Building. Home of 
the Bankinc Institution of that Name 

twenty miles east of the main reservoir which will 
have an additional capacity of 45,000 acre feet of 
water. From this diversion dam site two canals will 
be constructed, one running north and one running 



south of the city limits of Wichita Falls. The south 
canal will be used to supply Lake Wichita with an 
abundant supply of water at all times. A chemical 
analysis of the river water made by the Fort Worth 




Kemp ll<>(cl, Nmned for the l*i<»neor Citizen of Wichita I'"alLs 
One of Ihe Finest Hotels in the Southwest 

laboratories. May 20, 1920, shows that the water con- 
tains very little hardness of any character. An 
analysis shows the following ingredients: 
Calcium Carbonate G6 parts per million 
Calcium Sulphate 245.8 parts per million 
Calcium Chloride 104.4 parts per million 

Sodium Chloride 112.8 parts per million 

Thus indicating that the water is excellent water 
to drink and also to put on the land for irrigation 
purposes. 

The city of Wichita Falls is now confronted with 
a situation similar to that confronting Los Angeles 
in 1905. In order to maintain our present pros- 
perity and to provide for the future growth of the 
city, a permanent and adequate supply of water is 
imperative. 

After many years of testing of the underground 
water in this part of the stati we are assured that 
the underground supply is entirely inadequate and 
so full of mineral salts as to make it unsuited for 
drinking purposes. The only adequate and satis- 
factory supply within the reach of this city is the 
Wichita River which extends some 200 miles to the 
west and flows sufficient water for all purposes. The 
location of the large dam and reservoir is ideal and 
sems to have been made by nature for this very 
purpose. A large natui-al basin has been surveyed 
in the north part of Baylor County and a dam will 
be built across a narrow gap in the hills impound- 
ing sufficient water to take care of a city of a million 
people and also to irrigate some 150,000 acres of 
the rich Wichita Valley land in Archer and Wichita 
counties. It is difficult to realize the change that 
will occur in the surrounding country when this 
irrigation has been completed. On the Seymour road 



67 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



and the Electra road we will see hundreds of homes 
surrounded with five, ten, twenty acre tracts in- 
tensively cultivated in field and garden truck of all 
character. Fruit and shade trees, in abundance, 
berries of all kinds, sugar beets, long staple cotton, 
wheat, alfalfa, corn and other field crops will be 
grown with a certainty of success because an abund- 
ant supply of water is ready to be placed on the 
land, whenever required. Farmers will make as 
much money from a ten-acre tract under irriga- 
tion as they now make from a hundred acres without 
sufficient water. Many prominent people in this city 
have already decided to acquire «, small acreage 
under this irrigation ditch and build a home where 



duplicate the wonderful results in those states. 

In many respects our climate is more advantag- 
eous to some crops than either Colorado with its 
severe cold or California with its rainy season. This 
project has been favorably passed upon by some of 
the best irrigation experts in the country and there 
seems to be no unfavorable features to overcome. 

The water is here in abundance, of good quality 
and favorable for the land. The entire project will 
be gravity flow, thus saving the expense of pumping 
the water as is done all along the Rio Grande. 

With the cultivation of land which will vastly in- 
crease the rural population, there will also be the 
introduction of industries which go hand in hand 




1 lu iiiisiness Section of Wichita Falls, from a I'oiiit Be.voiid the HaiU»t;ul Track 



they can have fresh vegetables, eggs, milk, etc., 
every morning with beautiful country surroundings, 
and run into the city for business on the concrete 
roads that will be built along the valleys. 

Intensive cultivation of some 150,000 acres of land 
in the vicinity of this city will give us the most 
densely populated agricultural districts in the state 
and will furnsh the necessary labor for the opera- 
tion of many factories which will locate here in order 
to handle the agriculture products and also to avail 
themselves of the labor thus afforded. Traction 
lines will probably be run through the thickly settled 
valley lands to accommodate the people and to 
handle the products of the farms. 

The completion of this project will accomplish 
two things. It will furnish the city of Wichita 
Falls an abundant supply of pure water for all 
future time and thus stabilize and maintain our pres- 
ent real estate values, and provide for the future a 
confidence on the part of our present and future 
citizenship in the continued growth of our city. 

It will also bring hundreds of farmers from out- 
side our country who will locate here and take up 
the valley land in small acreage farms and build 
their homes among us and intensively cultivate this 
rich valley. Under irrigation one acre of land fre- 
quently nets the farmer from $500 to $1,000 and 
such acreage planted in fruit, walnuts, pecans, etc., 
in other irrigated districts sells from $1,500 to $3,000 
per acre. Agriculturists have examined the soil in 
the Wichita Valley and have pronounced it as rich 
as any irrigated land in Colorado or California, and 
state that with irrigation we should be able to 



with rural communities. Much of the land will un- 
doubtedly be turned to fruit raising. This will be ac- 
companied by the organization and building of pack- 
ing plants and canning factories, to take care of the 
produce as fast as it is gathered. Manufacturing 
establishments will also be erected to furnish utensils, 
machinery and tools used in the cultivation of the 
land. These institutions will employ a great deal 
of labor, thus increasing the population of this 
element. This additional population will vastly in- 
crease the mercantile business, both retail and whole- 
sale. Money will be deposited in the banks, all kinds 
of permanent improvements will be made, thereby 
increasing the wealth of the community and estab- 
lishing a stable and permanent business in all lines. 
The project will be owned by the people, and man- 
aged by a board of directors elected by them. It 
will be carried out under the irrigation laws of the 
State of Texas and there will be absolutely no profit 
to anybody connected with the enterprise in the way 
of promotion or the sale of water rights. The entire 
project will be owned by the people and the cost, 
owing to the favorable engineering features will be 
less than any other irrigation project of this mag- 
nitude ever completed. The entire cost will be di- 
vided between District No. 1, comprising the city of 
Wichita Falls and some fifteen thousands acres of 
irrigatable land north and south of the city, and Dis- 
trict No. 2, comprising the main irrigatable land 
lying- west of the city in the Wichita Valley. The 
only other expense will be the maintenance and 
operating e.xpense each year. The bonds will be 40 
year bonds and the principal and yearly interest will 
be arranged in easy payments. 



68 



TRANSPORTATION AND INDUSTRIES OF WICHITA FALLS 

Bv FRANK KELl. 




WICHITA FALLS does 
not look to oil alone 
for her substantial 
prosperity. The city is a 
wholesale center for a large 
portion of northwest Texas 
and southwest Oklahoma, and 
is constantly adding to its 
wholesale trade. Because of 
its location and excellent 
railroad facilities Wichita 
Falls was known as a thriv- 
ing manufacturing center be- 
fore oil was discovered and 
gained first place among its 
industries. Excluding its re- 
fineries and other plants deal- 
ing with the oil business 
there are approximately 45 
manufacturing firms in the city having a total in- 
vestment of more than §7,000,000 and an annual 
gross output valued at more than $20,000,000. About 
1,800 people are employed in these plants. 

Among the important articles manufactured in the 
city are motor trucks, window glass, brick, tiles, 
fruit jars, mattresses, flour, brooms, tanks and meal. 
The Wichita trucks, manfactured here, are sold in 
G8 countries of the world, one shipment recently 
going to a buyer in the Gobi Desert in Asia, to re- 
place camels. Flour made in Wichita Falls is sold 
extensively for export trade also, shipments going 
to South America, Cuba, Norway, Sweden and many 
other parts of the world. The capacity of the Wich- 
ita Mills and Elevator Company's two plants is 3,500 
barrels daily, together with 500 barrels of meal and 
2,000 bags "of feed. About 30,000,000 bushels of 
wheat are handled on the average each year. 

There are 33 companies doing a wholesale and 
jobbing business, their total investment is approxi- 
mately 10,000,000 and their annual business is about 
$36,000,000. This business is growing rapidly be- 
cause of the increase in wealth and prosperity of the 
city's distribution territory and its railroad ad- 
vantages. 

The railroads of Wichita Falls have struggled with 
the traffic problem almost unprecedented and have 
made an earnest effort to meet the enormous demand 
made by the sudden growth. Wichita Falls is the 




W'icMta Mill and Elevator Company, one of the City's Bij5 
Industrial Institutions 

division headquarters of the Ft. Worth & Denver, 
and the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railway sys- 
tems, which control all of the southern outlet. More 
than a thousand men are employed in the offices, 
shops and yards. Two other railroads are soon to 



reach Wichita Falls, one is the Wichita Falls, Ranger 
and Ft. Worth which is being built from Brecken- 
ridge to Dublin, financed largely by home capital, 
together with the Wichita Falls and Southern R. R. 
will connect with the oil fields of central West 
Texas; the other, the Chicago. Rock Island & Pacific, 
soon to build from Waurika, Okla. 

The Wichita Falls & Northwestern, built by local 
citizens in 1906-1911 (with mileage of about 400 
miles extending from Wichita Falls across the west- 
ern part of Oklahoma to Forgan with a branch line 
from Altus, Okla., to Wellington, Texas, being oper- 
ated now as a part of the M. K. & T. system, but with 
general headquarters and shops in Wichita Falls, is 
a large factor in transportation facilities in this city. 

In order to take care of the increased demands on 



«• ^^.«»;3■y 







The 



Business >^<'rtion 
Airplane. 'I'll 



ol \\i<-liit;i I'alls. as \'ieurd frtini an 
• County Ct)urt House is Seen 
the Foreiiround 



the railroads entering Wichita Falls many improve- 
ments have been made here. New construction by 
the Ft. Worth & Denver in brief is as follows: Two- 
story office building and freight house, $250,000, with 
foundation for ten stories; new freight yard north of 
city, $150,000; new coaling station, $50,000; in- 
creased yard facilities through city, two new tracks, 
$10,000; river track, $10,000; eating and rooming 
house for employees, $8,000; temporary freight 
house, $5,000; three new sidings, $21,000. 

Improvements by the M. K. & T. railroad total 
$1,000,000. They include: New freight yards north 
of the city; three story freight and office building; 
track of heavier steel and ballasting Wichita Falls 
to Whitesboro; dispatcher's telephone circuit, Wich- 
ita Falls to Whitesboro; established general offices 
at Wichita Falls; four train masters, two road fore- 
men of engines and one master mechanic to handle 
business formerly handled here by one train master; 
three sets of dispatchers; track, Wichita Falls to 
Burkburnett, ballasted and improved, fourteen miles, 
for heavier traffic than is handled over any similar 
piece of track in the southwestern region; signal 
system, Wichita Falls to Devol, Okla.; four mile 
double track through Burkburnett; 55 industry 
tracks, 35 miles; additional yard facilities, capacity, 
1,000 cars, which alone is more yard trackage than 
the M. K. & T. had at Wichita Falls prior to 1918. 

With these greatly increased facilities in opera- 
tion, Wichita Falls is looking forward with optimism 
to the advent of new industries and factories in this 
district, feeling assured that they will be amply 
provided for in all their needs. Inquiries are invited 
and new enterprises ■welcomed. 



69 



BANKING HISTORY OF WICHITA FALLS 



By R. E. HUFF 
Chairman Board of Directors, First National Hank 




I 



NSEPARABLY linked to- 
gether is the develop- 
ment of a country and 
the history of its banks. Not 
much growth ever precedes 
the founding of the first bank; 
and the financial life of a 
people for every succeeding 
period is permanently re- 
corded in the ebb and rise of 
their banking interests. The 
history of banks of Wichita 
Falls, beginning in 1883 and 
extending to date, through 
severe panics, such as the one 
of 1893, through gigantic 
booms such as come to few 
sections of the country, and 
yet with never one bank fail- 
ure in all these varying extremes of financial history 
— tells a unique story and is a permanent monu- 
ment to the unsurpassable judgment and guiding 
ability of the business men of Wichita Falls. 

The first bank organized in Wichita County was 
the private one of John G. James, opened for busi- 
ness in the latter part of 1883, and merged into the 
Panhandle National Bank (now the First National 
Bank) of Wichita Falls in May of 1884, with a 
capital of $500,000. In 1888, Mr. James retired from 
the Panhandle National and in 1890 organized the 
City National Bank. These two banks successfully 
weathered the financial panic of 1893 at a time when 




The American National Bank and M. .1. Ba^^hara Building, 
Wicliita Falls, Texas 

many banks, both state and national, were forced 
to suspend. From that year business gradually in- 
creased as the country revived financially after that 
depression. 

In 1903 the Panhandle National changed its name 



to the First National Bank of Wichita Falls, with 
R. E. Huff as president, after 1888 and W. M. Mc- 
Gregor as cashier after 1894. The City National 
Bank in 1892 elected J. A. Kemp as president and 




F//iST /Y All ON A L B/iN/r 



I'irst National Bank Bnildine of Wichita l'"alls, Ti-.\as 

later P. P. Langford became cashier. 

In 1907 the Farmers State Bank & Trust Company 
was organized and later changed its name to the 
First State Bank & Trust Company and was con- 
solidated with the First National Bank in 1915. These 
banks together with the Wichita State Bank & Trust 
Company and the National Bank of Commerce, or- 
ganized later, were the only banks in the city until the 
discovery of oil at Burkburnett in 1918, which greatly 
increased all business of the northwest section. The 
National Bank of Commerce later consolidated with 
the City National Bank and the names changed 
to the City National Bank of Commerce. The Amer- 
ican National Bank, the Exchange National Bank 
and the Security National Bank were organized dur- 
ing the oil development. The two former banks went 
out of business in 1921, paying all depositors in full. 

Something of the financial pulse during the oil de- 
velopment is seen in the following figures: Com- 
bined amounts deposited in January, 1920, about 
$25,000,000; February, $47,000,000; March, $69,000,- 
000; April, $98,000,000; May, $114,000,000; June, 
$130,000,000; July, $151,000,000; August, $166,000,- 
000; September, $180,000,000; November, $198,000,- 
000; December, $214,000,000. On the last day of the 
year of 1919, deposits had totaled $215, 981,177.18; 
on the last day of the year of 1920, deposits had 
totaled $225,292,070.31. The average total per 
week for 1920 was about $4,000,000; this average 
now is about $2,000,009. 

The combined deposits of all banks of Wichita 
Falls, June 30, 1920, were about $45,000,000. 

Wichita Falls is the banking center of the north- 
western part of Texas and for much of Oklahoma — 
a territory in area equal to several states of the 
ordinary size. 



70 



NORTH TEXAS OIL INDUSTRY 

By WALTER D. CUNE 

Kx-Presiden1 . Tcxiis and l^oulsiana Division Mid-Continoiil Oil cS: Gas Association 




w 



'ICHITA FALLS 
headquarters for all 
West Texas oil ope- 
rations, as well as for much 
of the work in central West 
Texas and southwest Okla- 
homa, is perhaps more pre- 
eminently an oil city, in the 
accepted sense of that term, 
than any other community in 
Texas. Yet it denies that hei 
prosperity and growth have 
been dependent upon oil alone 
in the past, or that with the 
gradual passing of oil that 
her development will cease. 
Wichita Falls had many 
years of steady and consist- 
ent gro\vth before the oil 
business assumed such gigantic proportions, and it 
is laying systematic and careful plans for maintain- 
ing her present proud position among southwestern 
cities when the time comes that oil is less of a 
factor than now. 

At the present time the district of Wichita Falls 
as the center produces about one hundred thousand 
barrels per day and just now many pools being de- 
veloped that promise to materially increase these 
figures. There are fourteen refineries in Wichita 
Falls, and thirty-three in the oil district tributary 
to it, all depending upon the production of the 
Wichita oil district for their operations. Many of 
these refineries have their own production. 

Practically all of the large companies that operate 
in Texas have offices in Wichita Falls, and conduct 
their extensive operations from this city. The Texas 
Company, Gulf, Magnolia, Sun, Prairie, Sinclair, 
Humble and others might be named in this connec- 
tion. In addition, there are many hundreds of 
smaller companies that maintain offices in Wichita 
Falls and make this city headquarters for their 




The G. Clint Wood Buildinfi, Wichita Falls. Built by the 
Pioneer Oil Man for Whom it was Named 

activities. Their personnel includes experienced oil 
men from every section of the United States, as well 
as many, not oil men before, who have become such 
by reason of their successful and profitable opera- 



tions here. In fact, Wichita County oil field has 
been the particular paradise of the so-called "little 
fellow," for the biggest wells were brought in at 
depths of less than 1,800 feet, for which the men, 
or group of men, with little capital might drill with 




\\'iohita Falls, Lookin-J Down Eighth Street from Lamar 
The Building on the Left ForeiSronxid is the Kemp Ho- 
tel. On the Ri^ht is the City National Bonk of Com- 
nierc* 

little expense. This condition has resulted in very 
extensive development, with resultant prosperity for 
Wichita Falls. 

Oil has already played a large part in the history 
of Wichita Falls. With its discovery in large quan- 
tities in the Electra district in 1911 new capital 
flowed into this city, new enterprises were organized 
to take care of the business and oil men began to 
look upon the city as headquarters. The many dis- 
coveries of new pools since that time in different 
directions from the city, at Clara, Sunshine Hill, 
Burkburnett, Iowa Park, Holliday, have added to 
the city's wealth and prestige. 

The total money value of oil produced in Texas 
during the last quarter was $31,250,000; out of this 
total $3,538,.507 goes to the credit of companies hav- 
ing their home offices in Wichita Falls. The value of 
the product in Wichita County of such companies 
as the Texas Company, Magnolia Petroleum Co., 
Humble Oil and Refining Co., and others, which are 
the largest producers in the state is not included in 
this amount, though all of these companies have big 
production in Wichita County. The proportion of 
successful companies having their headquarters in 
Wichita Falls will be much greatere for the present 
quarter than for the last, because of many new de- 
velopments. 

In order to transport oil from the field there are 



71 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



now completed or under construction in the Wichita 
district 100 miles of four, six and eight inch pipe 
lines. The combined capacity of these lines, when 
completed, is 280,000 barrels daily. 

In all, there are twenty-six pipe lines either in 
operation in the county or under construction. This 
number does not include the many small gathering 
lines leading into the main lines at Burkburnett. 
With the exception of two, all of these lines have 
been started or completed since October, 1918. At 
that time the fields were served only by the line of 
the Texas Company and the Magnolia Petroleum 
Company. The Texas Company alone now has 390 
miles of pipe line serving the fields. 

Supplementing pipe lines, loading racks have been 
built which have the capacity of 850 tank cars daily. 
In addition to these there are innumerable storage 
tanks in the fields, ranging in size from one thousand 
to fifty-five thousand barrels. 

Refining has become a huge industry in Wichita 
Falls because of the location of the city with regard 
both to the fields and railroads. In addition to those 



in the city itself there are many at other towns 
in the county. While at the present time the re- 
fineries in the district are not able to take care of 
the crude oil from the local field plans are already 
made for extension to such a point that crude will 
be shipped from other fields into the city and re- 
fined here. The new railroad extension being made 
from the Wichita Southern will pass the Range field 
and put the Wichita refineries in a position to secure 
crude oil from that district. 

While refining proper is in the front rank, at the 
same time there are a number of large casing-head 
gasoline plants in operation and under construction 
which add to the income from the oil industry. The 
largest casing-head gasoline plant in the world was 
recently constructed and put in operation at Burk- 
burnett; this is the plant of Chas. F. Noble Gasoline 
Company. This company already has a small skim- 
ming plant in operation in the northwest field and is 
making G,000 gallons of casing-head gasoline daily. 
The total capacity of the casing-head plant is 40,000 
gallons daily. 



HISTORY OF WICHITA FALLS 

By J. B. MARLOW 



AS I review in my mind the wonderful growth 
Wichita Falls has made and try to determine 
the reason for that growth I am constantly 
reminded of the many instances when a small body 
of loyal men put their shoulders to the wheel and 
pushed the town over difficult obstacles. I am there- 
fore forced to acknowledge that the one thing 
more than any other which has been responsible for 
the growth of this city has been its loyal citizens. 

Until 1882 Wichita Falls was an inland settlement 
boasting of one general store and located in an un- 
organized county. During this year three elections 
were held on the county seat question. The first 
was in June, at which time the county was organ- 
ized. This was a three-cornered election between a 
320 acre tract of Tarrant County school land near 
where Iowa Park is now, the S. B. Burnett ranch 
section near a settlement afterward called Ruthford, 



able to establish sufiicient residence. The commis- 
sioners court agreed after the third election that 
no further election should be ordered for a year, 
and Mr. S. B. Burnett agreed to use his influence for 
Wichita Falls at the fourth election. This was held 
in the fall of 1883, by which time Wichita Falls had 
a population of nearly one thousand, and easily 
selected herself as county seat. The fifth and last 
county seat election was held in about 1889 by which 
time the town of Iowa Park had enjoyed sufficient 
prosperity to become a place of considerable im- 
portance. Its ambitious citizens had aroused con- 
siderable sentiment in favor of moving the county 
seat to their town and accordingly the issue was sub- 
mitted — as a result of the activities of some Wichita 
Falls citizens to an election. The question of this 
election was to determine the location of the county 
seat for the next five year period. Factional feeling 




Wichita i'ulla ij 



iyli). Before the Present Uiji Ituildiiiys were Erected. The (->ki Kemp 
is the Five Story Structtire in the Center of the Picture 



d Kell BuiUli 



now known as Burk Station, about 16 miles west on 
the Denver and Wichita Falls. In this election there 
was a total of about ten votes cast for Wichita Falls 
and that was enough to keep a choice from being 
made. The second election was held about August, 
1882, which also resulted in no choice being made. 
At the tnird election in November, 1882, Ruthford 
received half of the votes poled and the Tarrant 
County School Land and Wichita Falls divided the 
remaining about equally with about five votes apiece, 
and again no choice was made. Wichita Falls would 
have decidedly won the third election if the few 
additional people who came as a result of the arrival 
of the railroad, following the August election, had 
been eligible to vote, but these new comers were not 



became very bitter and the enthusiastic supporters 
of Iowa Park instituted enjoining proceedings 
against the election officers. Mr. W. W. Flood was 
the leading spirit in these actions and the supporter 
of the claims of Iowa Park. Wichita Falls was rep- 
resented by Judge R. E. Huff who was so determined 
in his opinion that they could not rightfully enjoin 
the people from holding the election that he was 
made presiding o.^icer at the poles and the election 
was held. The only voting place was conducted in 
Wichita Falls which compelled the Iowa Park sup- 
porters to come here to vote. This may have been 
partly the reason for Wichita Falls winning the 
election by a very decided majority. By the time the 
five-year period was up Iowa Park had suffered 



72 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



severe losses — especially during- the panic of 1893 — 
and was so crippled that she didn't care to continue 
the contest. 

In about 1885 the Ft. Worth and Denver was ex- 
tended to Harold, about 13 miles to the west, and for 
some time it looked as though that town was going 
to put Wichita Falls into complete insignificance 
by its rapid development. However Harold's growth 
was not permanent and we soon left her in the dis- 




Wichita Falls as it Looked Two Score Years Ago 

tance. Passenger and freight traffic didn't amount 
to much in those days and in fact the town gave 
very little evidence of ever coming to life. Wichita 
Falls was then having a hard time trying to keep 
up with Henrietta and Archer City, both in a busi- 
ness way and in point of population. 

In the spring of 1886 a sod breaking boom struck 
this territory and many hundreds of acres of grass 
land were broken and planted to grain crops, but 
we were doomed to disappointment for no rain of 
any consequence fell until October of 1887, and of 
course this was too late for our 1886 crops. For 
about eighteen months we went through by far 
the worst drouth that I have experienced. The good 
people of East Texas helped us out with a few car 
loads of provisions which were certainly very much 
appreciated. 

The years of 1888-9-90 and 1891 were all excep- 
tionally good crop years and this put Wichita Falls 
back on her feet. The town commenced to show 
evidences of prosperity and growth. About this time 
some prominent citizens of Henrietta became inter- 
ested in the building of a railroad from their city 
to Seymour through Archer City. Our own citizens 
realized the importance of having this trade terri- 
tory connected with Wichita Falls and the loss which 
we would sustain if Henrietta beat us. Consequently 
in about 1890 the Valley was built from here to Sey- 
mour as a result of the efforts and money raised 
by a few of our citizens, and this gave Wichita Falls 
the lead in railroad connections to that territory. 
The next railroad connection to be established was 
in 1895 when the M. K. & T. was extended to Hen- 
rietta. These railroad facilities gave us the ad- 
vantage over our neighbors and we then acquired 
the distinction of being the railroad center of West 
Texas, which position we have since maintained. 

For about ten years, or up to 1900, there was com- 
paratively little growth. We remained a town of 
some 2,800 to 3,000 but we had enough loyal citizens 
who had vision and determination and who fortu- 
nately had prospered, to keep the town moving for- 
ward. These men realized the importance of an 
adequate water supply if the town was to maintain 
a substantial gi-owth. But as is always the case 
with towns Wichita Falls had no money with which 
to procure such a thing. The start was made, how- 
ever, in 1900 by the city selling its public school to 



the district for a consideration of $18,500. This 
money was then paid the water company for certain 
fire protection guarantees and other rights and privi- 
leges. Then as a result of the combined financial ef- 
forts of the water company and certain of our citi- 
zens the dam was constructed across Holliday Creek 
forming Lake Wichita and giving the city sufficient 
water for domestic, fire and industrial use. At the 
time of its construction this was the largest arti- 
ficial lake in the state and we were all very proud 
of the achievement. The size of the lake, covering 
over three thousand acres, promised then to provide 
ample water for all time and under the worst condi- 
tions of drouth and only once was there an indication 
of failure. Of course when this is linked up with the 
big irrigation system there will be an abundance of 
water to take care of any future growth or demand 
dreamed of even by the most optimistic. The present 
purchase of the water system by the city with the 
eight hundred thousand dollars bond issue just voted 
now places the city water supply in the hands of the 
citizens themselves and insures the city against any 
future water famine. 

The location of the lake was favorable for irriga- 
tion that lake lying in the bottom between Holliday 
Creek and W'ichita River and a few men with confi- 
dence in the results were instrumental in placing sev- 
eral hundred acres of this rich land under the ditch. 
There is no doubt but what this comparatively small 
irrigation system had very marked influence on the 
determination to secure the great project we are 
about to realize. What irrigation will do in this 
territory can be seen by the records which have al- 
ready been made, but the ultimate benefits to Wichita 
Falls cannot be estimated until we see the thousands 
of acres in ten and twenty acre blocks with a family 
on each block and the land giving up its wealth 
under intensive culture. It has already been demon- 
strated that this land under irrigation will produce 
crops valued up to $200 per acre per year. The good 
which Wichita Falls will derive from this enormous 
project will be the result of the foresight of a few 
men about twenty years ago. 

As just one of the many examples of what irriga- 
tion has done in our community I want to mention 




Wichita County Court Hou-se, One of (he Finest Public 
ijuildinjs in Northwest Texas 

one case with which I am perfectly familiar. Several 
years ago Mr. P. A. Berry purchased five acres under 
the ditch. Prior to 1917 he had very successfully 
and profitably grown various truck crops and in that 
year had expected to beat his previous records but he 
was unable to get the water and consequently lost 
his year's efforts. Fearing a recurrence of water 



12> 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



tamine he decided to sell but was unable to And a 
buyer. Fortunately since then there had been an 
abundance of water and he has made good crops and 
has refused as high as $10,000 for his five acres. 
Prom his crops he has paid off a $1,500 indebtedness, 
has added over .$700 worth of building improvements 
and purchased an automobile. During 1919 his re- 
ceipts were as follows: From strawberries and 
plants, $1,500; from peppers, roasting ears, grapes 
and onions, $1,100. This is quite remarkable for 
Mr. Berry is 72 years old and Mrs. Berry 67, and 
they do all of the work themselves. 

Prom 1900 to 1910 the town made a rapid and sub- 
stantial growth. Its importance as a shipping point 
and distributing center steadily increased and was 
used successfully as an argument for attracting new 
industries. During this period our loyal men again 
answered the call of duty and 1903-04 extended the 
Valley Railroad to PetroKa in time to head off a 
connecting branch from Henrietta to that place, thus 
giving to this city the trade benefits of that rich 
agricultural territory which soon after also de- 
veloped into an important oil and gas producing 
district. Closely following this, two other important 
rail connections were established. In 1907 the 
Northwestern was extended to Porgan, Oklahoma, 
tapping a rich wheat belt, and in 1908 the Southern 
was built into New Castle giving us a direct connec- 
tion with the coal fields. This line into Oklahoma 
would probably have been built sooner had it not been 
for the fact that the government was withholding 
480,000 acres of land from settlement just across 
Red River. As soon as this land was opened, which 
was 1907, and the Northwestern line built we com- 
menced to realize trade benefits. 

The discovery of gas at Petrolia, the shipping 
facilities of Wichita Palls and the promise it gave 
of continued development, together with a certain 
amount of right kind of persuasion, was responsible 
for securing the Ball Brothers fruit jar factory and 
subsequently the window glass factory. These indus- 
tries contributed greatly to the stability of the town 
and marked really the first step whch Wichita Falls 
took toward prominence as an industrial center. 

During this period we were gradually forging 
ahead of our neighbors as a grain center. Each new 
railroad connection put us in contact with new grain 
territory and our men who were interested in that 
line of business took advantage of the opportunity 
to make this a real grain center. The magnificent 
new mill and elevator we now point to with so much 
pride is the realization of an idea conceived many 
years ago. 

By 1910 we had attained a population of 8,200, a 
street car line in town and to the lake. The build- 
ing of residence and business buildings was progress- 
ing steadily and the place was enjoying a general 
prosperity. People were hopeful, and had faith in 
the future. From 1910 to 1918, the year of the dis- 
covery of Fowler well, progress was considerably 
more rapid than during the ten years previous, and 
during this time we more than doubled our popula- 
tion. By 1918 we figured ourselves about eighteen 
thousand strong and there was no evidence of a boom 
in the growth we had been making. It was a sound 
and substantial growth built upon firm foundations 
which had been laid by the men of vision and faith 
many years before. Even some of our largest build- 
ings of today were contemplated before the big oil 
rush came. 



While of course we welcome all we have fallen heir 
to as a result of the discovery of oil, still I want 
to impress the fact strongly that we were rapidly 
getting to be a city of importance before that came. 
Without knowing it, we had been getting ready to 
take advantage of the things which were to come. 

The wonderful growth made by the motor truck 
factory and the progress of the other important 
manufacturing concerns was rapidly bringing us 
into prominence as an industrial center. The growth 
and extension of our trade territory were constantly 
adding to our importance as a distributing and ship- 
ping point. 

That we were in a position to derive so much 
benefit from the boom following the big oil rush was 
not merely a matter of chance. If we had not al- 
ready had a substantial city the oil boom would only 
have been a mushroom growth and but very little 
of the many millions of wealth would have remained 
to give us any permanent growth. Because we had 
built substantially we were in a position to take 
many advantages of the boom and as a result we 
see the many refineries and other industries as well 
as the great building growth which have been con- 
tributed to our permanent wealth. 

The oil boom is the only thing that has added 
growth and wealth to Wichita Palls in greater pro- 
portions to the efforts expended. Previous to that 
everything this city gained was the result of the 
thought, work and expense of a comparatively few 
faithful ones. 

Our location has no natural advantages over our 
neighboring towns. Henrietta was for years ahead 
of us in population, railroads and wealth and was 
the county seat of a larger and richer county, yet 
today she doesn't compare with us in size or import- 
ance. We were simply one of those cities fortunate 
enough to include in its citizenship men of broad 
vision, libei'al minds and high characters who take 
a keen personal interest in the development and 
progress of their communities. We have grown be- 
cause we have all pulled together. We have had 
capable leaders to direct us and eager workers to fol- 
low their direction. We have kept free of factional 
fights and petty jealousies. Instead of the mere hand- 
ful of "wheel horses" of years ago we have a hun- 
dred today and all in harmonious co-operation, work- 
ing under the name and direction of the Chamber of 
Commerce. We have religiously stuck to and prac- 
ticed the true western hospitality. We have tried 
to make strangers feel welcome and have given a 
helpful hand to any new industry or business which 
would add to our stability and increase our desirable 
citizenship. Our growth has been due to our men and 
to the spirit and faith they have instilled into the 
minds of our citizens. 

The bond issue just voted by the city amounting 
to one and three-fourths millions to provide for sani- 
tary and storm sewers, water system and paving; 
the four and a half million dollar irrigation bond 
issue just voted and the great amount of money 
now available for road improvements are all sub- 
stantial evidences of the continued growth we are 
to enjoy. 

Our city of forty thousand today with its enorm- 
ous banking, railroad and business facilities and the 
millions to be immediately spent in the various 
improvements should see us a city of twice our pres- 
ent population by 1930, and of correspondingly 
greater importance. 



74 



BURKBURNETT AMONG THE OIL DERRICKS 



By A. R. THOMAS 
President Chamhor of Comnierce 




I 



■ N 1907 some enterprising 
citizens saw the oppor- 
tunity of turning ranch 
lands into a productive farm- 
ing country. The Wichita 
Falls and Northwestern Rail- 
road was constructed north 
through Wichita County and 
the City of Burkburnett 
sprang into existence, being 
surrounded by one of the 
richest and most productive 
farming territories in Wichita 
County, in fact, in North 
Texas. In 1912, the oil in- 
dustry was added to the re- 
sources of Burkburnett, but 
only in a small way. In 1918 
the famous Fowler well was 
struck and Burkburnett became famous throughout 
the entire country, and developed into what is now 
the greatest oil industry town in Texas, and perhaps 
in the United States. There are approximately 3,000 
oil wells producing in the territory immediately sur- 
rounding Burkburnett in what is known as the 
Texhoma field south of the town, the northwest field 
which includes many small sub-divisions, and also 
what is known as the Oil Field west of the city. 
This territory includes about 13,000 acres of actual 
production with much undeveloped territory. South 
of the City we also find a very productive gas field 
which is only slightly developed but is now furnish- 
ing a considerable amount of gas for both domestic 
and industrial purposes. The largest gas well is 
estimated at fifty million feet daily. Naturally this 



production of oil and gas brought all affiliated in- 
dustries including seven refineries, several casing 
head gas plants, one of which is the largest in the 
world, a number of tank farms and all necessary 
pipe lines. In accordance with the wonderful 
development of the oil, gas and farming industries 
of the surrounding territory the business establish- 
ments necessary for every thriving city has shown 
an amazing increase. Burkburnett's business enter- 
prises include, three banks with total deposits of 
$3,302,000.00, five lumber yards, sixteen dry goods 
stores, fifteen grocery stores, five drug stores, five 
jewelery stores, two newspapers (weekly), oil well 
supply stores, six wholesale houses, and numerous 
other smaller establishments. Within these estab- 
lishments is to be found the service and merchandise 
in strict keeping with the unprecedented growth in 
wealth of Burkburnett and the surrounding territory. 
The 1920 census gave Burkburnett a population of 
5,000, but the townsite is very small and does not 
cover all the residence territory, it has been con- 
servatively estimated that the city serves 15,000 or 
more people. 

The town has, of course, suffered as all boom 
towns do, but at the present many civic improve- 
ments are being made. An excellent system of paved 
streets is now being put in, about twenty blocks of 
paving being under construction. 

With the lull in the boom has come the undaunt- 
ing will and spirit of the citizens of Burkburnett to 
make this city one of settled and determined ideas 
with a view to realizing and exacting the many ad- 
vantages and opportunities that are offered by the 
unequalled wealth that lies in the territory surround- 
ing this city. 




Oil Derricks, Tank Cars and Business IIou.scs 



The Unusual Spectacle, Presented by the City of Burkburnett 

75 



BURKBURNETT; 



YESTERDAY, TODAY AND TOMORROW 

By R. D. LANEY 




T 



HE Burkburnett of to- 
day, of yesterday and 
tomorrow, are three 
different things. Events move 
so rapidly, changes are so 
numerous and developments 
so rapid that it is an almost 
unbelievable story, when the 
events of the past two years 
are unfolded. 

To those in touch with the 
situation, it is impossible to 
overdraw the picture, or to 
cover to the full extent, the 
development, in their entirety 
as has been witnessed in the 
past. To picture the future 
is indeed another story, for 
even the optimistic fear to 
state their beliefs because the estimate would be 
so high as to appear ridiculous. 

From a village of 600 people, struggling under ad- 
verse circumstances and depending upon farming for 
a scant living, Burkburnett has grown and expanded 
to a city of several thousand people, hustling and 
bustling and developing the world's greatest and 
most profitable industry. 

The early days of Burkburnett are not talked of 
by the people, they are pages from the past that 
have been torn from the book. The hardships, the 
disappointments and the trials of the past have been 
forgotten and population, old timers and new com- 
ers alike, work harmoniously for a bigger Burk- 
burnett and one that will offer all attractions as a 
place of permanent residence for the oil population. 
Two years ago last July, to be exact, July 26th, 
191S, S. L. Fowler, through accident, brought in 
the famous Fowler gusher just north of the city 
limits of Burkburnett. It was found to be a very 
difficult matter to sell $10,000 worth of stock to 
promote the drilling of this famous 7,500 barrel 
gusher. Since this incident, which is now history, 
Burkburnett is known the world over and is consid- 
ered the most wonderful field in existence. It has 
produced some of the most sensational wells in the 
history of the Mid-Continent Area. 



of the world. Lumber yards and lumber supply 
houses, both private and retail, are scattered in all 
parts of the field and loading racks line the rail 
road for miles in every dii'ection. 

The future holds many promises which are be- 
coming realities daily. Burkburnett is becoming a 
refining center and there are numerous companies 
now searching for sites, with several plants in op- 
eration and construction. 

New buildings are going up in the town to take 
care of the ever increasing business, and several 
new additions will be offered the public where good 
substantial homes can be built. There have been 
reports circulated over the country that Burkburnett 
was a dirty, nasty hole, and an unfit place in which 
to live. True, the living conditions have been noth- 
ing to brag about as compared with some substan- 
tial city, but comparatively Burkburnett is the most 
healthy oil town in the state that has participated 
in the "big boom" of the past few years. Accord- 
ing to health officials of the city, there has been but 
few cases of Typhoid fever, and a few cases of small 
pox, but the city is furnished with typhoid serum 
free of charge and steps were taken long ago to ef- 
fect a strict quarantine of all small pox cases. 

The sewer system is now about to be completed and 
all possible haste is being used to have it completed 
before another summer is far under way. 

Living conditions are improving as additional ho- 
tels and rooming-houses are completed. There are 
a number of good play houses in operation which 
adds to the amusements in the city. There is also 
to be found in Burkburnett a Y. M. C. A. where 
rooms and baths are obtainable at a small charge. 

A Chamber of Commerce has been organized with 
several hundred members, who are doing every thing 
in their power to try to keep up with the demands 
and are working overtime in assisting new industries 
to find quarters, sites and locations. This organiza- 
tion has been of untold benefit to Burkburnett. 

Burkburnett has a modern newspaper plant with 
a circulation of more than 2000 copies of the pub- 
lication each week; two substantial church build- 
ings with large attendances, and commodious school 
buildings with pupils aggregating near 2000 and 
4 instructors. 




Burklixiniett The i'iiy nnd the <Jil Field. A Strikinj^ Comhinntinn of iiusinesg Houses, 

Residences and Oil Derricks 



At present the resources of Burkburnett are great. 
It would be hard for an intelligent estimate of the 
money involved in supplies, lumber yards, loading 
racks, pipe lines and storage tanks. The figures 
will run up to several millions. Every supply house 
of importance has a branch house here with large 
stocks, the large companies have many tank farms; 
pipe lines are in operation and building in every di- 
rection connecting Burkburnett with the oil markets 



The combined deposits of the three banking insti- 
tutions in Burkburnett aggregate deposits of more 
than two million dollars. 

Burkburnett has let a contract for one mile of 
street paving within her boundaries, and about one 
fourth of the work has already been completed. 
Other street improvements will follow in their order 
as fast as plans and estimates can be worked out 
to meet the required needs. 



76 



IIIST(>KY AND PROGKKSS OF BRECKKXKIDGE 

By JiHKClCKXKlDCiK S. WALIvEK 




F' 



VROM a hamlet of six 
hundred souls, without 
fame, without railroads, 
without everything, Brecken- 
ridge has grown within the 
sliort space of two years to a 
rity that is known nationally 
and internationally as an oil 
center to a city upwards of 
15,000 inhabitants served by 
three railroads, many first 
class hotels, banks with de- 
posits of more than $t;,000,000 
and a new post office with 
l,f)49 lock boxes. 

February 4, 1920, is a me- 
morable date for this city. 
When the Chaney No. 1 well 
began suddenly on this day 
to spout oil at a rate of 3,700 barrels per day, the 
news was flashed across the wires far and wide 
and the future of Breckenridge as a city was as- 
sured. The railroads now running into Breckenridge 
are the Cisco & Northeastern, Wichita, Ranger & Ft. 
Worth and the Wichita & Southern. These roads 
centering in Breckenridge located at the very heart 
of one of the great oil districts of this country, mak- 
ing of it a logical clearing house, oil center and meet- 
ing place for the transaction of business concerning 
this rapidly developing Eldorado. While the produc- 
tion does not come up to the 100,000 barrel per day 
mark at this time, yet the prospects are good for 
it to come back to this point. Lack of water for drill- 
mg and bad market conditions caused considerable 
depression in the production. Experienced oil men 
are convinced that the district is not one-half de- 
veloped and that many big producers are still looked 
for in the fields. 

There are now close to 2,000 derricks within three 
miles of the Breckenridge court house, over three- 
hundred of these are in the Breckenridge townsite, 
over seven hundred of the total number of the wells 
are producers while practically all of the remainder 
are temporarily shut down for drilling. 

Up until recently it must be admitted that the 
city lacked water and the streets needed paving 
while other numerous inconveniences that always ac- 
company a new oil city were present. However, the 
progressive citizenship of the oil metropolis rapidly 
took the necessary steps to remedy these conditions 



and the mayor and city commissioners met February 
2, 1921, to make plans for the floatation of $300,000 
worth of bonds for sewerage system and $600,000 
for street improvements. Also plans were made for 
a floatation of a $2.50,000 bond issue for the erection 




The First National Bank of Breckenridjje, one of the Stronj5- 
est Bonking Institutions in West Texas 

of a high school and $175,000 additional for gram- 
mar school buildings. The wide awake merchants 
and business men pledged themselves to a man to 
put new fronts on their buildings which improve- 
ments are rapidly being carried out. To take care 
of the water situation, the Walker-Caldwell Water 
Company, at a cost of over a million dollars, have 




A Portion of Breckenridge from the Intersection of East Walker Street and Breckenridge Avenue 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



Duilt one of the most complete and up to date water 
systems of Texas, supplying the city with an ade- 
quate supply of water brought from the Brazos 
River, ten miles distaint. This splendid system was 
built and paid for in full without bonding the system 
for a dollar. 

So it is to be seen that Breckenridge today is in 
its period of transition. Those who have never seen 
an oil boom town, those who have read of the days 
of '49, Cripple Creek and Goldfteld and wish they had 
lived to witness the romantic side of that period 



and those who have resided all their lives in 
peaceful and slowly growing cities — all such peo- 
ple should go to the wonder city of Breckenridge 
immediately if they desire real atmosphere and 
local color. Within another year the greater part 
of the town's picturesqueness will have disap- 
peared and in its place will be found a very live 
little city of modern brick buildings, paved streets 
and will resemble any other wide awake busy 
municipality of the same degree of prosperity and 
enthusiasm. 



bregkp:nridge, the oil city 

By BRECKENRIDGE CHAMBER OF (X)MMERCE 



BRECKENRIDGE, one of the latest and most 
progressive oil centers of the Southwest, is al- 
ready a city commanding a prominent share 
of industries of North Texas. The industries are 
principally oil, refined oil products, gas, coal, fire 
brick clay, agriculture and cattle raising. The 
population is conservatively estimated at 15,000. 
The city has a banking deposit upwards of .$6,000,000 
and has one of the finest water systems in Texas, 
built at a cost of $1,000,000, with "a splendid filtra- 
tion plant, a standard motorized fire equipment, paid 
fire department, four railroads with common point 
freight rates and has a sufficient number of well 
supported schools, churches, clubs and hotels, that 
would be a credit to any city of the Southwest. 

The "Breckenridge oil pool" is the greatest oil 
producing area in the United States. Oil records 



and these plants refined over 800,000 gallons of 
crude oil during September. Ten of the leading oil 
companies of the world maintain operating he-ad- 
quarters here as well as 700 of the smaller com- 
panies whose holdings comprise from 10 to 500 acres. 
The monthly payroll of the oil companies operating 
within the "Breckenridge oil pool" is over $3,000,000. 
There are thousands of acres of undeveloped land 
in Stephens County, which lands are located within 
proven and semi-proven oil territory, awaiting the 
coming of outside capital for development. Stephens 
County has just sold $2,100,000 road bonds. This 
sale of road bonds assures the county of an ade- 
quate highway system upon which construction im- 
mediately started. The plans as outlined include 
construction of the Bankhead Highway which tra- 
verses the county east and west and passes through 




West Walker Street, Breckenridge. The Larcest Buildinij in the Background is the Stephens Cinintv Court House. 
The Three-Story Building in the Foreground is the First National Bank Building. 



and statistics bear out this statement. The "pool" 
comprises 34 square miles and embraces over 2,100 
standing oil derricks, 1,020 of which are producers, 
approximately 290 in state of drilling with but ap- 
proximately 190 dry holes. The production for Sep- 
tember, 1921, was one-third as much oil as either 
California or Oklahoma produced and 12 per cent 
of all oil produced in the United States. The "Breck- 
enridge oil pool" produced over 2,500,000 barrels 
of oil during September. Within the "Breckenridge 
oil pool" are located 23 refineries and casing-head 
plants representing an investment of over $8,000,000 



Breckenridge; also the highway north and south, 
together with lateral roads throughout the county. 
Federal aid has been obtained for the Bankhead 
Highway in the sum of $300,000. 

Breckenridge is the wholesale and retail distribut- 
ing center of all classes of oil supplies for the entire 
"pool." Forty-seven oil supply houses are located 
here and carry stocks that reach a total of more 
than $18,000,000. Breckenridge is the county seat 
of Stephens County, which county's assessed valua- 
tion has increased from $18,000,000 to $50,000,000 
during the past two years; is being served by four 



78 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



railroads; is the largest and only incorporated city 
in the county, is located geographically in the coun- 
ty's center and enjoys the surrounding territory's 
wholesale and retail business to the extent of mil- 
lions of dollars. 




City PumpiiiiS Plant of the Wnlkor-Culdwcll Water Co. 

Breckenridge has made rapid strides in the matter 
of public improvements. Many first class permanent 
buildings have been erected which give it the air 
of a much larger city. The streets are being rapidly 
improved and many of the principal streets will 
eventually be paved. 

The general spirit of the business people of this 
West Texas Oil Metropolis is to make it a city of 
permanent prosperity. During the last two years, 
three railroad lines have been completed connecting 
Breckenridge w-ith Ranger , Cisco and Graham, 
putting the city in close communication with the out- 




Inlc 



\'iow. and the Officers and Employees of the First 
National Bank of Breckenridge 



side world, both with the North, East and West. 
This has given great sesame to the mercantile busi- 
ness, both wholesale and retail. 

The city of Breckenridge has a large surrounding- 
territory which makes it a commercial center. The 
public highways are also being rapidly improved 
and Breckenridge is already connected with Graham, 
Caddo and Ranger with good automobile roads. 
Other roads are being improved to the oil fields and 
near by cities. The greatly increased population of 
Breckenridge during the last two years and due 
primarily to the oil business, has brought to the city 
many kindred industries and has given permanent 



employment to hundreds of men in various lines of 
occupation. 

Stephens County, of which Breckenridge is the 
county seat and principal business center, was 
formerly devoted to stock raising. In the memory 
of many of the local citizens, herds of cattle grazed 
on the open range which covered a large portion of 
this part of the State. In recent years, with the 
dividing of the land in smaller tracts, the raising 
of small grain became the principal industry. The 
greatest drawback to this section is the lack of rain 
in some seasons. 

The assessed valuation of Breckenridge for 1921 
is approximately $12,000,000. This is an increase 
over 1920 of $10,000,000. More than fifty one, two 




Coadulation and Sedimentation Basin of \Volkor-C'alcl\vell 
VN'ater Company, Breckeixridfio 

and three story fireproof buildings have been con- 
structed recently. Bonds have beeen voted in the 
sum of $600,000" for street improvements; $300,000 
for sewerage; .$350,000 for additional school build- 
ings, the work for which will begin immediately. 
Breckenridge has a first class post office, employing 
31 persons. Total receipts for the past four months 
were $413,563.92. Stamp sales totaled $28,130.33, 
while money orders issued totaled $390,233.59. 
Breckenridge has a building program for 1921-1922 
calling for an expenditure of $300,000, of which 
$2,500,000 has already been expended. This build- 
ing program included hotels, business blocks, oT.ce 
buildings, churches and schools. The Baptist and 
Presbyterian churches have now under construction 




Pump Station at Dam at C'rystal Falls, from which the 
Water Supply of Breckenridge is Secured 

new buildings costing $100,000 and $'45,000 respect- 
ively. Breckenridge today is the largest and morally 
the best city in the "West Texas Oil Belt," and with 
its rapid growth and permanency assured we 
heartily invite the "new comer." 



79 



HISTORY OF RANGER 

By M. H. HAGAMAX 




T' 



I HE story of Ranger, 
through the years of 
struggle for a bare and 
scant existence, to the present 
prosperous City reads like a 
fairy story of old. Less than 
six years ago, with a popula- 
tion of seven hundred native 
West Texans, there was no 
indication of what would be 
the future history of this 
little village. Though there 
were some whose optimism, 
even in the face of hardships 
occasioned by the drought, led 
them to believe in the possi- 
bility of finding oil beneath 
the rocky surface, yet few, if 
any, foresaw the growth the 
phenomenal development which was destined to make 
Ranger known throughout the whole world as she is 
today. 

When oil was first discovered in October 1917, on 
the McClesky farm, through the united efforts of 
Mr. Marston, Mr. Gordon and several enterprising 
citizens among whom were Mr. John M. Gholson, 
H. R. Gholson, M. H. Hagaman, strangers began to 
arrive in large numbers and by July, 1918, four 
thousand pilgrims to the promising El Dorado scurried 
hither and thither in a mad disorderly fashion, com- 
peting for the almighty dollar. There was no City 
Government, but the old citizens of Ranger were 
destined to maintain the good reputation of their 
home town and in order that she might go forward 
accellerated quickness, a Chamber of Commerce was 
organized and an experienced Secretary placed in 
charge. The result was a clean-up both from moral 
and sanitary standpoint. New industries and mer- 
c a n t il e establish- 
ments came every 
week. Streets, room- 
ing houses, trains be- 
came so conjested so 
as to tax every re- 
source of the com- 
munity. 

In the early part of 
1919 a movement was 
started to incorpor- 
ate the city, and at 
the election in Feb- 
ruary, a large ma- 
j o r i t y was cast in 
favor of incorpora- 
tion. Later in April, 
a charter election, ac- 
cepting the Commis- 
sion plan was car- 
ried, and though the 
administration was 
hampered by reason 
of not having any 
funds the benefits of 
the organized ma- 
chinery of City Gov- 
ernment have been in- 
numerable. In the 



meanwhile an unprecedented development was 
taking place in the surrounding oil field. Leases 
commanded fabulous prices and in a very short time 
practically every tract of land within a radius of 
thirty miles was leased. Farmers who had struggled 
for years for a scant living became suddenly rich and 
a large number moved to nearby cities to enjoy a well 
earned rest. All the large oil companies and inde- 
pendent as well as scores of newly organized com- 
panies secured holdings and vied with one another 
in drilling into the pay sand until the country for six 
miles about the city is a veritable forest of oil rigs. 

Ranger became a city of 25,000 to 30,000, streets 
were paved, modern schools and office buildings were 
erected and a fine clean city was built where oil men 
and ranchers could bring their families to live in 
order to properly educate their children. 

Since the oil boom subsided, the city of Ranger 
has settled down to a steady but continuous progress. 
It is the commercial center for a vast area of West 
Texas and the unlimited quantity of natural gas 
here assures the city of Ranger a prominent and 
permanent place among the leading cities of West 
Texas. 

The big permanent building period began im- 
mediately after the fire and a transformation, almost 
as if by magic, has taken place in a little less than 
two years. More than twenty five, two, three- four 
and six-story brick buildings costing from .$50,000 
to .$350,000 have been erected in the business district. 
They are buildings modern and substantial. Bonds 
were voted by the citizens and one of the largest 
paving contracts ever let in Texas, covering sixty- 
seven blocks in the business district, was let and 
work started late in 1919. By the end of 1920, forty 
blocks of this contract had been completed with the 
prospect that the entire contract will be completed 
by the middle of 1921. 




The Principal Bu.siness Street of Raaj^er on a Busy Day 
Ranker has Modern Office Buildings and Several Miles of Paved Streets. 

80 



K\ 



CORSICANA 

(X)RSICANA CHAMBER OV COMMEKCIC 



CORSICANA, located in the center of what is 
said to be the greatest oil field yet discovered 
in the mid-continent, offers an exceptionally 
fine opportunity for unprecedented growth at this 
time. The oil developments south, north, east and 
west, which extend for distance of thirty miles in 
each of these directions, can be conveniently reached 
from this center, and therefore, this city is fast 
becoming the recognized headquarters point of this 
territory. With many locations and drilling wells 
in Navarro County, and with practically all of the 
large mid-continent companies represented in the 
field, many pools are expected to be discovered. 

This city, with thirty-ono manufacturing plants, 
twenty-five wholesale houses, and seventy-five dis- 
trict agencies, offers an excellent opportunity for 
commercial and industrial development, for the 
reason that it is a recognized shipping point, being 
located on the main line of the Southern Pacific, 
north and south. Cotton Belt, east and west, T. & 
B. v., north and south, and a branch line of the 
Cotton Belt to Hillsboro, in addition to hourly in- 
terurban service north, both freight and passenger; 
and being on the main highways, north and south, 
and east and west, through the south. 

The annual factory output of Corsicana is .$15,- 
000,000; goods sold at wholesale, $25,000,000; and 
a payroll from all sources of $4,780,000. These to- 
gether with the fifty oil companies located in this 
city make it an important commercial, industrial, 
agricultural and oil center. Bank deposits, Decem- 
ber call, 1921, show an increase of $307,000 over simi- 




llome o£ tho Corsicana Chamber o£ CiimnitTce, the Livest 
Business Organization of the City 

lar call 1920, and is within one hundred thousand 
dollars of the peak of general financial circum- 
stances, which was December, 1919. Postal receipts 
in 1921 were $52,000. 

It might be interesting to review a little of the oil 
development history of this section of the state. 
It may be recalled that it was at Nacogdoches that 



the first oil drilling experiment in Texas was made 
in 1889. Geologists had previously indicated oil 
deposits in that section. Tr;ose who put up the 
money and those that did the drilling of the first 
Texas oil well were untrained, men, but were willing 




<'orwir.ana 



i$iiMv i>iiv in 



to take a chance. Of course, the people ridiculed 
this experiment. 

The next step in the history of oil development 
in Texas was in 1895, at the time Corsicana was 
suffering from an insufficient water supply. The 
local citizens organized a water developing project, 
the capital of the company being $30,000, and their 
only desire being to develop artesian water for the 
city's use. 

H. F. Johnston, of Corsicana, was at that time 
a successful artesian well driller. Jack Davidson, 
a practical well driller from Pennsylvania, was em- 
ployed to do the actual drilling. The well was 
spudded in on the outskirts of the town, and at a 
depth of 950 feet oil was struck. Davidson having 
had considerable experience in the drilling of oil 
wells in Pennsylvania, recognized the oil indications 
and possibilities and reported the same to Ralph 
Beaton and the other stockholders. The citizens of 
Corsicana were disappointed in the find, for they 
believed that the oil would injure the quality of the 
desired artesian water. The directors of the com- 
pany ordered the driller to go deeper. 

Ralph Beaton, Henry Damon and Jack Davidson 
became interested in the oil find and began plans to 
develop the field. They secured leases covering ten 
thousand acres in the neighborhood. Mr. Beaton 
then began a search for a practical oil man to assist 
in the development. Some time later he succeeded 
in interesting Colonel Guffey of Pennsylvania. At 
that time Guffey was one of the big oil men of 
Pennsylvania. Colonel Guffey and John Galey, his 
field man and business associate, visited Corsicana 
and made an examination of the oil indications here. 
It is now recalled that Guffey was not impressed 
with the prospects, but Galey stated at that time, 
twenty-seven years ago, that he believed he was 
standing within fifty miles of a great oil pool. Ar- 
rangements were made whereby Guffey and Galey 
agreed to test the field on a fifty-fifty basis, Beaton 
and his associates agreeing to secure an additional 
block of acreage. The land owners leased their 
farms then for one-tenth royalty. The first well 
drilled produced two and one-half barrels per day. 



81 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF. TEXAS 



the second one was dry and the third produced 
twenty-two barrels per day. 

It is interesting to note that the last well is still 
producing. At that time there were no refineries 
in Texas, nor were there any means by which oil 
products could be handled, so this oil was sold for 
fuel purposes to factories in Dallas, Waxahachie, 
Tyler and other places. 

Some time later, Messrs. Guffey and Galey made 
an offer to Beaton and his associates to buy or sell 
the entire Corsicana field for $30,000. Ralph Beaton, 
Henry Damon, H. W. White, S. W. Johnson, Aaron 
Ferguson and Fred Fleming bought the Guffey- 
Galey, interest. J. S. Cullinan, Pennsylvania oil man, 
was then interested in a plan of developing these 
fields. Beaton and his associates agreed to sell him 
five hundred thousand (.500,000) barrels of oil at 
fifty cents (50c) per barrel, under the condition that 
he would erect the refinery at Corsicana. This re- 
finery was the first oil refinery built west of the 
Mississippi River, and was an outstanding factor 
in the oil development in Texas. 

The local men interested in the Corsicana fields, 
later sold their interests to the company whose 
properties were later secured by the Magnolia 
Petroleum Company. The Magnolia and the Texas 




Navarro County Court House at Corsicann, the County Seat 

Company were the outgrowth of the Corsicana ope- 
rations, and J. S. Cullinan was the leading spirit in 
these two organizations. 

The recent growth of Corsicana in the oil activities 
has been very large. The census of 1920 gave 
Corsicana a population of 11,356. ■ The city now 
claims a population of approximately 20,000 people. 
The business activities, public utilities, educational 
facilities, etc., have increased pro rata with the 
growth of population. 

With the coming of people, additional hotel facili- 
ties and cafes have been established and are doing 
a flourishing business. The transfer facilities have 
also been provided by additional trains from Dallas 
and the oil fields and automobile service with a large 
number of cars has greatly increased. There are 
twenty-four steam trains and thirty interurban 
trains between Corsicana and Dallas. 

Corsicana has been a great freight exchange 
center, as the result of the growing service to and 
from the oil fields. Manufacturing plants have been 
crowded with work and additional ones built. The 
annual factory output is estimated over $15,000,- 
000.00, while the wholesale business is estimated 



over $25,000,000.00 annually and the payroll of the 
city is estimated between four and five millions dol- 
lars. 

Although the oil industry is one of the latest assets 
to Corsicanas business and progress, the city has 
had a conservative and substantial growth and is 




Tlie Y. ^I. C. A. of Corsicana has a Splendid Buildinj5 and 
is Illiberally Supported by the Business Men of the City 

assured a permanent future as an agriculture and 
commercial center. 

Corsicana is the County Seat of Navarro County. 
The County was created from Robinson County in 
1846 and was named for Col. Jose Navarro, then a 
member of the State Senate. In 1849 a large section 
of the County was cut off, out of which the Counties 
of Ellis and Tarrant were formed, reducing Navarro 
County to its present size. Before the sub-division, 
the County Seat was located at Forrest Store, 
twenty-five miles Northwest of Corsicana on 
Chambers Creek and what is now Ellis County. 

The city of Corsicana was laid out in 1849 and is 
one of the oldest cities in the State of Texas. The 
Chamber of Commerce is one of the liveliest organi- 
zations of the city and has done much in advancing 
the interest of the town. Its membership includes 
virtually all of the progressive business men of the 
city. 

One notable fact about the growth and progress 
of Corsicana is that the city has not become the 
victim of confusion like most nearly all boom oil 
fields, but instead has had a sane and conservative 
growth. The city being the largest place in the 
vicinity of the Central Texas oil fields, it has not 
only become the commercial shipping center for this 
district, but a residence of a large number of oil 
men who have either rented or built homes and 




The Carnegie Public Library would be a Credit to any City 
Many Times the Size of Corsicana 

commute to and from the oil fields daily. The city 
has a splendid library, fine schools and a splendid 
Young Men's Christian Association Building and 
other advantages which tend to make Corsicana an 
attractive place in which to live. 



82 



MEXIA, THE CENTRAL TEXAS OIL CITY 

Hy MEXIA (.HAMBKR OF COMMERCK 



MEXIA, is situated in Central Texas, seventy- 
five miles South of Dallas on the Southern 
Pacific and T. B. V. Railroads. It is the 
jobbing center for Central Texas Oil Fields. More 
than thirty large supply houses and Tank Companies, 
with big warehouse facilities are located here. Four 
State Highways enter the city from different direc- 
tions. The city is amply supplied with schools, 
churches and public utilities, including electric lights, 
sewerage, telephone, telegraph, express company, 
etc., and are being extended to keep pace with the un- 
paralleled growth of the city. There are three banks 
brimming over with deposits to take care of the 
financial situation and ample hotel facilities to house 
the permanent residents as well as taking care of 
the transients. 

The average rainfall in Mexia is about thirty 
inches, mien temperature, sixty five degrees, eleva- 
tion five hundred feet. The city has a Commission 
form of Government. It also has municipal water 
works, sewerage system. Public Library, City Hall, 
Chamber of Commerce, five Newspapers and Periodi- 
cals, First Class Hospital as well as an Emergency 
Hospital, and is rapidly increasing, the office facili- 
ties being a number of modern brick office buildings. 

The City has an enterprising and progressive popu- 
lation to join together in the promotion of every 
activity for the welfare and upbuilding of a modern 
city. 

Mexia has made good as an oil city. In the fall 
of 1921, when the newspapers all over the United 
States began publishing stories of 25,000-barrel 
gushers at Mexia, railway agents began to sell 
tickets to the new center of excitement and the 
established population of 3,482 grew almost over 
night to nearly 35,000. Conservative estimates today 
place the number of people at that figure. 

Emerging from the first effects of being over- 
whelmed, the city is now working out a develop- 
ment of civic improvements and public service insti- 
tutions to care for its new citizens. Included in the 
public works are several miles of street paving; a 
$250,000 high school building to supplement the four 
schools already established; a federal post office 
building; an extremely new and adequate water and 
sewerage system; a sanitary organization police and 
law enforcing body second to none, as well as many 
other radical changes in the right direction. 

The oil field two miles west of the city is produc- 
ing around 100,000 barrels of high grade crude oil 
every day. Pay rolls due to this development bring 
approximately $400,000 a week to the city. Seven 



pipe lines will carry the oil away. A number of 
refineries are now building. More than fifty wildcat 
test wells are going down in the county to prove up 
additional territory in addition to the twenty square 
miles already in the producing column. 

Thirty-two lumber yards and more than thirty 
supply houses and tank companies supply drilling 
operations covering an area of several counties in 




Moxia's Depot. The Crowds of .Automobiles and People 

are Indicative of the Buhv Condition of 

this Thriving Oil "Center 

central east Texas. Four large wholesale grocery con- 
cerns operate in Mexia, owning fine brick buildings. 
Every large oil company on the continent is in- 
terested in Mexia. Since the beginning of develop- 
ments, Mexia has built several nice hotels, one three 
story $100,000 hostelry now being owned by J. K. 
Hughes, one of the biggest independent operators in 
the field. 

Mexia is situated on three railroads, one being a 
trunk line, the Southern Pacific. Two state high- 
ways cross Mexia, the county having just completed 
a two million dollar road building program when oil 
was discovered at Mexia. The county is one of the 
leading agriculture and stock raising counties in the 
State. Mexia being a well developed market for all 
kinds of products. 

"Make Mexia a Better Place in Which to Live," 
has been the slogan of the Chamber of Commerce 
since it began to function as the representative com- 
mercial organization of the new oil field city over a 
year ago. All the citizens are working and planning. 
The various civic bodies and city government is 
united in this move and real results can be seen at 
Mexia, where the citizenship is building a clean oil 
city. 

Mexia has many attractions to commend itself for 
a city in which to permanently reside. Civic and 
municipal improvements are rapidly making it a 
more desirable place for a home. 




A Group of O: 



Wells just West of Mexia in an Area of Derricks Nine Miles in Lenj^th 

83 



HISTORY OF MEXIA 

By D. LEON HARP 



MEXIA, the newest and most productive oil 
center of Texas has during the years of 1921 
and 1922 commanded wider attention and 
more activity than any other oil field of the South- 
west. During this period, it has been the mecca for 
oil investors from all parts of the United States 
and nearly all of the large companies have secured 
valuable holdings and much fervent activity has 
been done in the bringing in of new producers. 

The city of Mexia, which claimed less than five 
thousand people in 1920, has in less than two years 
become a metropolitan oil center with upwards of 
twenty-five thousand inhabitants. The oil producticn 
has increased to a volume of approximately two hun- 
dred thousand barrels per day. The many deep tests 
with favorable showing, promise to make this sec- 
tion one of the richest oil communities in the world. 

Mexia is situated in Central East Texas, eighty 
miles south of Dallas, on the Southern Pacific and 
T. & B. V. Railroads, and therefore is a logical job- 
bing center for the Central Texas oil fields, more 
than thirty supply houses and tank companies being 
located here with warehouse facilities. Two hun- 
dred and fifty oil and gas companies have offices 
here, since the discovery of the Mexia oil fields and 
the tremendous growth of the city. Every effort is 
being made by the up to date citizenship to meet 
the urgent demand for office buildings, residences, 
schools, public utilities and other conveniences of a 
modern municipality. 

At this writing there are .$60,000.00 available for 
street paving. The bank deposits on September 1st, 
1921, were $2,500,000.00 while on January 1st, 1922, 
they were $7,.500,000.00. The record of the growth 
and development in Mexia, probably has never been 
surpassed by any oil field in the world. 

A brief review of the oil discovery, and a few 
facts leading up to it, make an interesting chapter 
in the history of the Texas Oil Development. A few 
years ago the Mexia business men and land owners 
were determined to have an oil test made in this 
vicinity They secured leases on several thousand 




The Majestic, Mexia's New .SlOO.Onn.On Hotel, Owned by 
J. K. Huehes and .Tesse Mcl.endon 

acres of land contiguous to the city and made propo- 
sitions to experienced oil drillers to drill a test well. 
John Sheppard, a successful oil driller and pro- 
ducer of Oklahoma, accepted their proposition, which 
was a share in the findings, the driller being re- 
quired to put up a $5,000.00 forfeit that he would 



drill to a depth of 2500 feet. Mr. Sheppard had many 
difficulties to overcome, and became discouraged 
time and again. It was under these circumstances, 
and at this time, that Colonel Humphreys of Denver, 
Colorado, became interested in the Sheppard drill- 
ing contract. A short time later, he assumed the 
entire contract, Sheppard returning to Oklahoma. 




Mexia, the Central Texas Oil Center, as Seen from the 
PuUmen Car 

The drilling of the well was resumed until the 2,500 
feet was reached, and the $5,000.00 forfeit money was 
given to Colonel Humphreys. However, the driller 
on the job had about lost confidence in the hole and 
wired the Colonel in Denver for instructions. Every 
message was answered by the order, "Go deeper." 
On November 1.5th, 1920, the test well produced oil 
and today, there are hundreds of derricks through- 
out the field almost in sight of the original well, and 
hundreds of millions of dollars have been spent in 
the development of the field. Thousands of people 
have been made rich by the great discovery, and its 
effects are felt throughout this whole section of 
Central Texas. Many of the citizens who have been 
fortunate in accumulating wealth, are investing it 
in Mexia and environs. 

In order to take care of this great flow of crude 
oil, many pipe lines had to be constructed. There 
will be seven large pipe lines owned by the leading 
companies to take care of the oil, among which will 
be the Humphreys Line to the Gulf of Mexico. 

In conclusion, it might be said that Mexia is not 
staking its future on a single industry. If all of the 
oil wells should suddenly go dry, Mexia nevertheless 
would have a bright future. In this section of the 
State, the sandy land and the gumbo meet which 
affords a diversity of products difficult to equal. 
The city is a market place for everything grown on a 
farm. About $.35,000.00 in poultry products are 
marketed here annually, while 20,000 bales of cotton 
are shipped from here. The farmers and stock 
raisers who built the town, are not being forgotten 
in the sudden rush for wealth in oil. Efforts are 
being made by the city officials to see that as much 
of the growth of the city as possible is made perma- 
nent. In view of the improvement campaign mapped 
out by the Chamber of Commerce, and the city 
government, Mexia will advance rapidly and become 
one of the leading cities of Central Texas. 



84 



\\ ACO, BUILT IX A PAKK 

){y WACO CHAMBER OF COMMEUt^K 



WACO, the sixth city in population in Texas, 
is situated in the "heart of Texas," and is 
ofttn called "the city with a soul." Many 
years ago a tribe of Indians roaming the great 
Southwest came upon a spot so ideally beautiful 
that they established a village. In time these In- 
dians departed to their final Happy Hunting Ground, 
and they left a site for one of the most picturesque 
cities in Texas. Waco is surrounded on two sides 
by green covered hills and on the other tvi'o sides 
rich rolling plains and the Brazos River, spanned 
by five great bridges, that ripples toward the Gulf 
of Mexico in the shape of a great half-moon. 

Located geographically nearer the center of the 
great Empire of Texas than any other city, Waco 
has made for itself a place which no other city in 
Texas can fill and in consequence entertains an- 
nually many business and other assemblages. 

Over fifty thousand people make Waco their home. 
Eleven railroads and one interurban assure all the 
conveniences of transportation and travel. Two in- 
terurban railroads are now almost ready for con- 
struction. 

Waco has many elegant homes, and miles of 
beautiful residence streets well paved and lined with 
thousands of pretty shade trees. The Bosque River, 
a small stream, flows into the larger Brazos just 
outside the city and furnishes many "old swimming 
holes" and fishing places, and the hundreds of miles 
of McLennan County's paved highway (probably 
the most famous good roads in Texas), make the 
beautiful scenery of the surrounding country easily 
accessible to the city. 

Commercially, Waco has many reasons to be 
proud. Located in the very heart of the great cotton 
producing area of Texas, the greatest cotton state 
in the world, many of the industries of the city 
are naturally akin to cotton and its products. Dur- 
ing the cotton season hundreds of thousands of bales 
of cotton are marketed in and through Waco; cotton 
gins dot the county; in the city is an immense cotton 
compress for making export bales, and cotton oil 
mills which manufacture the by-products of the 
cotton seed. 



Through the untiring efforts of J. M. Penland, 
president of the Waco Drug Company, E. W. 
Marshall of the E. W. Marshall Insurance Company, 
W. G. Lacy, president of the Citizens National 
Bank; W. W. Woodson, vice-president of the First 
National Bank, J. B. Earle, president of the Texas 
Independent Telephone Company, and other promi- 
nent business men, the Waco Chamber of Commerce 
has been made one of the most thoroughly organ- 
ized and active Chambers of Commerce in the South- 
west. During the past four years through the ef- 
forts of these men, Waco has developed its indus- 
tries and wholesale houses and stands ready to wel- 
come more. A million dollar cotton mill and a hun- 
dred and fifty thousand dollar cordage and twine 
are now in force for construction, all fire proof, mod- 
ern buildings. These mills will begin operating in 
January, H(20. 

The agricultural interests of the section are by no 
means confined to cotton, practically all of the crops 
common to the southern and central part of the 
country can be and are grown in Texas. Stock 
raising is becoming yearly a more important in- 
dustry here. There are within a few miles of Waco 
several of the largest fine stock farms in the state. 
Prominent among them are the famous Goodman 
Valley Farm with registered Hereford cattle, 
Shropshire sheep, etc., and Wild Ayre Stock Farm, 
ownt'd by J. W. Mann. The county and city have a 
Chamber of Agriculture under the auspices of the 
Chamber of Commerce, and with a licensed federal 
grain inspector, a licensed cotton classer, cattle in- 
spector and several county agricultural and demon- 
stration agents, the agricultural interests are being 
handled by efficient men. 

A large part of the city's business includes many 
wholesale houses, the geographical location and ex- 
cellent transportation facilities making Waco an ad- 
vantageous location for jobbing houses. Wholesale 
grocery houses, dry goods, hardware, candy and 
many other lines do a large business out of Waco. 

Waco is headquarters for a lai-ge number of cor- 
porations in various lines of business, covering the 
Central Texas territory, and is also the home of a 




A View 



85 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



HI 



number of manufacturing estab- 
lishments. Window sash and 
doors, tents and awnings, candies, 
pickles, rubber tires, overalls and 
numerous other articles are made 
here, including the bottling of a 
high grade ginger ale and other 
soft drinks of a nationwide popu- 
larity. The city is the home of 
several life insurance companies; 
the Amicable Life building is one 
of the prominent "skyscrapers" of 
the South. 

The city has an abundance of 
splendid, healthful artesian water, 
which is an item of importance in 
the Southwest. The climate is dry 
and healthful, and mild in winter; 
snow or severe weather is infre- 
quent; the summers, while long, 
are tempered by the refreshing 
"Gulf breeze" which rises regularly 
in the early evening and makes the 
summer nights pleasant and rest- 
ful. 

Waco's chief claim to distinc- 
tion as a center of Christian culture 
lies in the fact that this is the 
home of Baylor University. Bay- 
lor is the oldest school for higher 
education in Texas, having been 
chartered when Texas was still a 
Republic. Throughout her seventy- 
four years' romantic history she 
has stood for four-square against 
all vagaries of political and ethica 
teaching. While progressing with 
the time and adopting the new 
whenever the new proved to 
have merit, she has main- 
tained her poise, and today 
ni. higher standards of moral 
or intellectual thinking are 
held anywhere than at Bay- 
lor. Green and awkward 
boys and girls enter Baylor 
aimlessly, and after four 
years of the atmosphere 
of culture and refinment 
and altruistic ideals to be 
found there they go out 
as purposeful, well-balanced, 
determined men and women. 

Dr. Brooks, president of the Baylor University, 
is an educator arid statesman favorably known 
throughout the United States, and a man who has 
contributed much to Waco's growth and develop- 
ment. Baylor University and the city of Waco are 
fortunate in having such a man at the head of this 
institution. 

Under Dr. Brooks' administration the University 
has enjoyed a healthy and continuous growth. 
Baylor is particularly fortunate in having an ex- 
ceedingly loyal allumini, both in the business and 
professional world. Many of the ablest and most 
worthy men of Texas received their education and 
had their characters moulded in the scholastic 
halls of Baylor. 

The public school system is one of the best in 







rfiiiSPnijUlii^^^^Hji 
Mil 111! siss 1883" ^miin 



IlllSilllMI 



aa MW\ 



the state. All the grammar schools, 
as well as the high schools, are 
presided over by mature men and 
women who have had wide ex- 
perience in public school work. 
No novices control this most im- 
portant feature of our civic life 
and in the annual graduation from 
Baylor University of a large num- 
ber of splendidly equipped teachers 
give the Waco school board un- 
usual opportunity to select only 
the highest type of teachers for 
the city schools. 

For years Waco has had a shal- 
low oil field and now many deep 
test wells for heavy production are 
being drilled in different parts of 
the county and all within a few 
miles of the city. Many geologists 
are enthusiastic over the prospects, 
and feel assured that there is a 
great oil development future for 
Waco and McLennan County. 

In November of each year a 
unique festival, the Texas Cotton 
Palace Exposition, is opened in 
Waco and continues for two gala 
weeks. During this time Waco 
throws open her doors to entertain 
thousands of visitors from all parts 
of Texas and elsewhere. This past 
year over one hundred thousand 
people passed through the gates. 
The fame of the cotton modeling 
department has reached many 
places, and with agricultural and 
ive stock interests in every form 
and with automobile and 
horse races and the so- 
cial activities, including 
the crowning of a queen 
and the presentation at 
court of over twenty 
duchesses and their maids 
and escorts, chosen from 
cities all over Texas, make 
the exposition a popular 
one, and is considered 
second only to the New 
Orleans Madri Gras in the 
Southwest. 

This is a small attempt 
to describe Waco and 
a few of her advantages. It is a cordial invitation 
to visit this live, growing and prosperous city; 
to meet and mingle with its hospitable people; 
to establish a home in Waco if possible, and share 
in the great and growing prosperity of the south- 
west. A call or an inquiry addressed Secretary- 
Manager of the Waco Chamber of Commerce, will 
receive prompt and courteous attention. 

Under the direction of this live body of business 
men Waco has received much valuable publicity. 
The Chamber of Commerce not only looks after the 
interests of its members but is alert to serve the 
stranger within the city's gates. New interests 
seeking a location here find an invaluable source 
of information and encouragement from this public 
body. 




Amicable Life Building, for Many Years the Tallest 
Office Building in Texas 



86 



HISTORY OF WACO 

By GEO. ROBINSON 

Propriolor of \\'jici) Times IleniUI 




FROM an Indian village 
surrounded by buffa- 
loes and wild horses to 
a modern city with all the 
conveniences known to high- 
est civilization in seventy 
years is the proud boast of 
the city of Waco. 

Early in the year 1849 
Major Geo. B. Erath, who 
had for several years been 
engaged alternately in sur- 
veying land and fighting In- 
dians, was authorized to lay 
off what was then known as 
"Waco Village," which had 
been, prior to the advance 
of white settlers, the home 
of the Waco tribe of Indians, 
a townsite to be called "Lamartine." Major Erath 
protested again the name insisting that the new 
town be christened "Waco." His wishes prevailed. 
The land was a part of the Chambers grant and 
was the property of Jacob de Cordova and .1. S. 
Sydnor, who yielded to the repeated representations 
of Major Erath concerning its location as being 
ideal, topographically, for the building of a great 
city. Accordingly in March, 1849, Major Erath, 
beginning- at Waco Springs, on the west bank of 
the Brazos River surveyed Bridge Street and began 
the sale of lots at five dollars each. 

Captain Shapely P. Ross had removed from Cam- 
eron and was one of the first purchasers of Waco 
property. The territory was then included in Milam 
County, which extended from the old Bexar and 
Nacogdoches road north between the Brazos and 
Colorado Rivers. East Waco was not included in 
the survey, the east side of the river being in what 



was then Robertson County, and belonging to an- 
other land grant. In the year 1850 the county of 
McLennan was organized as it now stands. Major 
Erath furnished the outline of the bill to Colonel 
Geo. E. Burney, then a member of the state legis- 





A Glimpse of the Brazos River Near the City of Waco 



Remarkable View of an .Airwliip Circling the Aniiofll)Ie Life 
Builtliiig of Waco 

lature from Milam County, planning the boundaries 
with a view of Waco, in its center, being the county 
seat. 

The Indians had been driven north, immigration 
was pouring into the state, and Waco's rapid growth 
soon demonstrated its importance as a trade center. 
The town was incorporated under the general law, 
East Waco being included. Flourishing with the 
tide of immigration and the growth of farming and 
stock raising, Waco was preparing to don the 
habiliments of a city when the war between the 
states temporarily checked its progress. That con- 
flict over and its evil con- 
; sequences erased, her peo- 
ple took up the task of 
making Waco the Queen 
City of central Texas. 
Steady progress was made, 
patriotic citizens gave 
their time and money in a 
joint effort to attain that 
position of ascendency to 
which she aspired and 
which seemed assured by 
superior advantages. 

Reorganization of the 
city under a special char- 
ter gave promise of more 
rapid development, and 
for a time the dreams of 
a patriotic citizenship 
seemed certain of realiza- 
tion. But, notwithstand- 
ing the public spirit of the 
people and determined ef- 
forts of those who directed 
public affairs, there was a 
halt, and for a time the big 
town stood practically still, 
powerless to divest itself 



87 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



of an environment that apparently had paralyzed the 
energy and pride of the citizens. 

Then in 1909 the people of the city arose en 
masse and threw off the antiquated system of alder- 
manic government and adopted the commission form. 
The new system worked like a charm. Four busi- 
ness men were drafted by a committee of citizens 
appointed at a mass meeting and announced as can- 
didates for commissioners. They were elected with- 
out opposition. 

Politics adjourned for the time being. Public 
improvements were started and the city soon as- 
sumed a prosperous appearance. Demand for public 
parks became urgent and Mrs. Flora B. Cameron 
and her children presented the city with a tract of 
one hundred acres adjoining the city which was im- 
mediately improved and is now one of the most 
beautiful parks in the South. It was named Cam- 
ereon Park. Other parks followed and the city now 
has twelve and most of them are supplied with play 
ground equipment. 

Lots sold, when the town of Waco was founded, 
for $5.00 each are now worth $2,500 a front foot 
and few of them can be bought for that price. 

The Advent of the Railroad. Waco made no pre- 
tense to rank as a city until she had secured at 
least one railroad. Indeed the town had hardly 
doffed village attire when the Waco and North- 
western, a branch of the Houston and Texas Central, 
was built from Bremond, forty miles south. That 
was in 1871 and from that time the rapid growth of 
the town soon advanced it to the city class. Ten 
years later the Missouri, Kansas and Texas entered 
the state and built through the city giving Waco 
two lines. A few years thereafter the Cotton Belt 
built in from the east and during the early nineties 
the San Antonio and Aransas Pass pushed its way 
up the Brazos Valley on the west side of the river 
and the International and Great Northern, some 
years later came up the valley on the east side. 
Meantime the Texeas Central, an extension of the 
Waco and Northwestern, built its line west to Stam- 
ford and later to Rotan, 225 miles from Waco, thus 
giving the city six separate railroads, all except two 
extending through it and making ten railway out- 
lets. 

Waco's Water Supply. One of the important 
achievements of the city in recent years is the 
acquisition of a water supply which insures an 
abundance of water of purest kind for all time. 
Waco has never suffered for water for all purposes 
and for years her reservoirs have been drawn on 
from other points. The railroads haul water from 
this city by the train load in times of drouth, yet 
there has always been plenty. For years the city 
was supplied from surface wells but later drills 
penetrated a subterranean lake and thermal streams 
of purest water gushed from the earth. As the city 
grew the supply from the artesian wells was in- 
sufficient and resort to surface wells followed but 
to be sure of its purity a $400,000 filter plant was 
erected and is in operation. Thus pure filtered sur- 
face water supplements the artesian supply during 
the dry periods. A decided test of the capacity of 
the Waco water plant came when the army came. 
McArthur was located here and forty thousand 
soldiers were stationed in the outskirts of the city. 
Connections with the city plant was made and abund- 
ance of water was furnished without any appreciable 
diminution of the supply. Not only did the city 
furnish all the water needed by Camp McArthur 



but also supplied Rich field, the big aviation field 
and this water stood the test of government experts 
who pronounced it pure. In addition to maintaining 
a bounteous supply of water for domestic purposes 
and street sprinkling the water plant has installed 
a huge reservoir for emergency in the event of a 
conflagration threatens. The fire department in 
Waco is one of the best in the state. 

The Rebecca Sparks co-operative home is a most 
commendable institution. It is a comfortable home 
for working girls whose salaries do not permit them 
to pay regular board and maintain themselves in 
clothing, etc. This home is under the supervision 
of Miss Black, who is a deaconess of the Methodist 
church. When this home is in need of finance all 
the chui'ches of the city join in taking care of its 
needs. 

The Texas Methodist Orphanage is the pride of 
Waco. It is located on Herring Avenue, one of the 
most attractive paved streets in the city, and occu- 
pies with its buildings and farm thirty-eight acres. 
At present the orphanage is managed by Mr. W. F. 
Barnett and is caring for two hundred children in 
a most excellent way. It is a pleasure to visit there 
and witness the system and co-operation among the 
children and their work. The children are faithfully 
trained in nearly all of the occupations of life so 
that they will know how to begin life as producers 
when they leave the institution. This institution 
is the property of the Methodist Church and was 
promoted and built largely through the labors of 
Rev. W. H. Vaughan and Abe Mulkey. 

Some Political History. Waco is entitled to dis- 
tinction as being the only city in the state that 
has furnished three governors. These are: Richard 
Coke, Lawrence Sullivan Ross and Patrick M. Neff. 
Coke, a leading attorney in the early days was 
elected governor in 1873. He was the first governor 
of Texas after the reconstruction period following 
the war between the states. He was re-elected in 
1876 and in May of that year was elected United 
States senator. He did not relinquish his guber- 
natorial duties, however, until the December follow- 
ing. He served eighteen years, three terms, and re- 
tired voluntarily. As governor. Coke had to contend 
with the bitter partisan spirit engendered by the 
war and reconstruction and displayed rare political 
acumen and executive ability during his term. His 
senatorial career was marked throughout by a high 
order of statesmanship. 

Ross was elected governor in 1886, assumed of- 
ficial duties in January, 1887, was re-elected in 1888 
and served until January, 1891. He was a son of 
Shapely P. Ross who bought the first lot sold after 
Waco was surveyed for a townsite. Trained from 
boyhood to fight Indians he manifested a desire and 
aptitude for a military careeer and was educated 
accordingly. He served with distinction in the Con- 
federate army and emerged with the rank of general. 
His administration as governor was characterized 
by rapid development of the state and remarkable 
improvement in civic conditions. It was during 
his administration that the three million dollar capi- 
tol was built at Austin. 

During the period from Coke's election as gov- 
ernor until Ross retired from the governship Waco 
was the center of political activities in the state 
and her leading citizens wielded a powerful in- 
fluence in state and national affairs. 

Neff was elected governor in November, 1920, and 
assumed official duties early in the year of 1921. 



88 



CniC IMPKO\'EMEXTS OF W AGO 



Hy KD. Mot;rLLOr(Ul 

Ex-NIayor 




u 



OCATED on the Brazos, 
the largest river in 
Texas, about midway 
between its mouth and its 
source, is the beautiful and 
prosperous city of Waco. 
While it is not exactly the 
center geographically of the 
great state, it is about the 
center of that part is evenly 
populated and about the cen- 
ter territorially if you should 
eliminate the staked plains 
and panhandle. The name of 
the original village was se- 
lected by reason of the fact 
that the present site was oc- 
cupied and inhabited by a 
tribe of Indians, when the first white settlers came, 
who called themselves the Huaco tribe. 

There are just five cities in the state, and no more, 
which can claim more population, but there is 
not one which has any advantage over Waco 
as a location for a great inland city. The 
territory in every direction is perfectly adapted 
to agriculture and is being profitably used 
for that purpose. 

Waco can truly boast herself a home city 
because her homes are filled with happy and 
contented people. Many of the families who 
have adopted this for a home city have done 
so not for the reason alone that it is a suitable 
place to make money or get rich, but for 
the principal reason that it has become known 
far and wide for its good schools and colleges, 
and for the wholesome society and atmosphere 
in the homes. These conditions have been the 
causes which have brought to this city an un- 
usual class of people, a high type of citizenry. 
So Waco delights to boast that one of her 
greatest assets is a reputation for happy and in 
telligent homes and a good place to live. 

O n e o f 
the a t - 
tractio n s 
and beau- 
ty spots 
in Waco 
is Baylor 
Uni V e r - 
sity. This 
is one of 
the oldest 
and best 
known ed- 
ucation a 1 
ins t i t u - 
t i o n s in 
the state. 

It is beautifully located in the southern part of 
the city and equipped with several modern brick 
buildings. Under the presidency and management 
of Dr. S. P. Brooks it has progressed systematically 
and today enjoys the endorsement and patronage 
of Waco and Texas. Dr. Brooks is a valuable asset 
to Baylors, and Baylor is a most valuable assets to 



Waco. Many of the leaders in church and state are 
the products of this institution. 

The high school and other public schools in Waco 
rank favorably among such institutions all over the 
South. The public school system of Waco is under 
the superintendency of Mr. B. B. Cobb. The high 
school has been under the excellent control of Mr. 
Genheimer for quite a number of years. 

Paul Quinn College, a most worthy institution for 
the colored people, is doing excellent work under 
the presidency of J. K. Williams. 

St. Mary's convent is one of the oldest and most 
loved institutions among the citizens. It is under 
the management of the Sisters of St. Mary, and 
enjoys a large patronage in Waco and from the com- 
munities around. 

Cameron Park is the beauty spot in Waco. It 
is the largest and most beautiful park in the city 
and many have said the most beautiful park to be 
found anywhere considering the part nature has 
done for its endorsement. As this location was 





McLennan County Court House, Waco 



'ne of the Many Beautiful \\'alks Through Canteron Parks 
Waco 

meant in the plan of creation for the building of a 
great city, so this beauty spot was meant and shaped 
for a beautiful park for this great city. Consist- 
ing of about one hundred acres this park was a gift 
of the Wni. Cameron family to the city. Connected 
with the park is the riverside drive which trails 
the course of the river for a mile. There is not a 
more beautiful driveway to be found than this 
through Cameron park and along Riverside. This 
last was the gift of Mr. and Mrs. Ed. Rotan to the 
city. These two families who made it possible 
for Waco to enjoy these beautiful natural pleasures, 
are among the loved and appreciated pioneer fam- 
ilies of Waco. These gifts live as a monument to 
their philanthropy and an eternal pleasure to the 
people. 

The church life of this city is rated high. It is 
known as a city of churches. All of the leading 
denominations are well represented among the popu- 
lation and a feeling of kindly fellowship exists. 
Several of the new church buildings are of the most 
beautiful architecture and quite an adornment to 
the city. To the great interest the population of 
Waco manifests in church work we attribute in a 
large measure the excellent condition of society in 
our midst. 



89 



FUTURE GROWTH OF WACO 

By A. .T. PETERSON 



^ I \HE future growth of any city must of neces- 

I sity be largely predicted on the past giowth. 
Therefore in commenting on Waco's future 
we must touch briefly on her past. 

Waco is one of the oldest towns in the state. It 
was first settled by the Indians, who came here be- 
cause of its climatic superiority and abundance of 
water. Waco Spring, which is still a land mark, 
was the gathering spot of tha Hauco Indians, from 
whom the city took its name — Waco growing out of 
Hauco. Its growth, like most frontier towns, was 
very slow for many years. It was populated by "old 
timers," whose living was made chiefly from farm- 
ing and trading with transients. For many years 
its population was added to but slowly, after the 
coming of the railroads, its advantage of geograph- 
ical location began to make itself felt and then be- 
gan its importance 
as a city of more 
than one idea. New 
industries began 
coming in, educa- 
tional facilities be- 
c a m e vastly im- 
proved until shortly 
it became a city of 
good homes and a 
most desirable place 
in which to live. 
Baylor University 
grew from a small 
second rate college 
to the big educa- 
tional institution it 
is today — one of the 
largest and best 
e q u i pped universi- 
ties in the South. One of Waco's 

Ten years ago Waco's population was just above 
26,000. As this is written, a recent local census 
shows the population over 52,000 or just double what 
it was ten years ago. 

Its citizenship, awake to its many natural advan- 
tages took on new life and is now reaching out with 
many invitations to new people to come and make 
Waco their home. It is safe to assume that the fu- 
ture with general growth of the Great Southwest, 
and Texas in Particular, will show Waco making 
even greater strides than in the past. 

One of the first questions that enters the mind of 
a man seeking a new home is, "what kind of a place 
is it in which to live." In answering Waco might 
well point to the report of our government when 
establishing Camp McArthur and Rich Field in this 
city during the late war. They reported that health 
conditions as best of all the various camps over the 
country, they reported the water supply as adequate 
to accomodate a city of many times its size, and the 
v/ater to be of the purest. This alone is a reason for 
the future growth of the city. It is a city of homes, 
there being a far greater majority of its citizens 
domiciled in self-owned homes. There are many 
parks in Waco, one of which, Cameron Park, is the 
most beautiful natural park in the State. Its citizens 
are most cordial and new comers are made to know 
that they are welcome in Waco. So much for the 
living conditions in this city. 



Waco, like most cities in Texas, is naturally in- 
clined primarily to agriculture. About it are the 
the famous black land farms of Texas, that yield to 
the farmer such bountiful crops of cotton, corn and 
other small grain. The big ranches are fast becom- 
ing smaller farms, each of which contributes to the 
growth of Waco. 

Many new enterprises such as cotton mills, grain 
elevators and other manufacturers, using the pro- 
ducts at Waco's doors, are coming in and each time 
there is new growth for the city. There is room for 
many other manufacturers and they are seeing the 
natural advantag'es every day, which can only mean 
one thing for Waco, continuous growth. 

The city is the most centrally located of all the 
larger cities of Texas, and is served by many rail 
lines as well as interurbans running in all directions. 

Large wh o 1 e s a 1 e 
grocery houses, dry 
goods houses, drug 
houses and others 
are located in Waco, 
doing capacity busi- 
ness. Many more 
wholesale and job- 
bing houses are 
needed to care for 
the central and west 
Texas business that 
is knocking at 
Waco's doors. This 
condition can not 
last long — many new 
houses are now look- 
ing towards Waco — 
all with the natural 
result that a future 
Fine Residonces growth is assured 

for the city. There are now eight large commercial 
banks in Waco doing about four times the amount of 
business of the banking institutions of ten years ag'o. 
In addition there is one strictly savings bank run 
for and by negroes. 

The educational features of Waco cannot be over- 
looked as a factor towards the future growth of 
Waco. A modern public school system is a sign of 
progressive citizenship, and the system in this city 
is second to none. With a beautifully equipped high 
school and many junior high and ward schools, the 
children of Waco have every facility for a complete 
education. Baylor University, heretofore mentioned, 
will within the next few months, become the benefic- 
iary of over a million dollars, part of which is an 
endowment and a part to be used for immediate 
permanent improvements to this already immense 
institution. Thousands of students gather here an- 
nually, and many make Waco their permanent home. 
It is safe to say that much of Waco's growth during 
the past ten years has been due to the University, 
and safe to assume that it will continue to be a big 
factor, intellectually and otherwise, in the upbuild- 
ing of the city. 

All of these present advantages and activities are 
mentioned merely for the purpose of comparison 
with what Waco was a few years ago. It is not 
natural to believe that a continued growth is as- 
sured ? 









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90 



HOUSTON INDUSTRIES AND OPPORTI NITI1<:S 

liv HOUSTON CIIAMIJEK OF C,OMMEKt;K 



PICTURE to yourself a city of a million souls, a 
city traversed by a net work of transit lines; 
with elevated railways along the principal 

streets and sub- 
ways under the 

Ship Channel; with 

beautiful homes 

stretching over the 

level plains now 

vacant; with hun- 
dreds of industrial 

plants sending 

their volume of 

mingled smoke and 

flare into the sky; 

with ships flying 

between here and 

a 1 1 parts of the 

w o r 1 d — then you 

will visualize the 

Houston of the 

future. T h i s is a 

dream, you say, 

perhaps it is, but 

isn't the Houston 

of today a dream 

compared with the 
Houston of a quar- 
ter of a century 
ago ? Those w h o 
know local history 

will admit that it is. 
In all the history 
of American cities 
there is not a more 
brilliant page than 
that of Houston's 
marvelous growth, 
commercial and in- 
dustrial a d V a nce- 
ment. 

The fundamental 
factor in this 
growth has been 
the ship channel. 
Located on a deep 
water harbor, 
where 18 railways 
meet ocean going 
vessels from all 
ports of the world, 
Houston holds un- 
disputed sway as 
the commercial, in- 
dustrial and finan- 
cial center of the 
great Southwest. 
No other American 
city occupies a 
more favored posi- 
tion. A land locked harbor 




Several of the Principal BuildiniSs of nou.stiin. The Low Buihling in the 
Center is the Administration BuildintS Riee Institute. The Buildings at 
Top and Bottom are Large Office BuildinsSs in the Down Town District 



with 50 miles of water 
frontage for the accomodation of industrials plants, 
with an empire of rich and productive land from 
which to draw her trade, her rapid ascendancy to the 
position of a world port is universally recognized. 

Keen sighted investors, recognizing the superior 
advantages offered by Houston as a great distribut- 



ing point for world markets, are already coming into 
the field and the water front is becoming bordered 
with a multitude of industrial plants. Facts are 

stubborn things, 
and facts will 
prove that no other 
American city can 
show a more rapid 
and substantial in- 
dustrial growth. 

The present 
splendid waterway 
is to have still 
fur t h e r improve- 
ment. Funds have 
been appropriated 
for deepening the 
channel to 30 feet, 
with a width of 200 
feet at the base, 
five and a half mil- 
lion dollars have 
already been spent 
i n improvements, 
and two and a half 
million dollars 
more will be spent 
in the immediate 
future. Nor will the 
work stop when ap- 
propriations now 
available have been 
spent, but improve- 
ment will continue 
until the port is the 
finest on the Amer- 
ican continent. Its 
natural advantages 
are u n d i s p uted. 
The channel is an 
arm of fresh water 
reaching 5 miles 
inland from the 
high seas and af- 
fording safe 
anchorage in time 
of high winds. This 
situation c o n s t i- 
tutes the ideal port. 
The depth will be 
abundant. There 
will be no locks or 
dams necessary. 
The stream is as 
calm as a mountain 
lake, and is bord- 
ered by woodland 
and plain consti- 
tuting an ever- 
changing pan- 
orama view o f scenic beauty. Municipal 
wharves and docks have been constructed at a 
cost of $3,250,000, and this is but the beginning 
of improvements to follow. Private capital is 
now building docks and wharves to serve the 
many industrial plants along the Channel. A 



Municipal Belt Railway connecting the wharves with 



91 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



the 18 railways entering the city of Houston af- 
ford a service for all tonnage received and sent 
through the channel. The turning basin, where 
ships begin their return voyage to the sea is 1100 
leet wide at the top and 1000 feet at the base. Its 
present ruling depth is 2 5 feet. This will soon be 
extended to 30 feet, and the water area materially 
extended. Plans for these improvements have been 
submitted to the United States Board of Engineers, 
and the work will be done along scientific lines. 
There will be no haphazard work, and no exp3riment- 
ing. 

The production of oil in Texas to-day is the mar 
vel of the civilized world. A few years ago, oil 
production in the state was considered negligible. 
Today Texas leads every other state in the American 
Union, according to Government reports, and the in- 
dustry is still in its infancy. The coastal fields are 
new, the territory will not be exhausted for many 
years to come. The markets of Europe are looking 
to Texas for their principal supplies of petroleum 
and its products. 

There are now eighteen refineries located on the 
Ship Channel and in process of location there. These 
great plants will have a daily capacity, when com- 
pleted, of 200,000 barrels of oil. Their crude supply 
will be drawn from pipe lines now serving t^ie 
coastal fields of Texas and Louisiana, and the North 
Texas and Oklahoma fields. Mexican crude petro- 
leum will be brought in tankers from the Tampico 
fields and those in Venezuela and other Central Am- 
erican republics. Oil from Mexico is already being 
shipped to Houston for refining. Terminating on 
the Channel are now one S-inch and three 6-inch pipe 
lines, from the Oklahoma fields. Construction work 
has begun on two more S-inch lines. The present 
daily capacity of 55,000 barrels from Oklahoma 
and North Texas will soon be increased to 116,000. 
One of these new lines will come through the Burk- 
burnett field. Pipe line connections through various 
coastal fields and Oklahoma give a total capacity of 
63,000 barrels of crude oil per day to be refined at 
local refineries. The storage capacity of steel tanks 
in the vicinity of Houston is 4,500,000 barrels. 

Oil Refineries. 

The following oil companies and refineries are 
already located on the channel: 

The Deepwater Refining Company — Magnolia Pe- 
troleum Co., Sinclair Gulf Company, Circle Oil & 
Refining Co., Southern Oil & Refining Co., Empire 
Gas & Fuel Co., La Porte Oil & Refining Co., Rec- 
ord Refining Co., Hoffman Oil & Refining Co., Lou- 
isiana Petroleum Co., The Texas Company (Loading 
Racks), Galena Refining Co., Gulf Pipe Line Co., 
Humble Oil & Refining Co. 

Three additional refineries have settled upon lo- 
cations on the Channel, but have not completed theii' 
negotiations. These refineries will have, when com- 
pleted and in operation, a combined daily capacity of 
200,000 barrels of oil. No other oil refining cen- 
ter in the world will be able to equal this record. 
Public Wharves. 

There are now six public wharves near the turning 
basin. All have been built within the last three 
years and are modern in type and construction. 
They cover a total water frontage of 3 649 lineal 
feet, and a total area of 3 03,634 square feet. 
Freight sheds cover 141,023 feet, with 613,611 
square feet yet to be covered. These wharves are 
provided with municipal railway trackage along the 



water front. Wharf No. 1 has been in operation 
since November 1915. It was the first to be built. 
It is now used to handle the business of the South- 
ern Steamship company's Houston-Philadelphia line 
The wharf is 647 feet long, with a maximum width 
of 165 feet, including the aprons. Including the 
sheds, it covers an area of 76,672 square feet. It 
has railroad tracks at rear and two tracks at front 
apron. The storage shed is of solid concrete and 
fireproof. The four other city wharves are modern 
in every particular. The cotton wharf opposite 
Wharf No. 4, is 800 feet long by 42 feet wide, 
covering an area of 33,600 square feet. The Man- 
chester Wharf, two miles down the channel from 
Wharf No. 1 will, when completed, be 500 feet long, 
with belt railway connection with main line rail 
ways. The money for building this wharf has been 
reserved out of the funds received from Bond sales 
for the purpose of building the wharf. 

The city owns two up-to-date whai'ves, one at 
the foot of Baker street, and the other at the South 
side of Main street. The Baker street wharf is 80 
feet long by 20 feet wide. The Main street whai-f 
is 552 feet long by SO feet wide. The Main street 
wharf contains a storage warehouse 7 feet long 
and 24 feet wide. 

Private Wharves. 

Several private corporations which have purchased 
water frontage for the building of industrial plants 
and oil refineries, have built their own wharves, 
and many more of these are in prospect for the im- 
mediate future. Many of these will be used for 
receiving and sending oil shipments. 
Public Warehouses. 

Plans for making the port a concentration point 
for merchandise and commercial products have been 
scientifically worked out, and a warehouse contain- 
ing more than 5 acres of floor space has already 
been constructed. It is located in the rear of wharf 
No. 4, and built of concrete. Of the floor space 
1SS,543 square feet is reserved for storage purposes. 
It is divided into compartments by concrete walls 
and automatic fire doors, with automatic sprinkler 
system, power circuits and electric lights. Three 
railroad tracks are located between the two wings 
of the building, with two tracks on the outside of the 
east wing. 

Cotton Sheds. 

Immediately to the rear of the SOO foot cotton 
wharf are three cotton sheds, having a total area 
of 2 4 2,898 square feet, with a total storage capacity 
of 30,000 bales of cotton. Each shed is equipped 
with the Fordyce monorail cotton trolley, connecting 
with the wharf, which transports cotton from the 
sheds to the ship's side. Each of these cotton sheds 
is served by two municipal railroad spur tracks 
running alongside the sheds. Three private cotton 
warehouses are located on the channel below the 
turning basin. Cotton is shipped from all sheds and 
docks to the principal markets of the world. 
Public Terminal Facilities. 

Probably the greatest public asset connected with 
the harbor administration is the Municipal Belt 
Railway, owned and operated by the city of Houston. 
This road was built in order that terminal facilities 
of the ship channel might forever remain free from 
private control. Every industry on the channel 
stands on an equal footing as regards to terminal 
privileges. 

The city's terminal railway connects with many 



92 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



industrial plants now in operation, and will eventu- 
ally serve every industry on the channel. The city 
owned railway connects with all the main line rail- 
ways enterinfj Houston. The road already has 12 
miles of trackaKe on the south side of the channel, 
including switch yards capable of accomodating 4 50 
railway cars. On the north side of the channel ths 
Belt line owns 157 miles of switch yards accomodat- 
ing 148 cars. The city owns two 70-ton locomotives 
with which to operate its railway, also a round- 
house, for its locomotives. As shipping on the 
channel increases the belt line terminal will connect 
with all industrial plants there. It is the pub- 
lic's safe-guard against private control of the ter- 
minal facilities of the port. 

Free to the World. 

The Port of Houston is free to the World, no 
charges whatever being made against vessels en- 
tering the harbor. No charges for dockage, wharf- 
age, or berthing are made. This affords ships com- 
ing here a tremendous advantage. The expense of 
maintaining the municipal wharves and docks is 
maintained by the taxpayers of Houston. All other 
South Texas ports, including Galveston, Texas City, 
Beaumont, Port Arthur and Orange, assess port 
charges. So does New Orleans and Mobile. This 
is made possible through municipal ownership and 
control of the port. Charges for piloting vessels up 
the channel are exceedingly reasonable. When a 
vessel has once entered the channel the charge for 
piloting is $2.5 per foot of vessel draft one way. 
Fresh water for ships is supplied by the city at fif- 
teen cents per thousand gallons. 

Other Harbors Not Free. 

Galveston harbor makes the following charges 
against vessels entering her harbor: Vessels of 
2,000 net tons and under 3,000 tons, $12.5; vessels of 
3,000 tons and under 5,000 tons, $150; vessels of 
5,000 tons and over $175. 

New Orleans bases her charges on the gross ton- 
nage of the vessels per day, charging 3 cents per 
ton for the first day and going down a gradual 
scale to one cent per ton for six days of the vessel's 
stay. Charges then cease until the 22nd day, when 
one cent is charged per ton until the 26th day, when 
the scale for the first week again becomes effective. 
The true spirit of Southern hospitality is exemplified 
in the management of Houston's splendid harbor. 
Numerous Industrial Sites. 

There is room on the water front for thousands 
of industrial plants. The distance from the Turning 
Basin to Morgan's Point is 25 miles. The water 
frontage on both sides of the Channel is available for 
building purposes, giving 50 miles of water front- 
age. This land is lower in price than any other 
deep water frontage in America. As industries 
develop the municipal railway will be connected 
with them and the eighteen main line railways that 
radiate in every direction from Houston. 

Steamers are now plying between Houston and 
Philadelphia, and oil tankers bring cargoes from 
the Tampico oil fields of Mexico. The Ward Line 
steamers have applied for the privilege of opening 
a line between Houston and Central American ports. 
The tonnage handled through the port is increasing, 
which the following figures will show: 

Tonnage for 1915 1,721,817 

Tonnage for 1916 1,487,017 

Tonnage for 1917 (handicapped by war) . . 913,572 
Tonnage for 1918 1,735,586 



Ship Building Industry. 

Two ship building plants have been in operation 
on the Ship Channel since August, 1917. They are 
the Universal and the Midland yards. The Universal 
plant has built nine 3,500 ton Ferris type wooden 
ships. The last one to be built under government 
contract will be completed by the end of the present 
month. This yard is now negotiating for ships to 
be built under private contract at the Universal 
plant here. 

The Midland yards have launched eight 3,500 ton 
wooden vessels and two 2,500 ton barges. All these 
ships have been built for the United States Merchant 
Marine. The vessels are being chartered to private 
corporations by the government, and are especially 
desirable for coastwise and South American trade. 
The ships are of the type best suited to coast waters, 
although they are excellent carriers for Trans-At- 
lantic service. 

Considerable interest has been shown in ship 
building as a permanent industry here. Conditions 
are ideal and materials abundant. A local organiza- 
tion has been formed also to build concrete ships 
and barges in the channel. The Gulf district of the 
United States Shipping Board has built a total of 
56 vessels, with a total tonnage of 205,400 during 
the past two years. 

Growth in Population. 

In 1880 Houston was a village of 16,513 inhabi- 
tants. The next decennial psriod showed an increase 
in population of 67 per cent; the next census showed 
an increase of 62 per cent. The period from 1900 
to 1910 showed 79 par cent increase, giving the total 
at 78,800. The present population, based upon city 
directory estimates is 174,000, an increase of 122 
per cent during the ten year period, which ends 
January 1st next. It will be noted that the increase 
during the last ten year period far exceeds that 
of any other period of the past. The greatest in- 
crease has been during the latter part of the 
present ten year period, or since the Houston Ship 
Channel has been open to navigation. It is safe to 
predict that the 1930 census will show more than 
half a million people within the municipal limits of 
Houston. 

Leading Financial Center. 

Houston is the recognized financial center of the 
Southwest. There are sixteen banks and trust com- 
panies operating here, including the Federal Farm 
Land Bank, and an important branch of the Eleventh 
District Federal Reserve Bank. The Federal Re- 
serve Bank Branch was opened last August. The 
Federal Farm Land Bank has been in operation 
for two years. During that time it has made 10,000 
loans on farm properties, aggregating $27,000,000. 
The money represented by these loans has gone into 
farm improvements and the purchase of the farm 
homes for former tenants. The institution has given 
an added stimulus to homebuilding on the land and 
to the development of the agricultural resources of 
the state. 

Houston's annual bank clearings for 1918 were 
$791,351,619. For 1917, bank clearings were $703,- 
657,251. The increase for 1918 was $87,704,368. 

The branch of the Federal Reserve Bank located 
here will facilitate the handling of loans and banks 
in South Texas. The Federal Reserve Bank loans 
its money to banks only, on what is known as "Re- 



93 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



discount" notes. A member's bank takes the note 
of its customer, with security attached, to the Fed- 
eral Reserve Bank and gets Federal Currency, equal 
in amount to the value of the note. This currency 
circulates as money, but is retired from circulation 
when the original note on which it was issued has 
been paid. 

The total capitalization of Houston banks and 
trust companies is $10,000,000 and their total re- 
sources $99,918,207. This figure is expected to reach 
the hundred million mark before the end of the 
present year. 

South's Greatest Cotton Market. 

Houston is the largest inland cotton port in the 
world. This is the shipping point for a million bales 
of cotton per year. This supply is drawn from 
Texas, Oklahoma and parts of Louisiana and Arkan- 
sas. There are eight large cotton compresses lo- 
cated here with a combine'^ storage capacity of 
600,000 bales. Seventy local firms are engaged in 
the cotton trade and ship to all the cotton markets 
of the world. Storage facilities have been provided 
on the Ship Channel also, and the cotton is shipped 
from Houston's wharves to the world's leading mar- 
kets at a tremendous saving in rates over any other 
port. 

Enormous Lumber Trade. 

Houston has lumber trade of more than three 
billion feet per year. This brings an annual revenue 
of $75,000,000. Lumber is shipped to all parts of 
the world. More than a score of large lumber yards 
are located here, drawing- their supplies from their 
own mills, located in the interior of the state. Vast 
timber reserves are still available, and local dealers 
will go into competition with the lumber manufac- 
turers of Europe for building materials to be used 
in rebuilding cities of France and other countries 
of continental Europe. 

South American Trade. 

South and Central American Republics have evi- 
denced a desire to increase their trade relations with 
Texas, and an extension of foreign trade is one of 
the activities of the immediate future of Houston. 
Before the war, American merchants ware handi- 
capped by lack of ships, but the new Merchant Ma- 
rine will meet their problem. The 56 vessels built 
on the Gulf Coast alone, when put into foreign trade 
service through the Houston Ship Channel, will build 
up vast shipping trade with Mexico and the Pan- 
American Republics. The vessels are suited to carry- 
ing all kinds of cargoes, except crude oil, which will 
continue to be shipped in tankers. With an abund- 
ance of raw materials, including fibers and hard- 
woods, from Mexico, South and Central America 
manufacturing plants will be built here to work them 
into finished products and merchandise cargoes sent 
back in exchange. Thus a vast volume of trade 
will be built up. Ships for carrying this trade are 
the first essential, and now the ships are available 
for the first time in our history. 

Growth of Industries. 

No other American city affords such splendid 
facilities for manufacturing. The Ship Channel 
offers cheap factory sites on deep water frontage. 
Fuel is cheap and abundant. There are now 514 
factories of different kinds located here, represent- 
ing an investment of $57,000,000. New factories 
are seeking locations here constantly and the already 
large list is being rapidly increased. The annual 
production of Houston's factories is $75,000,000. 



Educational Institutions. 

Houston has the finest public school system in the 
South. Day and night classes are maintained, the 
latter for the benefit of those who can not attend 
during the day. Rice Institute, a great modern uni- 
versity, represents an endowment of $11,000,000. 
Tuition at Rice Institute is free and there are no 
fees of any kind charged. Houston's scholastic popu- 
lation is approximately 34,000, the largest of any 
other city in Texas. 

The schools of Houston have grown very rapidly 
in recent years, not only in the enrollment but in the 
facilities for taking care of and properly training the 
students. Special care is taken of the physical de- 
velopment and health of the students. Experienced 
Physical Directors are employed to train the dif- 
ferent classes of both boys and girls. Competent 
coaches have created a vast amount of enthusiasm 
among students in the developing of athletic teams 
which have shown up favorably in competition with 
the schools of other cities. Medical inspection of 
school children to thwart any possibility of con- 
tagious diseases are rigidly enforced. Splendid 
equipment is provided in all of the schools for the 
teaching of manual training for the boys, cabinet 
making, the rudiments for mechanical drawings are 
taught by competent teachers. Domestic Science 
departments are installed in the schools for the 
proper training for girls in the fine arts of cooking, 
sewing, housekeeping and all kinds of work which 
will enable them to properly and efficiently manage 
a home. 

Welcome to the World. 

With advantages unsurpassed by any other Amer- 
ican city, a climate that is superb, a water supply 
superior to that of other cities of the country; with 
an empire of rich agricultural lands awaiting the 
settler, Houston extends a welcome to the world to 
join forces with her progressive citizens in building 
on the Houston Ship Channel the greatest city of 
the South. 

Tremendous Rate Savings. 

What advantage does Houston gain over cities that 
have no deep water port in the matter of freight 
rates ? This question has often been asked and the 
following figures will show the comparative all- 
water rates and all-rail rates from Philadelphia to 
Houston, with the saving effected through the Ship 
Channel. The rate saving is based on the 100 pound 
freight unit. Only such commodities as move regu- 
larly between Houston and Philadelphia have been 
used as basis, and the saving applies to other com- 
modities. The saving in rate is as follows: 

Classification. Rail Rate. Water Rate Saving. 

Farm Implements 108 39 69 

Bagging 114 271/2 861/2 

Canned Goods lieVa 32 841/2 

Glassware III1/2 461/2 65 

Iron-Steel IO2I/2 271/2 75 

Machinery 108 46 1/2 61 1/2 

Paints 104 39 65 

Roofing 96y2 32 641/2 

Soap 114 32 82 

A study of this table of comparative rail and 
water rates is exceedingly interesting. For instance, 
the rail rate on soap is three and a half times more 
than the water rate. A tremendous saving is ef- 
fected on every article shown. This is merely an 
index to what a deep water port means to a city like 
Houston. 



94 



HISTORY OF HOUSTON 

By KOY CI. \S'ATSOX 

Houston Post 




I 



TS site selected by its 
founder because of its 
strategic situation at the 
iiead of navigation on Buffalo 
Bayou, Houston was destined 
from its foundation to become 
a great commercial city and 
from the day of its birth it 
has steadily progressed to- 
ward its present position as 
the metropolis of the South- 
ern half of the state and 
second, if not indeed first, in 
population among the cities 
of Texas. 

From the little party of a 
half dozen men who occupied 
four days in laboriously navi- 
gating Buffalo Bayou from 
Harrisburg to the junction of that stream with White 
Oak Bayou at the point opposite what is now the foot 
of Main Street and who laid out and settled Hous- 
ton, te the present population of approximately 165,- 
000, is a far cry, but those men in that boat came 
with the definite purpose of establishing just such 
a city. They had visions of a city equal to what 
Houston is today, and they set about establishing 
and building that city with a faith and courage that 
was remarkable. 

Houston has a marvelous history in that it has 
followed very largely the plans of development laid 
out for it by its founders, A. C. and J. K. Allen, the 
two New York promoters who founded the city, saw 
the advantages of its location and their first ad- 
vertisement of town lots in Houston reads more like 
history than prophecy by realty promoters. For 
once, a promoter's dreams have come true. 

In that first advertisement of Houston, printed 
in the Columbia Telegraph on August 26, 1836, 
shortly after the town had been surveyed, the Allen 
brothers predicted that Houston would necessarily 
become a great trading: and transportational center, 
because it had the advantages of communication 
with foreign countries through the bayou and with 
the interior of the republic by means of the trails. 
They declared that Houston would become the great 
"commercial emporium of Texas," and suggested 
it as the seat of government for the republic. 

The Allen brothers bought the original site of 
Houston, which consisted of half a league granted to 
John Austin and comprised sixty blocks in what is 
now the business district, for the sum of $5,000, 
from Mrs. T. F. L. Parratt. They had tried to buy a 
site at Harrisburg, but were asked exorbitant 
prices, and decided to come further up the bayou 
for a site. 

Gail Borden, who later invented condensed milk, 
made the survey and drew the maps of the new 
townsite in 1836. The streets in the old part of the 
town were given the name they bear now, with two 
or three exceptions, the original Milton street having 
been changed to LaBranch to honor Alcee LaBranch, 
United States Charge de Affairs, who was the first 
minister to announce the recognition of Texas as a 
republic, and Homer being changed to Austin in 
honor of Stephen F. Austin. 



John Allen, who selected the townsite right 
after the battle of San Jacinto, designated a certain 
street Railroad Street, with the expectation that 
some day a railroad would enter the new town. His 
prophecy was literally fulfilled, as the H. & T. C. 
tracks now traverse that street. 

The site for the capitol building was originally 
designated on the map as the block just across from 
the present Rice hotel, but the capitol was actually 
built in 1837, two years after founding of the to^vn, 
on the corner occupied by the eighteen story Rice 
hotel building. The congress of Texas, in session 
at Columbia, December 15, 183G, voted to move the 
capitol of the Republic to Houston and the seat of 
government was actually moved here May 1, 1837, 
and the county seat was moved from Harrisburg 
shortly afterwards. So from its beginning Houston 
has been an important seat of ogovernment. The 
capitol was removed to Austin in 1839. 

The first settlers lived in tents and log shacks, 
but the tow^n grew rapidly. The first hotel was a log 
structure at the corner of Travis and Franklin , the 
site now occupied by the Southern Pacific building, 
and formerly for many years by the Hutchens House, 
a famous hostelry. The Cherokee Indians lived on 
the north side, but never disturbed the Houston 
settlers, as General Houston had been a Cherokee 
chief and they were friendly toward the whites here. 
On occasion they came over from what is now the 
Fifth Ward to confer with the General and to trade. 
A dense forest covered the site and the Allen's 
marked the trees with their knives, which were to 
be felled to clear a path for Main Street, and later 
other streets were cleared. Stumps remained in 
them for years. Showing how Houston has grown 



EC »Blt t I, 

^t ctituii'yit 




Main Street View, in 



the Center of Houston's Business 
District 



along original lines, the Allen's marked block 31 
for the Court House, and the present $500,000 edi- 
fice occupies that block today as have its prede- 
cessors, while the City Hall occupies the block 
marked on the original map as Congress Square. 
There was much fighting, drinking and carousing 
and much crime, but the town prospered and grew 
in spite of the fact that it was an isolated settle- 



95 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



ment in the midst of a dense wilderness hard to 
reach even by water. But being the seat ofgovern- 
ment, and a strategic trading point, people came 
in rapidly. In 1839 there were 3,000 people with 
property values of $2,405,865, which figures seem 
to have been padded, while in 1812 the population 
was 5,000 and in that year 2,460 bales of cotton were 
exported. In 1841 Houston was made a port and 
a long task of improving the bayou for navigation 
was begun. 

The first court house and jail was built in 1837, 
and were log structures and the first legal instru- 
ment recorded was a deed to the lot now occupied 
by the store of William D. Cleveland & Son. Hous- 
ton has had seven successive court houses. 

The city was incorporated in 1837 and the first 
mayor was Dr. Frances Moore, Jr., who was editor 
of the Telegraph, which had been moved to Houston 
from Columbia by the Bordens who had been pub- 
lishing it first at San Felipe and then at Columbia. 
Houston has had a long line of mayors who have 
advanced the interests of the city. The adoption 
of the commission form of government in 1903 under 
Mayor Rice was one of the most notable events in 
the history of the city government. 

The first marriage license issued in Houston was 
by Clark De Witt C. Harris to Hugh McCrory and 
Miss Mary Smith. After Mr. McCrory's death, Mrs. 
McCrory married Dr. Anson Jones, last president of 
the republic, and she died in Houston in 1907. 
Although it was dangerous to be a Mason in terri- 
tory belonging to or adjacent to Mexico, Masonry 
preceded even the churches to Houston and in 1837 
Holland Lodge, the mother of Masonic Lodges in 
Texas, was organized in Houston, and was followed 
in 1839 by the formation of a Temple Lodge. From 
that beginning the Masonic lodge has grown to its 
present great proportions in Texas. 

Preachers gave Houston a wide berth for some 
time after it was founded, no resident minister hav- 
ing been in the city until it had 3,000 population. 
Rev. Littletown Fowler, the noted Methodist pioneer, 
was elected chaplain of the senate in 1837 and paid 
visits to the city frequently. He obtained a gift 
from the Allen's of lots on Texas Avenue between 
Travis and Milan for a church site, and it became 
the location of the Shearn Methodist Church, the 
original Methodist Church in Houston, the forerun- 
ner of the present First Methodist Church and the 
mother of all Houston Methodist churches, of which 
there are now seventeen. The old site is now oc- 
cupied by the Chronicle building and Majestic 
Theatre. 

The Allen's also gave the Presbyterians a site at 
Capitol and Main upon which lot the first Presby- 
terian Church was built, which was the forerunner 
of the Presbyterian churches in the city. 

Christ Episcopal Church was founded in 1839 and 
occupied the site occupied by the present building 
at Texas and Fannin, the First Baptist Church 
was established in 1841 and the first Catholic Church, 
known as the Church of the Annunciation, in 1841. 
New churches have been built, until now there are 
75 churches for whites and a large number for 
negroes in the city. 

There was always a sentiment for education in 
Houston and various private schools were conducted 
until in 1877, when the Houston Academy was fail- 
ing, a public school system was established by the 
city, in spite of strong opposition from those who 



feared public schools would be used for political 
purposes. H. H. Smith was the first superintendent 
of public schools, and he was followed by Superin- 
tendents E. N. Clopper, E. E. Burnett, Foute, J. E. 
Down, W. S. Sutton and P. W. Horn, the latter 
having been in charge since 1902. In 1887 the 
public schools began with 617 white pupils and 
618 negroes or a total of 1,235 pupils, scattered in 
14 small buildings. Today there are 25,000 pupils 
and 650 teachers, with 52 buildings valued at $3,000,- 
000.00. A new $500,000 High School is in course of 
construction to replace the old building burned early 
in 1919. 

Rice Institute, the seventh richest educational in- 
stitution in America, and the gift of the late William 
Morsh Rice, was opened to students in 1912. It has 
an endowment of $10,000,000, which has grown from 
the original fund of $200,000 given by Mr. Rice in 
1891 for the establishment of the school. He grad- 
ually increased his gifts until at the time of his 
death he had placed at the disposal of the board of 
trustees over a million dollars. After the litigation 
over his fortune, the Institute received in all about 
$5,000,000 which has increased its value to its pres- 
ent figure. Work on the buildings which occupy a 
campus of 300 acres three miles west of the Rice Ho- 
tel, was begun in 1910 and the corner stone of the ad- 
ministration building was laid in 1911 on March 2, 
the seventy-fifth anniversary of the Independence of 
Texas. 

Mr. Rice, the founder, came to Houston in 1838, 
conducted a store in a tent, and from that beginning 
built up his enormous fortune by business and in- 
vesting in Texas real estate. 

Houston has a score or more of newspapers in its 
life, the Telegraph running, with a few interruptions, 
from 1837 to 1878 in the city. The two principal pa- 
pers now the Post and the Chronicle, the Post hav- 
ing been established in 1885, by the late J. L. Wat- 
son, who had associated with him. Col. R. M. Johns- 
ton. A paper called the Post had been printed 
from 1880 to 1884, but had suspended before the 
present Post was established. The Chronicle was 
established in 1902 by Marcellus E. Foster. Both 
papers are now housed in magnificent buildings and 
are magnificently equipped. Roy G. Watson, son 
of the founder of the Post, is now PresidentJPub- 
lisher of the Post. 

Railroads early sought to enter Houston, The Gal- 
veston, Harrisburg and San Antonio having been 
planned as early as 1842. The road was completed 
from Harrisburg through Houston to Brazos, a dis- 
tance of 32 miles, by 1852. The G. H. & H. and the 
H. & T. C. were next to come into the city and the 
development continued until Houston has seventeen 
lines of railway and an interurban to Galveston. 
Houston is now one of the greatest railway centers 
of the South, with connections with roads to all 
parts of the continent. 

Street car traffic by means of mule drawn cars 
was inaugurated in Houston in 1870 and in 1890 the 
lines were electrified. Before taking over the Hous- 
ton Heights Line in 1892, the system consisted of 28 
miles of track, which was increased to 35 miles with 
the Heights line. In 1901, Stone & Webster secured 
control and rebuilt the system. There are now more 
than 60 miles of trackage, hundreds of employees 
and a pay roll of half a million annually. In 1911 
Stone & Webster completed the interurban line from 
Houston to Galveston at a cost of $2,000,000, and its 



96 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF Ti:\AS 



trains are in operation hourly between the cities. 

As Houston was selected for its location on Buf- 
falo bayou, so its development has been bound up 
with the development of the stream for navigation, 
first for small boats, and later for ocean going 
steamers. As early as 1841 Houston secured the 
right to be called the Port of Houston and wharves 
were built at the foot of main street for traffic be- 
tween the city of Galveston. Improvements of the 
Bayou began immediately by the pulling of stumps 
and snags and removing obstructions of all sorts. 
In 1869 the Direct Navigation Company was 
formed and began to improve the bayou, initiating 
the work of cutting the channel across Morgan's 
Point. Galveston having declined to grant favor- 
able rates to Charles Morgan, the New Orleans 
steamship king, ho decided to pass up Galveston, 
and buying the controlling interest in the Direct 
Navigation Company, completed the cut at Morgan's 
Point, spent .'JTrjCOOO in deepening the channel to 
Clinton where his .ships docked to take on Cargoes. 
Bills having been introduced in Congress in the sev- 
enties to have the United States to buy the channel, 
the deal was closed in 1892 and Morgan sold out, 
thus opening the channel to the public. In 1910 the 
Government appropriated .$1,500,000 and Houston a 
like amount for deepening the channel to 2.5 feet and 
this work was completed in 1914, while in the pres- 
ent year the government has entered into a similar 
arrangement with Houston to deepen the channel to 
30 feet and another $2,500,000 will be spent on the 
waterway. The city of Houston has spent $.3,000,- 
000 in building modern docks, warehouses, and rail- 
roads and Houston is now an established port with 
regular ship lines. The fondest dream of the pion- 
eers has been fulfilled. 

The ship channel shores have become lined with 
more than $600,000,000. Included are half a dozen 
many individual plants, representing investments of 
giant oil refineries, and a million dollar cotton estab- 
lishment. 

From the first, Houston grew as a business center. 
From the time when ox teams drew cotton to the 
Houston market from as far north as Waco, until 
the present time, cotton has been a chief trade com- 
modity. The cotton exchange was formed in 1874, 
and the building completed in 1884. There are now 
130 members of the exchange and shares sell at 
$5,000 each. Houston handled last year 1,000,000 
bales and more of cotton valued at $160,000,000. It 
has twenty-five ware houses with capacity of 500,000 
bales, and eight compresses. 

In addition to being a cotton center, the exploita- 
tion of Texas Forests has pushed Houston to the 
front as the great lumber center of the Southwest, 
with an annual business of $75,000,000. 

The first bank in Texas was established in Hous- 
ton, the Commercial and Agi'icultural Bank of Texas 
having been chartered by the Congress of Coahuila 
and Texas to S. M. Williams and associates in 1835. 
Its authorized capital was $1,000,000 and $100,000 
was paid up. No more chartered banks operated in 
Texas until after 1870, as there was opposition to 
banks in those days, and the Williams bank finally 
had its charter annulled in 1859. T. W. House and 
B. A. Shepher as early as 1850 had begun private 



banking in Houston and their institutions were the 
forerunners of some of the great banks of today. 
Houston today is one of the the largest banking 
centers in the state, with six National banks with a 
combined capital of $5,900,000, and six State Banks 
with a number of trust companies, the total deposits 
on September 12, of this year reaching approxi- 
mately $77,000,000, and the clearings for the first 
eight months of 1918 totalling $.574,438,033.00. The 
Federal Land Bank for the district is here and it has 
made loans of $27,000,000 since it was established, 
while the Houston branch of the Federal Reserve 
Bank of the Eleventh District was opened in 1-J19. 

Replacing the tents and log huts in which business 
was done in the early days, there are today many 
magfnificent and commodious business houses, some 
2,600 retail firms doing an annual business of nearly 
$100,000,000, while the annual wholesale trade of the 
city reaches almost $1,500,000. 

The era of sky scraper building began in 1907, and 
continues, with contracts now pending' for several 
new buildings. The Rice hotel of 18 stories, the 
Carter building of 17 stories, the Union National 
Bank building of 13 stories, the Scanlan Building of 
13 stories, the Texas Companys building of 12 sto- 
ries are among the tallest structures built within 
the last ten years, but there are numerous other 
buildings ranging from six to ten stories in height. 
The business district has spread south from the orig- 
inal center of business, the old section now being oc- 
cupied by wholesale houses. The city limits have 
been extended, many additions made to the original 
sight and area of the city being now some 16 square 
miles. The assessed valuation of property exceeds 
$300,000,000 and the population, which has doubled 
in every decade since the city was founded is now 
about 105,000, according to conservative estimates. 

If the Allen Brothers could return to look upon 
the community they established they would rejoice 
to see how splendidly their successors have wrought 
to carry out their ideas of making Houston a me- 
tropolis. They would find the little straggling set- 
tlement in the mud on the bayou transformed into a 
great modern busy city, reaching for miles in every 
direction from the bayou landing, with eight or ten 
bridges spanning that bayou, one of which cost 
$500^000 to build, a city with the greatest auditorium 
in the South, churches and schools costing millions, 
miles of paved streets, and elaborate telephone, gas, 
electric light and transportation system. 

Their little trading p3st for which they paid 
$5,000 they would find transformed, just as they in- 
tended, into the cotton, the lumber, the rice, the oil 
and the financial center of the state, and its scores 
of wholesale houses serving the very territory they 
expected Houston to serve. 

Faith in the future has been one of the principal 
factors in all the growth of Houston, and it is a 
striking trait in the present generation. They are 
going on ahead today with plans for a city twice as 
large and they are encouraged by the fact that the 
city is entering upon a new era of development and 
growth. Loyalty, enterprise and visions are still 
the characterisitic of Houston people, who expect to 
make their city, with its port development, the real 
"Chicago of the South", within the coming decade. 



97 



FUTURE OUTLOOK OF HOUSTON 

Bv THE HOUSTON CHRONICLE 



NO Houston essayist has turned out a New- 
Zealand prophet to come back and moralize 
over the ruins of the city in the dim future, 
but every Houstonian has a vivid conception of Hous- 
ton as it is going to be. This conception may not be 
expressed in the language of the classics but it is a 
conception founded in the sincerety of Houston's ex- 
pectations. 

The Houstonian, once started, will paint glorious 
pictures of a great seaport, where mighty railroad 
lines connect with ocean steamships; of vast indus- 
trial community stretching for 30 miles down each 
side of its ship channel, acquired after years of la- 
bor and great expense, and a channel already famous 
nationally; for a back- 
ground of tremendous oil re- 
fineries and great producing 
plants, and finally, of a city 
which, in its civic pride and 
its responsiveness to the 
demands of progress, will 
be a fitting for hundreds of 
thousands of workers who 
will profit by its great in- 
dustrial development. 

This vision of the future 
of Houston has its basis 
in fact, not in the perfervid 
dreams of some rabid press 
agent. Houston is dealing 
in facts, generally, and in 
futures, only insofar as they 
can be seen from the present 
day facts. 

The city is served by a 
great waterway. It is the 
logical railroad center of 
the state. Its renown as a 
cotton market is a byword 
throughout the world. Its 
oil industries are attracting 
wide spread attention. It is 
building rapidly on what it 
has already, and a recital of 
the achievements of the last 
ten years alone would be 
enough to indicate what it will do in the future. 

Already its ship channel is in service. For four 
years coastwise steamers have plied the stream. In 
the fall of 1919 the first Trans-Atlantic vessel is 
scheduled to steam out of the city with a cargo of 
cotton for Liverpool. 

Wherein lies a magical forshadowing of the days 
to come. Houston has already boasted being the 
greatest inland cotton market in the world. Now it 
is ceasing to be "inland." It is sending its own cot- 
ton out through its own port to the four corners of 
the earth. 

On this one staple alone, this crop which means 
more to the hundreds of thousands of farmers of the 
state of Texas than any other single item, Houston 
has enough to build a future. Houston is the natural 
center of distribution for this commodity. Fi'om 
the farthest reaches of the state, direct rail lines 
will rush into port, and from this port it can go to 
the mills of the East, to England, to the Continent. 




The future that is already unfolding in the cotton 
industry is indicative of what Houston may expect in 
other lines. Already, trade commissioners from 
Nicaragua, Porto Rico, and other South and Central 
American Countries, have been dicking with local 
interests with an eye to "getting in on the ground 
floor" or the port of this city. 

Armed with this Channel as an entering wedge 
to the commerce of other great nations and the far 
coasts of this country, Houston Has an equally pow- 
erful weapon of distinction in its rail lines. It is 
admittedly the headquarters of the railroad life of 
the state. The best systems are entered here, sys- 
tems which tap the Brownsville country with its cot- 
ton, its great fruit and truck 
garden plots, that reach 
into the cotton fields of the 
central part of the state, 
that connect up directly 
with the oil producing ter- 
ritory. With admirable 
freight rates, based on a 50 
mile inland seaport's ad- 
vantages, Houston can take 
her place easily as the dis- 
tributing center of the state. 
She claims that place now. 
Future years will demon- 
strate her right to it still 
more. Houston, will, there- 
fore, reap all the benefits 
of a rapidly growing state 
with a magnificently ex- 
panding commerce. 

In the coastal oil fields 
spread out from Houston, 
Goose Creek, Blue Ridge, 
West Columbia, the prin- 
cipal hope of this section in 
petroleum, are only a short 
automobile ride away. 
Great refineries are center- 
ing on the channel. Pipe 
lines are being run to the 
great storage plants which 
follow each other down the 
lines of communication from Houston. Oil tankers 
ply the channel, bringing crude oil from Mexico 
to the refineries here. 

Within 30 days, two new companies have pur- 
chased land along the channel for the purpose of es- 
tablishing refineries. Hardly a company but what 
h represented either in a big refinery or in a land 
option. 

Oil and cotton are not the only household goods 
of the Houstonian. The channel frontage is not 
limited to these industries alone. 

Houston — or rather the port of Houston, has a 
prospective Channel frontage 60 miles, about 30 
miles along each bank of the stream that is the main 
artery of its future growth. On his frontage al- 
ready have been build a great cement plant, many 
oil refineries, an outomobile factory, and numerous 
other manufacturies. 

Hardly a month passes but some industry, small, 
perhaps, but destined to grow, crowds its way in. 
Drugs, clothing, food products, all of these essentials 



UoU-l, Houston, one of the Lar4eMt ami Mos 
Luxuriantly Furnished Hotels in the South 



98 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



of life are manufactured here. Only a few miles 
away is one of the largest sugar refineries in the 
United States. 

These are all actualities. It is inconceivable that 
the future with the rapid development of traffic 
through the port can fail to attract scores of new 
enterprises. Success breeds success. 

Some cities, however, fail to achieve their best 
because they are not prepared for success. They 
are overgrown villages. They do not know what to 
do with themselves. They can not assimilate their 
new growth. They make mistakes that it takes 
decades to overcome. Houston is prepared to guard 
against this. 

The first step that Houston has taken that shows 
the farsighted manner in which it views its future 
has been to acquire a large frontage on the Channel 
for the municipality and begin the construction for 
a vast unity of municipally controlled docks and 
cotton warehouses, to bo open to all on equal terms. 
In the same characteristic way, it has involved 
a comprehensive city building plan. It has made 
arrangements for Parks, boulevards, residence sec- 
tions, industrial communities. 

One of the most significant developments of rec- 
ent years is the preparation by a big oil concern to 
expend $1,000,000 in building a model industrial 
village back of its plant on the channel. Another 
big oil company is undertaking the same type of 
work at Baytown, farther down the stream. 

Other firms will follow these examples. The thing 
will be done well. There will be no useless haphaz- 
ard growth along the old destructive lines. Houston 
is building well. Good substantial business houses, 
structures that attract favorable attention from the 
whole country, are continually going up, here. New 
corporations come, study the field, establish their 
headquarters and "dig in" with fine buildings, to 
stay. 

As a civic entity Houston is working to meet its 
growth. It has developed a public school system 
that serves as the model for systems in cities much 
larger. It has become a convention center. It is 
the amusement center of this territory, and each 
year it is able to back more pretentious musical and 
theatrical offerings. 

Along with this progress, it is rapidly developing 
into one of the real intellectual centers of the Union. 
The Rice Institute, magnificent gift of a former 
Houstonian, in seven years has leaped into the 
front rank of colleges and with practically unlimited 
funds will make this city the cultural center for this 
entire section of the south. 

Small wonder that the Houstonian, telling of the 
future, counts his blessings and asks, "What more 
would you have?" It is only a question of normal 
expansion. 

Streets and bridges are all in good condition, al- 
though little extension work in this department has 
been done recently owing to lack of funds. Street 
maintainance, however, is generally satisfactory. 

Our chief complaint has come from citizens who 
believe that Houston should have an elaborate drain- 
age system for its flood waters. During 1919 the 
rain was unusually heavy and the present drainage 
system was not equal to the task imposed upon it 
by the elements. The city engineer has drafted 
plans for a drainage system that will cost in the 
neighborhood of $7,000,000. Funds for this system 
would have to be raised through the creation of a 



local drainage district and the issuance of bonas 
for drainage purposes. It is up to the people to 
decide. The drainage is needed. It is only a ques- 
tion of finances, notwithstanding the fact that in 
normal years Houston experiences very little difli- 
culty with its drainage. 

Iii October the citizens of Houston voted a special 
school tax of 50 cents on the $100. This tax will 
bring in a revenue of about $7.50,000, which will be 
used in increasing the salaries of teachers and plac- 
ing our public school system on a better basis gen- 
erally. This special fund will release the general 
school fund for municipal purposes, and will enable 
the city to increase salaries in different city de- 
partments where increases are most needed. 

Houston's fire department is giving efficient serv- 
ice, and there is very little loss from fires. Very few 
fires have occurred during the last year which en- 
tailed any considerable loss. This has been due in 
large measure to the prompt action of the fire de- 
partment in meeting every emergency. 

The city owns 10 public parks, ranging in area 
from a few acres each to 250 each. Harman Park 
is the largest and is beautifully located for park 
purposes. All parks have been improved with build- 
ings and playgrounds and are the centers of much 
out door life during the summer months. The series 
of outdoor amusements, games and contests is a 
feature of the outdoor program provided by the city 
government during each summer.. Municipal band 
concerts have been given in the past, and have 
proven a popular attraction for outdoor gatherings 
in our city parks. 

The health of the city is good. It is the custom 
for the citizens of Houston, under the direction of 
the City Health Board each year to hold "clean 
up" campaigns, in which all refuse and decayed mat- 
ter is removed from premises and destroyed. Every 
civic organization in the city takes part in these 
campaigns and the results have been very satis- 
factory. No epidemics of any kind have visited 
Houston the past year. 

The city owns anil operates a municipal market 
w-here it sells fruit and produce at from 12 to 20 
per cent below prevailing retail prices. After charg- 
ing itself with all overhead expenses paid by other 
dealers, it clears from $100 to $200 per week. 

Houston's population is growing very rapidly, the 
estimated increase during the past 10 years being 
120 per cent. Of course the population was swelled 
slightly by the taking in of Houston Heights, but 
the great demand for housing facilities is a sure 
index to a rapid and permanent growth. Notwith- 
standing the fact that the value of building permits 
totaled $4,500,000 from January to October, 1919, 
and most of these were for residence buildings. One 
of the most difficult tasks in Houston today is the 
finding of living quarters for newcomers. Of course 
building operations were practically suspended dur- 
ing the war, which accounts, in part, for the short- 
age in housing facilities. 

Improvement has been made in transportation and 
traffic and a noticeable falling off in accidents is 
the result. Street platforms for the accommodation 
of passengers boarding and alighting from street 
cars have been placed on the principal street inter- 
sections and have proved very successful in handling 
passenger traffic. An ordinance has been passed 
regulating the parking of automobiles in the con- 
jested districts, which will help the situation also. 

99 



HOUSTON'S MUNICIPAL PROGRESS 

Bv A. E. AMERMAX 



EX-Mayor 



HOUSTON has the commission form of Govern- 
ment. The mayor and four city commis- 
sioners are elected by the people and are 
responsible for the City's administration. The Com- 
missioners administer the Fire, Water, Tax and 
Street and Bridge departments, Each Commissioner 
is responsible for the conduct of affairs in his own 
department. The Mayor and four commissioners con- 
stitute the City Council Board and are empowered 
by law to pass and repeal ordinances. 

Houston is growing so rapidly that it is difficult to 
keep up with the municipal needs. Every year we 
must revise our budgets and the call is always for 
more money for taking care of the ever expanding 
needs of the mu- 
nicipality. 

Progress in all 
departments has 
been exceeding- 
ly grat i f y i n g . 
While all calls for 
impro V e m e n t s 
cannot poss i b 1 y 
be met, we have 
every reason to 
feel optimistic. 
There is sound 
satisfaction in the 
knowledge that 
the city is in- 
creasing in 
wealth and popu- 
lation so rapidly 
that it requires 
constant revision 
of statistics. It 
requires expert figuring to be able to plan for im- 
mediate future requirements. It is a source of satis- 
faction, however, that heretofore the garment has 
never been cut too large. Houston has outgrown her 
small garment days, and the budgets that the various 
departments of the city are now placing before the 
Mayor would have staggered him a few years ago, 
yet the increase is necessary. 

During the past year Houston has realized her 
dream of half a century. Since November, fifteen 
ocean-going vessels have been sailing from Hous- 
ton's municipal wharves direct for Liverpool, with 
full cargoes of Texas cotton. This marks the be- 
ginning of an extensive overseas trade through our 
port, which is municipally owned and controlled. 
Other ships have been allocated here for the over- 
seas trade during the year 1920. 

For more than two years regular service has been 
in effect between Houston and Philadelphia. Ves- 
sels of the Southern Steamship Company have been 
making the port regularly, bringing merchandise 
and carrying back to Atlantic seaboard points the 
products of Texas and other southwestern States. 

Improvements of the Houston Ship Channel began 
in 1870, and since that time $.5,.500,000 have been 
spent in deepening and widening the waterway. 
Last May the Harris County Navigation District, 
which includes the City of Houston, voted a bond 
issue of $1,500,000 for further improvements. The 
Federal Government has made an appropriation in- 




creasing the amount of available funds to $3,850,000. 
This will provide a minimum depth of 30 feet and a 
minimum width of 200 feet, and provide sufficient 
water for accomodation of the larger type of ocean 
going vessels, according to estimates of the Board of 
United States Engineers. 

There are now located on the Ship Channel and in 
progress of location 18 oil refineries which will have 
a daily capacity when completed of 200,000 barrels 
of refined products per day. This will make Hous- 
ton the greatest oil refining center in the world. 
Supplies of crude oil are drawn from the Gulf 
Coastal fields and from the North Texas, Louisiana 
and Oklahoma through pipe lines which converge on 

the channel. All 
refining and in- 
dustrial plants 
will eventually be 
connected with 
the eighteen main 
line railways 
which enter Hous- 
ton from all in- 
land points. Work 
on the municipal 
Belt Line Rail- 
way has been pro- 
gressing steadily 
and 18 miles of 
trackage have 
been laid on the 
south side of the 
channel. The city 
owns and controls 
not only its port 
facilities but its 
the 70-ton locomo- 
facilities and rail- 



Tho Fodorat Buildinji, IToustoii 



rail facilities as well. We own 
fives, a round house, and other 
way equipage. 

The ship channel extends from the Gulf of Mexico 
to Houston, a distance of 50 miles. It is 25 miles 
from the municipal port to Galveston bay. The 
channel is built through the bay and on to the Gulf. 

The city has built six wharves. They cover a 
total water frontage of 3649 lineral feet and have a 
total area of 303,034 square feet. All wharves have 
railway trackag-e connections and cargo is easily 
discharged for loading on vessels. Municipal freight 
sheds have been built also and cover 150,000 square 
feet There are also a number of private wharves 
owned by various oil companies. Storage sheds for 
freight have also been provided. The total storage 
capacity for cotton by both municipal and private 
warehouses is 600,000 bales. 

The imperative need at present is greater wharf 
facilities. In addition to the steamship lines now 
operating vessels between our port and other cities, 
three more companies are seeking admission. The 
municipal port director estimates that $1,000,000 are 
required to provide for the immediate extension of 
harbor facilities. 

Sentiment in favor of port commission created 
under authority of law to administer all harbor af- 
fairs is growing, and it is probable that action will 
be recommended to the legislature at some future 
time. 



100 



HOUSTON'S YorxG MEN'S BusiN]-:ss ij<:ague 

Kv S. V. CARTER, JR. 



THEY say that "Youth Must be Served." But in 
the case of the Young Men's Business League, 
"Youth is Serving," and the sole object of its 
serving is Houston. 

There is one popular saying here, that is des- 
criptive of the youthful spirit of the Young Men's 
Business League: "No Order Too Large or Too 
Small." Along with other attributes of youth, the 
Young Men's Business League has enthusiasm; a 
trait that has enabled it to successfully engineer a 
line of undertakings ranging from the sale of crepe 
myrtle trees over the counter of the Chronicle at so 
much per, to setting- the machinery in motion which 
resulted in a complete roundup of Houston houses. 

The membership of the Young .Men's Business 

League is proud of the organization's officers and 
directors. Meetings of the directorate are featured 
by a minimum attendance of 75 per cent. That in- 
dicates unflagging interest. Each meeting results 
in at least one new line of suggested activity. That 
indicates mental fertility. The record of the League 
shows that 100 per cent of the activities officially 
undertaken, are completed. That indicates faith and 
determination. 

Jn most cases the mere mention of the name of an 
officer of the Young Men's Business League, is suf- 
ficient guarantee of high calibre. Here are the men 
who represent the Young Men's Business League in 
an official capacity; 

S. F. Carter, Jr, President; Jas. A. Hall, first vice 
president; R. L. Wright, second vico-pl-esident; 
Mark F. Hathaway, third vice-president, A. P. Todd, 
treasurer, R. S. Allen, general secretary; Burt Rule, 
assistant secretary and director of publicity; Miss 
Lou Stallman, welfare department; Paul Wipprecht, 
agricultural department; J. C. Bailey, R. C. Burrows, 
V. A. Corrigan, W. R. Etie, J. A. Fite, E. A. Hester, 
H. L. Jackson, Robt. M Jolly, Kenneth Krahl, L B. 
McFarland, J. C. McVea, R. M. Morgan, I. R. Palmer, 
A. S. Pimental, F. A. Shaffer, Dr. J. L. Short, J. Di.\- 
ie Smith, W. M. White and W. O. Woods, directors. 
The Young Men's Business League believes that its 
greatest value to the community has been because of 
the virile character of its manpower. A man-power 
that has been available for immediate harnessing 
on very short notice and for any or all worthy un- 
dertakings. 

At the National Good Roads Convention at Min- 
eral Wells last summer, the Young Men's Business 
League accepted the job of directing affairs of the 
Robert E. Lee Trans-Continental Highway Associa- 
tion. At that time the association was in an ex- 
tremely embryonic state. In September 1919, it was 
found that the League had done its work so well, 
that it was possible to call a National Convention at 
Houston and perfect a nationwide organization. 
This was done, and just recently officers of the as- 
sociation have been assured that Washington regards 
the proposed highway as one of the most feasible 
trans-continental routes brought to its attention. 
The highway passes through Houston and South 
Texas, and has for its terminals, Washington, D. C. 
and San Diego, Calif. The day is not for distant 



when this project will be one of the most valuable 
assets of the entire South. 

In conjunction with the manual training depart- 
ments of the city schools, the League completed a 
project which resulted in a street sign for every 
street intersection not marked by public utility com- 
panies of the city. The League has received many 
expressions of commendation in connection with the 
completion of this work. 

Immediately following the Corpus Christi disaster 
the Mayor of Houston asked the Young Men's Busi- 
ness League to collect funds and to purchase and 
ship supplies. Several members of the org-anization 
were sent to the scene as representatives of the 
League and many officers and members were on the 
job for more than a week in Houston. The results 
obtained through the agency of this league, are now 
a matter of public record. 

Through its publicity department, the Young Men's 
Business League has acquired countless numbers of 
persons, both citizens and prospective citizens, with 
the many advantages of Houston. The circulation 
of "Houston" the official magazine of the League in 
eludes a mailing list of 400 persons living out side 
the state. These individuals have been investigated 
and it is known that they are interested in the devel- 
opment of Houston and Harris County. Frequent 
inquiries are received from all parts of the country 
regarding information that has been seen in the 
magazine. The League pays a cash price for every 
copy covering this outside list and it is sent to the 
prospect free of all cost. Under the League's aus- 
pices and at its expense, a sixJreel motion picture 
has been produced exploiting the Houston Ship 
Channel and advertising Houston as an industrial 
center. Efforts are being made to assure the film 
a vv'ide showing over the state and country. 

As a result of a campaign launched by the league, 
$2.5,000 was collected from approximately 2,000 per- 
sons for the establishment of a municipal hospital 
in Houston. It is the will of the people, recently ex- 
pressed that the hospital has been of great benefit to 
the city and should be permanently retained. 

During the latter part of the census driv?, League 
workers went out and obtained several thousand 
names of persons who declared they had not been 
enumerated. Following this demonstration of con- 
ditions, the mayor appointed a representative com- 
mittee of citizens which appointed a special enumera- 
tor who was instructed to make a complete re-check 
of the city. The special enumerator accepted the of- 
fer of the League to use its office for headquarters 
and all the facilities of the organization were ex- 
tended Mr. Charlton in order that Houston might re- 
ceive its just rating in the ranks of Texas cities. 

These are only a few of the recent major accom- 
plishments of the Young Men's Business League. 
During 1920, the League will be constantly on the 
look-out for jobs to tackle that will tend to speed 
the progress of Houston's development. 

The Young Men's Business League unequivocally 
subscribes to its slogan: "For a Bigger and Better 
Houston.' ' 



101 



BEAUMONT, METROPOLIS OF SOUTHEAST TEXAS 

By BEAUMONT CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 



BEAUMONT is a typical southern city of fifty 
thousand inhabitants and has all the con- 
veniences and modern improvements of the 
large cities of the country. Its climate is on a 
parity with that of southern coast resorts with the 
exception that none of the coast storms ever reach 
Beaumont or its environs due to its location. Fifty 




Scene on One of the Priin-.ipjil BujsLncss 
Streets of Beaumont 

miles in land on the Neches River, which is the 
fourth largest river in the United States. 

Approximately one-fifth of the water-borne ton- 
nage of the United States annually passes over the 
Neches-Sabine outlet. Beaum(<nt therefore offers a 
wonderful industiial as well as favorable climate 
opportunity to the tourists or business man who is 
seeking pleasure and business opportunity. 

Business. Beaumont became nationally famous in 
1900 when oil gushers ranging from .500 to 20,000 
barrels were discovered at Spindle Top Field and 
thousands of the country's speculating public came 
and made fortunes. Many hundreds of the pros- 
pectors settled in Beaumont and have since con- 
tributed their part in making it one of the largest 
cities of Texas. 

Outstanding industrial and agricultural enter- 
prises are: Oil, lumber, rice and shipping. One of 
the largest oil refineries in the world is located 
here besides three other large refineries which are 
located in this vicinity, and contribute much to 
Beaumont's daily business. This is the center of the 
lumber and rice industry of Texas and Louisiana. 
The port of Beaumont is firmly established. The 
city owns and operates municipal wharf and dock 
facilities which forever guarantee the shipper, either 
local or foreign, fair port charges. During the fiscal 



year ending June 30th, 361 ships from all parts of 
the world had loaded and unloaded at Port Beaumont. 

Pleasure. Fishing, boating, hunting, motoring, 
golf and surf bathing are available to the pleasure 
seeker in and around Beaumont. On account of the 
extremely pleasant winter climate it is possible for 
one to spend practically every day following his own 
choice of the above named past-times. Ducks, 
geese, quail and other game birds abound in plenty. 
Due to the desire of the rice farmers to limit the 
depradations of these birds, there is no objection to 
any hunter bagging the legal limit each and every 
day he chooses to hunt. In the Big Thicket, within 
twenty miles of Beaumont, famous for bear, turkeys 
and other large game, the old time hunter can find 
plenty of excitement, amusement and exercise. 

Good automobile roads lead in the several direc- 
tions out of Beaumont, there being more than 100 
miles of hard surfaced roads available. One wishing 
to fish can be readily accommodated. The Neches 
River is famous for its fresh water fish and a fifty 
minute ride on the interurban takes one to the open 
sea where tarpon and other big fish can be angled 
for. A splendid country club with first-class golf 
course, where arrangements may be made for the 
visitor and tourist for the use of its facilities, has 
been the means of pleasant past-time to many 
travelers of this section. 




At the Beaumont Dock-s, Loading Siiij^s for 
Distant Markets 

Beaumont's citizenship is hospitable, obliging and 
always ready to render any a.ssistance to its visitors. 
The Chamber of Commerce maintains an especially 
equipped information bureau and offers its entire 
service free to any who ask for it. While Beaumont 
has not generally advertised in the past as a stop- 
ping place for tourists, they nevertheless are coming 
this way in ever increasing numbers. A week or 
several weeks can be both pleasantly and profitably 
spent here. 




GAL\'KSTON, THE TEXAS PORT, GATEWAY OF THE SOUTHWEST 

Hv EDWIN CIIEESBOIJOI'GII 




G 



A L V E S T O N is the 
chief seaport of Texas, 
the largest cotton ex- 
porting port in the world, a 
wholesale distributing point 
and a winter and summer re- 
sort. It has a beautiful, well 
fortified harbor 32 to 50 feet 
deep, thirty up-to-date piers 
and birth room at the docks 
for 100 ocean going vessels. 
It has a modern 10,000 ton 
dry dock, fuel oil station, coal 
elevators and floating bunker 
plants, a powerful wireless 
station, cable communication 
direct with Mexico, four large 

grain elevators and nine high 

density cotton compresses. Galveston's population 
is around 40,000. 

Deep water was procured at Galveston by the 
National Government at the cost of $10,000,000. 
The average yearly business passing over Galves- 
ton's docks is from .$3,000,000 to $450,000,000. 
Exports in 1918-19 were $301,166,702. 

In December 1835 M. B. Menard, recognized as 
the founder of Galveston, purchased of the Repub- 
lic of Texas for the sum of $50,000 one league and 
one labor of land on the East end of Galveston Island 
the site of the present city of Galveston He organ- 
ized the Galveston City Company, April 13, 1836 
and immediately laid out the city. On April 30 
1S3S a public sale of town lots was held. The city 



was incorporated and elected its first mayor and 
Board of Aldermen in March 1S39. 

Up to October 190 2 the City was located on an 
unprotected flat sandy surface with a grade running 
from four to seven feet above mean low tide. On 
an average of once every eleven years the City was 
inundated by storm water from the Gulf of Mexico, 
but the result and damage was always very small. 
The building of a seawall along the Gulf front to 
protect the city from storm wave action was fre- 
quently suggested, but no active steps were taken 
to bring about the desired results. 

On Sept. S, 1900, at a time when Galveston pos- 
sessed a population of 40,000, a great tropical 
storm, originating in the West Indies, struck the 
city with a fury hitherto unbelievable. Approxi- 
mately 5,300 lives and $17,000,000 in property val- 
ues were destroyed. This disaster left the city gov- 
ernment practically bankrupt and many of its mu- 
nicipal improvements in ruins. A grave situation 
faced the city. The people realized fully, that in 
order to restore confidence and to make Galveston 
a safe place in which to reside herculean efforts and 
wise planning was absolutely necessary. Under the 
law, no city or county in Texas can sell or dispose 
of their lands at less than par. Galveston was 
facing a question of civic life or death. 
Four Noted Achievements 

Galveston is credited with having accomplished 
four noted achievements. The Commission Plan of 
City Government, the building of a great Seawall 
and boulevard, the raising of the grade of a large 
part of the city and the erection of a magnificent 




.\l Uul^.•^,l„n, (he CiiU.uuy In 1 lu- ( ireaf" Southwest Kmpirp. Tliu lir.al.'.sl Cell. .11 Slui.phiii I'oi ( oj I he S.,ulh. 

Texas Products are Shipped through this Harbor to all Parts of the World. The Giant Causeway 

in the Center is the Longest Viaduct in the World. 

103 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



all-arched re-inforced concrete causeway two miles 
in length connecting the city with the mainland. 
The Commission Plan of City 
Government 

After the great storm of Sept. 8th, 1900, it was 
suggested that the first step necessaiy to a com- 
plete rehabitation of Galveston, was a thorough re- 
organization of the City government. It was gen- 
erally recognized that an efficienctly managed mu- 
nicipal government has a direct bearing upon the 
growth, development and prosperity of a city, be- 
cause it encourages the people, invites Capital and 
stimulates activity. 

The Galveston Deep Water Committee 

An organization composed of twelve of the lead- 
ing business men of the city, and whose original 
purpose was to work for National aid in securing 
deep water for the port, decided that an application 



Sewerage; Commissioner of Streets and Public Prop- 
erty, and Commissioner of Police and Fii'e Depts. 
The Mayor or any Commissioner can be removed 
from the office for official misconduct, drunken- 
ness or incompetency by a district judge upon a 
proved charge. 

What the new system of City government accom- 
plished for Galveston was indeed remarkable. Its 
success was so marked, that hundreds of cities all 
over the United States have adopted the Commis- 
sion Plan. 

Sea Wall 

One of the first acts of the Board of City Com- 
missioners, was the employment of an engineering 
board composed of General Henry M. Robert, Alfred 
Noble and H. C. Ripley, their duty being to devise 
plans for the protection of the city from the force 
of the waves and currents in the several storms 



i=!=rrrTtxi 









liillhinu in the Surf at (iiilvostoll, (ho AlliiiU ii- ('il v ..f 1 li<- Siiul li. 'I'Ih- ( iiilf \\ al.r 1% I >cliL;lil I'ullv Warm 
and Batl\ors May Stay in tlic Surf all Day and I.ali- int.. tin- .Viiiht W il lioiil lt.<-.>niiMti C'liillod. 



should be made to the state legislature for a new 
charter, designed to benefit the people rather than 
to provide sinecures for politicians: Mr. R. Waverly 
Smith, President of the First National Bank of 
Galveston, a lawyer by training, and who, for four 
years prior to that time has held the office of City 
Attorney, and who was a member of the Deep 
Water Committee, and now its chairman, suggested 
the appointment of a committee from that organ- 
ization to thoroughly revise and rewrite the city 
charter. Accordingly a sub committee of three 
from said organization was appointed, consisting 
of Mr. Smith, Col. Walter Gresham, a lawyer and 
a former member of Congress, and Mr, F. D. Minor, 
a lawyer of high character and splendid ability. 
This subcommittee procured copies of the charters 
of a number of cities, including the law governing 
the city of Washington, D. C, a copy of the act cre- 
ating the taxing commission for Memphis, Tenn., 
and after the great yellow fever epidemic in 1878, 
and a copy of the so-called model charter of Balti- 
more, Md. 

The commission features of the new charter were 
suggested and drawn by Mr. Smith, and the controll- 
ing was the creation of a governing body which 
should conform, as near as possible, to the organ- 
ization of a great business corporation providing the 
duties, sharply defining the responsibilities, and 
through the heads of the various departments, con- 
centrating both power and responsibility. 
Commission Plan in Brief 

The Board of Commissioners of the City of Gal- 
veston is composed of a Mayor, President and four 
Commissioners, all elected to their respective posi- 
tions by the qualified voters of the city at large 
every two years. 

The Mayor or President is the executive head of 
the City Government. The four Commissioners are 
designated as follows: Commissioner of Finances 
and Reserve; Commissioner of Water Works and 



known to occur in the Gulf, and to prevent storm 
water from ever reaching a depth in the city, dan- 
gerous to life and property. To accomplish this ob ■ 
ject the Board of Engineers proposed the building 
of a solid concrete wall and the raising- of the city 
grade to eight feet at Avenue "A", 10 feet at Broad 
way, 12 feet at Avenue "P" and continv.ing this slop'! 
upward to the seawall seventeen feet above mean 
low tide. 

The county of Galveston, of which the city contri- 
butes about 857r of the taxes, agreed to build the 
Seawall at a cost of $1,500,000, issuing 4% bonds 
being purchased by the citizens of Galveston and 
the city, with aid extended by the State of Texas, 
agreed to raise the grade at a cost of $2,000,000, 
the people to pay the expenses incident to the rais- 
ing of their building and other improvements cost- 
ing about $1,000,000 additional. Galveston county 
built 17,592 feet of the Seawall and the United 
States Government built in front of Fort Crockett, 
joining the county seawall, 5 50 6 feet, making a to- 
tal of 2.^,098 feet, or a little over 4 1-3 miles. Work 
on the wall started Oct. 1902 and was completed 
Oct. 18, 1905. The cost of the wall and filling be- 
hind same to the Government was $678,424.00. The 
wall proper is 16 feet wide at the base, is 17 feet 
above mean low tide and is five feet across the top 
It is backed up by sand filling. Adjacent to the 
wall and flush with its top is a cement sidewalk 16 
feet wide, next to the sidewalk is a brick pavement, 
6S feet wide, and adjacent to that is another cement 
sidewalk. These two cement sidewalks with brick 
pa\emeiit in the center is called the "Seawall Boule- 
vard." At a point 200 feet from the wall proper, 
or 100 feet north of the seawall boulevard, a cement 
wall is sunk into the earth five feet deep, its ton 
which is 21 feet above mean low tide being even 
with the ground surface, or four feet higher than 
the seawall. This upward slope of four feet for a 
distance of 200 feet from the seawall causes all 



104 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



storm spray dashing over the seawall on to the 
boulevard to drain back into the Gulf. 

The wall proper is built upon four round 
piling at intervals of four feet. The piling is driven 
down from 4 to 44 feet, penetrating a solid clay 
foundation. A double row of lappor and groved 
sheet piling 24 feet in length extends the entire 
length of the wall under the part nearest the Gulf. 
In front of the wall is an apron of granite and sand- 
stone rip rap 27 feet wide. 

Eastern Extension of Seawall 

The United State Government and Galveston 
County jointly at a cost of $18,000,000 have extended 
the seawall from the Gulf at sixth street to Fort 
San Jacinto a distance of 10,300 feet the County 
paying the cost of 3,3 00 feet and the Government 
paying for 7,000 feet. The Government's part of 
the wall is in front of its own land, some 7 00 acres 
comprising the Fort and the sand flats adjacent 
thereto. This seawall extension not only protects 
the channel of Galveston bay from filling during a 
storm, but also reclaims for commercial purposes 
about 5000 feet of channel frontages w-hich is 
suitable for docks and terminals, also a large acre- 
age of sand flats, also gives the Government a mag- 
nificent site adjacent to Fort San Jacinto for use 
as a camp and drill grounds. 

Raising the City Grade 

Acting under the terms of the new city charter 
on May 15, 1903, Governor S. W. T. Lanham ap- 
pointed J. P. Alvey, John Sealy and E. R. Cheese- 
brough, as a grade raising board, they to manage 
control and direct the work of filling and raising 
the area east of Thirteenth Street and also south 
of Broadway as far west as fortieth street. The 
total sum available for this work was $2,000,000 
represented by 5 per cent City bonds. In order 
to care for the interest and sinking fund on this 



six years. The contractors received $1,961,259, the 
engineering and incidental expenses being less than 
two per cent of the contract price. The contractors 
lost between $300,000 and $400,000 on their con- 
tract. The surface elevation due to the raising of 
the city grade ranges from a few inches to eleven 
feet. The highest known storm water at Galveston 
was a fraction under 12 feet above mean low tide. 
Broadway as raised is 10 feet and the sidewalks 11 
feet and the slope towards the Seawall is upward at 
the rate of one foot in 1500. The downtown sec- 
tion of the city from Broadway north has never 
been raised. This is however in active contemplation. 
The present grade in that area ranges from GM> to 
S feet above mean low tide. During a storm, since 
the building of the seawall, the water appearing on 
the downtown streets backs in from the bay and has 
no damaging force. 

Due to the grade raising all bayous, lakes and 
low places in the western part of the City have 
been filled. Since the beginning of the grade rais- 
ing operations a total of 16,321,400 cubic yards of 
filling has been placed in the city, at the cost of ap- 
proximately $3,000,000. 

The Galveston Causeway 

The Galveston Causeway when completed will 
represent an outlay of $3,000,000 or more. It is 
10,642 feet in length and of which 7S58 is re-in- 
forced concrete arches resting upon a concrete piling- 
foundation. Each arch had a clear span of sixty 
feet. The causeway is sixty-three feet, three inches 
wide, and is devoted to a county roadway, interurban 
and steam railway tracks. It is 14 feet above mean 
tide. The lift bridge has a clear span of 100 feet. 
Galveston County, the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Co., Gal- 
veston, Houston Electric Interurban Co., G. H. & 
H. R. Ry. Co., and the Southern Pacific Railway 
Company, in various proportions, have contributed 




Aliine the Walk al C lalvosliin. Miirdock Halh IIoumn Dal li iai;. Surf and 

the Loft is t lie C'rywtal Bath House. Pluiise and Casino. 



bond issue the State of Texas through legislative 
enactment, contributed the States part of all taxes 
collected in Galveston County for a period of 17 
years and later on increased it to 27 years. The 
Grade raising Board secured the services of Col. 
C. S. Richie, U. S. Engineer, as its consulting en- 
gineer, he to prepare plans, specifications and form 
of contract. The successful bidder was Messrs. 
Goehardt & Bates, the price being IS'-' cents per cu- 
bic yard, to include grading they to dredge a service 
canal through the residence section of the city three 
miles long, eighteen feet deep and two hundred 
feet wide. They to us foreign built, self loading, 
self propelling and discharging hopper dredges to 
take filling from the bay and transport it through 
the canal and discharge it through pipe lines. They 
to remove all buildings in the canal right-of-way, 
and restore them to their original location, after re- 
filling the canal. The raising of the grade started 
July 1904 and was completed in July 1910 or within 



to meet the cost of this structure. The causeway 
was constructed under two contracts. The initial 
contract was let to the A. M. Bladgett Construction 
Company of Kansas City, Mo., July 6, 1909 and on 
August 30 of the same year, the first work was 
actually started, Mr. Linton W. Stubbs, construction 
Engineer, supervised the work. The Arch bridge 
portion was 23 5 8 feet and life bridge 100 feet. 
The balance of the structure was a cement slab, 
protected sand roadway, surfaced with shell. Du- 
ring the storm of August 16,17, 1915, a large part 
of the sand roadway washed out and the cement slabs 
fell in. In rebuilding, it was decided to construct 
the destroyed portion of arches, thus making the en- 
tire causeway an all arched structure. About 5,5 
feet of arch construction, being 79 acres, comprised 
the second contract which was awarded to Larkin & 
Sangster (Inc.) This is one of the largest, if not 
the very largest re-inforced arched concrete struc- 
tures in the world. 



lOS 



HISTORY OF GALVESTON 

By ALEXANDER RUSSELL 

Galveston Tribune 



AS many as half a dozen more or less authentic 
records of the beginning of Galveston have 
been written and after perusing' all of them, 
the reader is permitted the liberty of exercising his 
option as to the one he prefers, for after all, it makes 
little difference as to which of the narratives one 
follows, all of them agree that some time between the 
year 1686 and 1816 the island upon which the city 
is now located, was used by Indians as a hunting and 



In IS 20 Lafitte seized an American ship in Mat- 
agorda Bay and for that act the United States gov- 
ernment sent an armed vessel to break up the ren- 
dezvous. Later in that year Lafitte quit the island 
and made his headquarters at one place or another 
until IS 26 when he is said to have died in Yucatan. 
When Lafitte left Galveston island, it was occupied 
by General Long, who, with a small body of adven- 
turers, had been camped on the Bolivar peninsular. 




Galvez Hotel, the Popular Hostelry of Galveston, Open Throughout the Year. 
Well and Favorably Known to Tourists all Over the World. 



This Hotel is 



fishing resort and designated as rattlesnake island 
because of the number of these reptiles found here. 
In 1816, supposedly on Sept. 12, Don Jose Man- 
uel Herrera, commissioner of the Mexican revolu- 
tionary, or Morelos government, to the United States 
together with Don Luis Aury, a gallant naval of- 
ficer, landed on Galveston island with the purpose 
of making this place their headquarters in their en- 
deavor to wrest Mexico from the Spanish yoke. 
In November the same year. General Francisco Za- 
vier Mena, with 2 00 men and a few small ships 
joined the forces at Galveston and laid out an en- 
campment. Because of disagreements between the 
two leaders, Galveston was abandoned early in 1817, 
being shortly afterwards occupied by the Pirate 
Lafitte whose headquarters at Barrataria Louisi- 
ana, had become untenable. Lafitte held a commis- 
sion as Governor of Texas from the revolutionary 
government of Mexico, and under the flag of that 
government he carried out his piratical practices 
upon Spanish ships, fought with the neighboring 
Indians and added from time to time to the pop- 
ulation of the island. 



the bay from Galveston, and many of the houses 
which had been destroyed by Lafitte were rebuilt 
and occupied. Long became involved in trouble 
with a band of Indians occupying the western end 
of the island and failing in his effort to enlist a suf- 
ficient number of men to assume active operations 
against the Mexican government, the Island was 
gradually abandoned and until 1S32 again became 
a hunting and fishing resort for neighboring tribes 
of red men. 

In the year mentioned, Juan N. Seguin, a Mexi- 
can citizen of the State of Coahuila, was granted a 
league and labor of land on the eastern end of Gal- 
veston island, but did nothing with his grant. In 
the year 1S34, colonel Michael B. Menard, agent and 
purchaser of the grant of Seguin, petitioned the 
Alcade of Liberty Territory to put him in posses 
sion of the one league and labor of land on the 
eastern extremity of Galveston island, and the pe- 
tition was granted. 

After Texas had gained its independence and set 
up business as a republic. Colonel Menard offered 



106 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



the Texas congress $50,000 to make jjood his grant, 
his offer was accepted and from that hour began the 
history of what is now one of the greatest seaports 
of the United States. The city was incorporated 
in March 1S36, John M. Allen being its first mayor. 
The city was planned and ample provision made for 
schools, churches, public buildings and parks. Jusv 
prior to the battle of San Jacinto, which battle gave 
to Texas her independence, the government of the 
republic, forced to flee from its capital at Washing- 
ton by the approach of Santa Anna, made Galveston 
its temporary abiding place. During the time the 
young republic was struggling against Mexico for 
independence, Galveston was the headquarters for 
the Texas Navy, consisting of half a dozen small 
vessels. This navy gave a splendid account of its 
self when ever a Mexican vessel could be found 
willing to engage in battle. 

Galveston furnished adequate complements of men 
and finances to the Texas war for independence and 
to the Southern side in the war between the states 
At the close of the latter war, the population of the 
city was approximately 10,000. The city boasted of 
one railroad 4a miles in length and half a dozen 
wharves at which numerous light draft vessels 
loaded and unloaded, the bar at the entrance of 
the harbor did not permit of vessels drawing more 
than fifteen feet of water to enter. 



have been coming into the harbor and an effort is 
now being made for the government to undertake 
the deepening of the channel and bar to thirty-five 
feet. Illustrative of the wide appreciation of Gal- 
veston as a port, on one day recently there were 
vessels flying fourteen different flags loading or 
unloading at the wharves. 

Galveston's present population is about 40,000 
and everything points to a rapid increase over these 
figures. The storm of 1900, while it gave the city 
a temporary set back, in reality proved to be a 
blessing in disguise for it taught the people a much 
needed lesson and measures were at once taken to 
surround the city with a protecting wall while the 
city itself was elevated, in some places to a height 
of seventeen feet above its old elevation. Then, too 
from the storm and its toll of heavy I'epair expenses 
came the commission form of government by which 
not only Galveston but numerous other communities 
throughout the nation have been able to carry 
on at a much reduced expense and wider satis- 
faction. 

Galveston today holds first place as a cotton ex- 
porting gateway and has entered the field for a 
new record in grain exportation. Elev.-ator facilities 
and side track provisions are ample and if the port 
is supplied with adequate tonnage, Galveston will 
be as noted for handling export grain as she is for 




SeiiyoiiiH W'siNfis at \V li;irv*>s in (lie (.jiiivfHluil lljirljor Takiiiy (Jmyi* Kliruutt.- 
Various American and European Ports 



In the year 1896, after an extended campaign of 
education conducted throughout the west and the 
Middle west, congress made an appropriation for 
the deepening of the harbor and the work was im- 
mediately started. By 187 5 vessels drawing twen- 
ty-five feet of water could enter the harbor and 
year by year since that time deeper draft vessels 



handling outward bound cotton. The taxable val-- 
uation of the city is given at $41,000,000.00 This 
city went over the top in every Liberty bond. Red 
Cross and War Work Activities drive launched du- 
ring the recent war altogether, by the war, deprived 
of her shipping and a large portion of her popu- 
lation. 



107 



AMARILLO, METROPOLIS OF THE PANHANDLi^ 

By BOARD OF CITY DEVELOPMENT 



AMARILLO, the metropolis of the well known 
panhandle country of Texas, with trade area 
of 38 panhandle counties is a modern and 
up-to-date city in every respect, advancing rapidly 
with the growth and development of this prosperous 
section of the state. What is known as the Amarillo 
trade territory, is an area containing 60,000 square 
miles, with a population of 350,000. 

Amarillo was for many years the principal city 
of the great western stock raising district. In the 
days of the open range vast herds of cattle fed 
on the broad prairies and Amarillo was the head- 
quarters of the stock men, who brought their cattle 
here for shipment to the Northern and Eastern 
markets. Although much of the land has been 
brought under cultivation, and grain raised in abund- 
ance, there are still large areas devoted to the cattle 
raising. Although Amarillo has undergone an evolu- 
tion which has made it a modern city, the modern 
improvements, fine business buildings and residences 
equipped with all of the up-to-date appliances of 
other modern cities, it still retains many of the 
traditions of the western range. 




S^S^J _. 




.Aniiiiillii, llir .Milroiiolis of (he Panhimdlf. .\ \iiw of Polk 
Street Lookinj^ South from Fourth 

The principal crops are wheat, which in normal 
years amounts to 20,000,000 bushels, oats, barley 
and rye amount to 10,000,000 bushels, kaffir and 
maize 40,000,000 bushels. An idea of Amarillo as 
a market, may be gained from the shipments of 
products and stock from this city. The average 
shipment of grain over all railroads averages over 
700 cars annually, while live stock shipments, in- 
cluding cattle, horses, hogs and sheep averages 
over 5,000 cars annually. 

The South Plains section has become famous as 
a poultry producing section, while the North Plains 
is one of the gTeatest small grain producing and 
cattle growing areas in the country. 

Bank clearings annually of Amarillo are in excess 
of $300,000,000, while bank deposits are near the 
$10,000,000 mark, while the total bank deposits of 
all panhandle counties are over $60,000,000. The 
1920 census gives this city a population of 15,494, 
while the city directory estimate at this time gives 
it a population of over 18,000. 

The climate of Amarillo has been grossly mis- 
represented and joked about, while as a matter of 
fact, the summer climate is delightful with an aver- 
age mean temperature for the summer months of 
69 degrees. There are, of course, some cold days 



in this section of the state with some snow, but the 
temperature never remains low for any extended 
period, and the average mean temperature for the 
winter months is 43 degrees. The climate is indeed 
healthful and invigorating both winter and summer. 
The discovery of gas twenty-eight miles northwest 
of Amarillo is destined to play an important part 




.ooUi 



Polk Sllr,-(. .\ilKllillii 



in the future history of this city. This gas field is 
fifteen miles in width and twenty miles in length, 
and is probably the largest natural gas field in the 
world. The thirteen producing wells have a total 
daily capacity of 400,000,000 cubic feet, this gas 
serves the city for industrial, commercial and do- 
mestic purposes. It is more than likely that oil 
will also be discovered, inasmuch as many tests are 
now being made by substantial companies. 

There are three grain elevators here with a com- 
bined storage capacity of 700,000 bushels, and one 
flour mill with a capacity of 800 bushels per day. 
Eight wholesale houses have headquarters in 
Amarillo, and about 300 traveling salesmen have 
headquarters here. The volume of wholesale busi- 
ness averages over $20,000,000 annually. There are 
three railroad round houses and shops located in the 
city and up to date business houses of every descrip- 
tion to take care of the g'rowing trade of the pan- 
handle district. 

With the vast area of wealthy productive territory 
surrounding Amarillo the city is sure to become a 




The City Hall of .\niarillo 

wholesale as well as retail commercial center. 
Amarillo is assured a permanent place among the 
commercial and industrial, as well as agricultural 
centers of the Southwest. 



108 



SAN ANTONIO 

By SAN ANTONIO CHAMIJKR OK COMMERCE 



SAN ANTONIO, located on the dividing line be- 
tween what is called the Edwards Plateau (the 
hill country) and the great Coastal Plains, oc- 
cupies a peculiarly strategic position. For this 
cause the location was chosen originally, and the 
development of the country has increased the value 
of the location until today San Antonio is the great- 
est metropolis of the Southwest. 

The population, according to the latest estimate 
of the Research Bureau of the University of Texas, 
is 200,000. More conservative estimates and the 
city directory place it at 175,000. The area of the 
city is 36 square miles or 2,.304 acres. 

San Antonio is the distributing and banking center 
for a great tributary territory, which, although as 
yet only partly developed, yields enormous agri- 
cultural and live stock products. 

The growth of San Antonio having sprung mainly 
from the service it has rendered as distributing 
point, it becomes necessary to consider the trade 
territory served by San Antonio. This trade ter- 
ritory covers fifty-five counties and contains 68,015 
square miles, or 43,529,600 acres. This is an area 
larger by 3,850 square miles than the combined 
areas of Ohio, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Con- 
necticut, Rhode Island and Delaware. 

The population of this territory, based on the 
United States census estimates, is nearly 1,000,000. 
The wholesale business of San Antonio is estimated 
by a committee of business men engaged in this 
line of business at $150,000,000 a year. 

San Antonio is naturally the retail market for 
this tributary territory and also for Mexico, al- 
though this latter business has been diminished by 
reason of the revolutions. The retail trade is esti- 
mated at from $100,000,000 to $125,000,000 a year. 

San Antonio has some of the largest department 
stores in the Southwest and has developed a retail 
market that serves this whole southwest country. 



The military post at San Antonio, known as Fort 
Sam Houston, placed here because of the strategic 
advantages, represents an investment on the part 
of the United States government of between five 
and six million dollars. It is the general head- 
quarters for the Department of the South, head- 
quarters for the quartermasters and commissary 




Alanui Plaza, tlip ITi.sloric Park of San Aiiloiiio. Tn III 
BackcroumI art* Mcrii tlio jManio. on the ]iit;lit, ami 
the 8ai\ .Antonio Post OIFice in the (\'nter 



^ 


L M 




ihijB^S 




5P^«9^ 



One of the Princ-ipal liusiiiess Streets of San Antonio 

The total value of the agricultural products an J 
live stock produced in this area in a normal year, 
according to official figures of the state comptroller 
of Texas, is over $200,000,000. The cotton raised in 
this section is estimated by state experts at 800,000 
bales, with a value of $80,000,000. 

San Antonio is a great live stock, cotton, wool 
and mohair market. 



supplies, the hospital base and the principal aviation 
base of the United States, which includes Kelly 
Fields 1 and 2 and Brooks Fields. With Camp 
Travis, the huge national army cantonment, this 
military establishment housed nearly a hundred 
thousand men during the war. Ordinarily 5,000 or 
more troops are garrisoned here. It is estimated 
that the financial asset to San Antonio of the army 
post is of the value of about $10,000,000 a year. 
The weather in San Antonio during eight months 
of the year is altogether delightful, and although the 
four summer months are warm they have the heat temp- 
ered by the gulf breezes and the nights are cool. 

The winter temperature average is 54 degrees. It is 
possible to live out of doors most of the time, as the 
winter days are generally sunny. 

Spring temperature average is 69 degrees. 
Summer temperature average is 82 degrees. 
Fall temperature average is 70 degrees. 
The climate in San Antonio is favorable to manufac- 
turing, particularly because the mildness of the climate 
makes a saving in the fuel bill necessary to the heating 
of plants. Then again the length of days in the winter is 
greater than in northern latitudes, and there is a saving 
in the lighting cost. The climate being favorable to hu- 
man life, gives greater e'^ciency and a genally happier 
and more contented set of workers. 

Survey of the industries show that the larger factories 
employ approximately 7,000 persons, and the annual out- 
put is about .$35,000,000. The payroll is in the 
neighborhood of $10,000,000. 

Owing to its very delightful and healthful climate, 
which is especially pleasant in the winter season, 
many tourists from the colder northern sections have 
been in the habit of coming to this city. Beginning 
in 1909, when two splendid new modern hotels were 
completed, San Antonio has consciously fostered 
this tourist trade. 



109 



THE FUTURE OF SAN ANTONIO 

By CHAS. S. DIEHL 

Proprietor of San Aiilonio Li^ht 




SAN ANTONIO is one of 
the natural capitals of 
the world. If the United 
States was divided into sep- 
arate sovereignties as con- 
tinental Europe is, San An- 
tonio would be the metropoli- 
tan center of the southwest- 
ern empire as it has always 
been and is now. This is not 
said in derogation of the other 
beautiful and growing com- 
monwealths of the gi-eat 
state of Texas, which cannot 
strictly be rivals of San An- 
tonio, in the commercial 
sense, any more than San 
Antonio can hold any ungen- 
erous rivalry toward her 
sister cities. Each cares for the broad territory in 
which it is located, but the fact remains that San 
Antonio was located and discovered by early Spanish 
discoveries, with the same unerring certainty as 
Rome, Paris, Vienna and Moscow. Its history dates 
back to 1689 as a European settlement. Its missions 
date back to 1700, and as American history runs, 
it represents the seat of the oldest white civiliza- 
tion in the republic. 

What San Antonio was, more than two centuries 
ago, it remains today, the strategic center of that 
one-quarter of the United States lying west of the 
Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, and from 
the Oklahoma line to the Rio Grande. Its strategical 
importance has been such that the battles for the 
control of the great Southwest empire was fought 
on the site of the city, and when the Spaniards were 
finally defeated, and San Antonio became an Amer- 
ican garrison instead of a Spanish garrison, the 
American Republic definitely fixed its southern 
boundary at the Rio Grande. 

It has always been a military town, the same as 
the historic strategic cities of Europe. It has been 
such, for strictly military reasons, and in following 
up the natural historic hypothesis, it has grown with 
the population of the states surrounding it, into 
an ever increasing center of population, trade, and 



wealth. All the natural elements which attracted 
the early settlers from Europe remain with it, tend- 
ing to make it one of the most wholesome, delightful 
and healthful spots for a great city. Its natural 
elevation gives it perfect drainage, its water supply 
from deep flowing wells is unsurpassed in purity and 
volume, its skies are almost perennially blue — all 




The San J<»s*- Min^ioii Ni-wr San Anloiii»t. A Kt'Hc of th<' 
Historic Days of the Spanish Padres 

tending to make it one of the healthiest large cities 
in the world. 

Apart from its ideal location, it is surrounded 
by an empire of tillable land, capable of producing 
large crops, with and without irrigation. The range 
in production can be seen in all the tree, shrub and 
flower forms in her public parks, and in the tilled 
fields. 

The asphalt, oil, gas, mineral, lignite, building and 
road stone deposits have already been developed to 
an extent that insures the great prosperity of the 
capital city of the region, its numerous hot mineral 
baths are already largely patronized, its road sys- 
tem through the high wooded hills to the north and 
west are being extended, while in the city itself 
her public and private schools are possibly larger 
in number than any other city of like size in 
America, insuring the growth of refinement and 
proper appreciation of the artistic among its people. 




A Panoramic View of Business District of San Antonio, the City with an Ideal Climate, Beautiful Parks, Attractive 

Residences and Commodious Hotels. San Antonio is one of the Most Popular Winter Resorts for 

Tourists in the South. One of the Largest Army Posts in the United States is Located Here. 



110 



EL PASO 

By EL PASO CHAMBER OF (X)MMEKCE 



EL PASO'S territory represents 15 per cent of 
the area of the United States and El Paso 
is the distributing- and banking: center of the 
district having a greater area than that comprised 
in the New England States and New York, New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania added for good measure. 

It is the only large city along 2,000 miles of the 
Mexican border, and is the natural meeting point 
for persons interested in mining, trade, transporta- 
tion, live stock, agriculture and manufacturinu:. 

El Paso is the seat of Federal and State Courts, 
National and International commissions, bureaus, 
and is a great center of tourists movement, offer- 
ing unique attraction of instant communication with 
Mexico. 

It has a population of over 80,000 while the popu- 
lation of the territory, exclusive of state of Northern 
Mexico, is 1,050,203. 

The city of El Paso has a modified commission 
form of government; the executive and legislative 
power is vested in a mayor and four aldermen 
elected by the people. The school board consists of 
eight members elected by the people. Promptness 
and clarity of action and heart co-operation char- 
acterize the work of the various municipal depart- 
ments. 

The city of El Paso was chartered in 1873. Popu- 
lation in 1900 was only 15,000. 

El Paso is essentially a city of homes of $18,000 
size. There are probably not over 50 wooden houses. 
All buildings are of reinforced concrete, brick, steel 
and tile. New building investments exceed $3,- 
000,000 per year. 

El Paso has hundreds of homes costing above 
$10,000, and over 50 homes worth .?17,000 to $50,000 
each. 

El Paso's building permits for April, 1919, were 
140 valued at $126,133, against 110 permits in April, 
1918, valued at $59,041, indicating a return to pre- 
war activities. 

El Paso has the lowest fire insurance key-rate of 
Texas of only 20 cents. 

El Paso, an incorporated area of ten square miles, 
with 100 miles of graded streets, over 40 miles of 
paved streets, cost of paving over $2,000,000. Over 
50 miles of asphalt country roads. 

Parks and play grounds cover over 150 acres, valu- 
ation $2,400,000. 

El Paso has municipal water works which can 
supply 16,000,000 gallons daily. The city is now 
using only 6,000,000 gallons daily. Reserve capacity 
is always in excellent condition. The city plant is 
worth $2,000,000. The water is pure, as confirmed 
by recent analysis. 

El Paso has 85 lodges, societies and clubs and a 
public library with over 15,000 volumes; 12 hospitals 
and sanitariums, property valuation of over $3,- 
000,000. 

El Paso has 40 churches, property valuation, 
$1,000,000, and has 13 public schools and 9 private 
ones. Enrollment over 10,000 pupils. Property 
valuation more than $1,000,000. 

El Paso has a state school of mines, branch of the 
University of Texas; a million dollar hotel and many 
smaller but thoroughly modern hotels. 

Climate and Rainfall. Altitude of 3,767 feet; 
climate is equable, mild, but crisp and invigorating 



winters. 329 clear days each year and almost en- 
tirely free from humidity. Near El Paso is Cloud- 
croft, altitude 9,000 feet, which is one of the most 
delightful resorts in the world. El Paso has an 
annual rainfall of 9.84 inches. 

Financial Center. Within this district which we 
term our trade territory there are 190 banks, in- 
cluding El Paso, 70 national banks and 120 state 
banks, with a combined capital and surplus of $21,- 
000,000; and combined deposits of $85,000,000. 95 
per cent of these banks carry accounts in El Paso. 

The yearly volume of outgoing items of banking 
paper between El Paso and her trade territory totals 
$39,000,000 while the yearly volume of incoming 
items of banking paper reaches a total of $110,- 
000,000. The city of Denver, three times the size 
of El Paso, shows only twice this volume. These 
figures do not include the immense volume of bank- 
ing business done by this city with Mexico under 
normal conditions. The northern portion of Mexico 
is one of the richest sections of this continent in 
natural resources. 

The railroads realize the special value of the 
city's location by granting 10 days stop over privi- 
lege under normal conditions. 

El Paso has seven trunk line railroads; five from 
the East, North and West; two from Mexico; 40 
passenger trains arrive and depart from El Paso 
daily. 

The value of shipments made by manufacturers, 
jobbers and firms having stocks in El Paso near a 
total of $25,000,000 annually. 

The annual tonnage represented in these ship- 
ments totals over 800,000,000 pounds. This is on 
freight shipments only. The average freight move- 
ment in El Paso yards is over 2,000 cars per day. 

Trunk lines and feeders penetrate El Paso's trade 
territory in every direction, centering at this great 
Pass of the North. For centuries the great trails 
have centered here, owing to the typography of the 
country and the great railroad systems of today 
find that El Paso is the lowest pass over the Rocky 
Mountains and Continental Divide between the 
equator and the arctic snows. El Paso is the great- 
est trading point south of Denver, between San An- 
tonio and Los Angeles, a distance of 1,500 miles. 

In order to give a clear conception of the trans- 
portation facilities, the following items are pre- 
sented: 

El Paso is 1,250 miles from San Francisco, or a 
running time of 38 hours and 15 minutes; El Paso 
to Kansas City, 27 hours and 30 minutes; El Paso 
to Denver, 24 hours and 30 minutes; El Paso to 
St. Louis, 40 hours; El Paso to Chicago, 42 hours 
and 15 minutes. 

In view of the foregoing figures it is readily 
observed that any point within the trade territory 
can be served with a maximum running time within 
18 hours. 

Industrial Survey. El Paso has 105 local firms 
engaged in manufacturing to some extent for the 
general trade. These figures do not include railroad 
shops, building trades, exclusive repair shops or 
special service shops. In these manufacturing es- 
tablishments a recent survey of labor shows 4,700 
wage earners now employed in the 105 manufactur- 
ing plants. The maximum capacity of these plants 



HI 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



IS approximately 7,500. On a maximum capacity 
of 7,500 labor the annual output is $50,000,000 and 
the payroll is $5,000,000. Capital investment of 
$15,000,000. 

Natural Resources. No. 1. The largest body of 
clear white pine timber in the world is near El Paso 
in Chihuahua, covering an area of 3,500,000 acres 
and affording an outlet of 1,500,000 board feet per 
day for 100 years; two-thirds of this product is to 
be manufactured in El Paso. 

No. 2. Largest body of yellow pine on this con- 
tinent in New Mexico and Arizona, now on forest 
reserve. 

No. 3. Metal mining is the greatest industry of 
the Southwest, copper being the principal product. 
The mines within this territory produce $70,000,000 
worth a year; or more than one-fourth of the 
world's supply. El Paso's smelter itself produces 
one-twentieth of the total American copper product. 

No. 4. Next to copper rank silver and lead, which 
are produced in immense quantities in Northern 
Mexico and pass through the El Paso smelter. Gold 
is also produced west and southwest of El Paso 
and is considerable value. East are the quicksilver 
mines with immense deposits of oil and sulphur in 
the same territory. Iron, zinc, manganese, platinum 
and tungsten. 

No. 5. Salt, potash, plaster and fertilizer exist 
in abundance. 

No. 6. Construction materials, sand, gravel, lime, 
cement, constituancies, tile and brick clay, fine 
marble and building stone. 

No. 7. North of El Paso in New Mexico lie the 
coal fields. This state (New Mexico) has the larg- 
est body of coal of any state west of Illinois. 
Coal ranges from lignite to semi-anthracite, with 
high g'rade domestic and steam coal. 

No. 8. Cotton in Texas, Arizona, New Mexico 
and Mexico producing one-fourth of the world's 
supply of this staple. 

No. 9. Leather, hides, wool, mohair, fertilizer 
from 20,000,000 head of cattle, sheep, goats, horses, 
mules and hogs worth $240,000,000. 

No. 10. Furs and pelts from countless wild ani- 
mals. 

No. 11. Various fibers in unlimited quantities. 

No. 12. Rubber and gum plants. 

No. 13. Cereals for milling. 

No. 14. Vegetables and fruits for canning. 

No. 15. Broom corn, sugar cane and sugar beets. 

No. 16. Mineral springs of all kinds. 

Mexican Trade Relations. Due to the demoral- 
ized conditions in Northern Mexico, proper trade 
relations are difficult, however, a substantial busi- 
ness being done in all lines as emphasized by report 
on exports and imports. 

Amount exported, 1918, for fiscal year ending 
June 1st, 1918, $5,715,442. 

Imports from Mexico through El Paso amounted 
to $2,034,366 for the same period, while the Arizona 
districts show $20,077,045. This difference is readily 
expanded by the operations of the Villistas on the 
railroad lines south of ElPaso. The Chamber of 
Commerce maintains especial department for Mexi- 



can trade and handles all letters and bulletins for 
this territory in Spanish. 

Agricultural Development and Irrigation. The 
total value of agricultural products in El Paso ter- 
ritory is over $16,000,000 with one-fourth of this 
produced in the Rio Grande valley project or $4,- 
237,000. 

The Eelephant Butte Dam project cost over $10,- 
000,000 and is the largest storage of irrigation 
waters in the world, storing fifty per cent more than 
Assouan Dam in Egypt. The reservoir will contain 
862,200,000 gallons of water. 

El Paso has had an interesting and romantic 
history. The name "El Paso" is a Spanish word 
meaning "The Pass." The city is the county seat 
of the county by the same name. The county was 
created from Bexar County in 1850 and was not 
organized until twenty-one years later. By an act 
of the legislature, Culberson County was created 
from a portion of El Paso and more recently Huds- 
peth County was created from a portion of the re- 
mainder, leaving the area of El Paso County but a 
small fraction of its former size. 

The surface of the county is generally mountain- 
ous, broken up and traversed by many canyons and 
valleys. A good portion of the county is given to 
grazing. Many thousands of acres along the Rio 
Grande where irrigation is possible is devoted to 
intense cultivation and is extremely productive. The 
Elephant Butte Dam was built by the Government, 
irrigating an area of fifty thousand acres North of 
El Paso. In the irrigated districts, much of the land 
is devoted to raising fruit. Some of the finest 
grapes in the United States are raised here. Large 
orchards of peaches, pears, plums and apricots are 
cultivated. 'The dairy industry of El Paso has also 
made rapid strides. 

The mountains in the near vicinity of El Paso are 
rich with mineral deposits. There are rich quarries 
of marble and granite. Copper and silver are mined 
in the Quitman Mountains. Lead and zinc are also 
mined in paying quantities. There is also some gold 
mined in this district and there are deposits of iron 
and coal in unlimited quantities. 

One of the most valuable attributes to El Paso, is 
her delightful climate the year round. At an altitude 
of 3762 feet, the air is dry and vigorous and the city 
is becoming famed as a health resort. There are 
many delightful features of El Paso as a health re- 
storing rendezvous. 

Situated on the Rio Grande river, there are many 
beautiful drives that are rich with scenic beauties. 
To a person who is not fond of outdoor sports, such 
as hunting and fishing, there are many attractive 
trips into the city of Mexico. Pishing game is found 
in abundance. Across the border lies the Mexican 
town of Juarez, where thousands of tourists, enroute 
from coast to coast, visit monthly and enjoy the 
Bohemian atmosphere of this Mexican Pueblo. 

El Paso is provided with many luxurious and com- 
modious hotels, with prices to suit the taste of the 
guests. El Paso is a great railroad center. All 
traffic passing from Texas and all other Southern 
States enroute for the west must pass through this 
city. 



112 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



ABBOTT— Hill County; pop., 1,196; on M. K. & 
T. Ry. and Waco-Dallas Interurban, 10 miles south 
of Hillsboro the county seat. Bank, Guaranty State. 
Industry, cotton. Express. 

ABERNATHY— Hale County; pop., 200; on P. & 
N. T. Ry., 31 miles from Plainview the county seat. 
Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ABILENE— Taylor County seat; pop., 10,274; on 
T. & P. and W. V. and A. & S. Rys., 161 miles west 
of Ft. Worth. Alt., 1,738 ft. Banks, Citizen's Nat "1 
Farmers' and Merchants' Natl., First State and the 
Guaranty State Bank. Hotels, Commercial, Grace 
and Grand Central. Newspapers, Daily Reporter 
and Semi-weekly Reporter. Modern city with street 
railway, paved streets and modern public utilities. 
Institutions, State Epileptic Colony, Simmons Col- 
lege, Abilene Christian College, Cooper's School 
for Boys, public schools and libraries. Industries, 
cotton, cottonseed products, live stock and produce. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

ACME — Hardeman County; pop., 500; on the Ft. 
W. & D. and Q. A. & P. Rys., 5 miles northwest of 
Quanah, the county seat and banking point. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

ADDISON— Dallas County; pop., 40; on St. L. & 
S. W. Ry., 14 miles from Dallas, the county seat. 
Bank, Addison State Bank. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ALAMO— Hidalgo County; pop., 300. Bank, First 
State. 

ALBA— Wood County; pop., 1,352; on M. K. & T. 
Ry., 10 miles west of Quitman, the county seat. 
Banks, Alba Natl, and First State. Hotels, Central 
and Commercial. Weekly newspaper, The News. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

ALBANY— Shackelford County seat; pop., 1,469; 
on T. C. Ry., 33 miles northwest of Cisco. Alt., 1,429 
feet. Banks, Albany Natl, and First Natl. Hotels, 
City, Commercial and Sackett. Weekly newspaper. 
The News. Has preparatory boarding school and 
public school. Industry, cotton. Tel., W. U. Express 
ALEDO— Parker County; pop., 360; on T. P. Ry., 
14 miles east of Weatherford, the county seat. 
Bank, Citizens Bank. Industry, cotton, live stock 
and grain. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ALEXANDER— Erath County; pop., 381; on S. N. 
& S. T. and T. C. Rys., 13 miles south of Stephen- 
ville, the county seat. Bank, Alexander State. In- 
dustry, cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ALICE— Jim Wells County seat; pop., 1,880; lo- 
cated at the junction of the T. M. & S. A. and A. 
P. Rys., 43 miles west of Corpus Christi. Alt., 209 
feet. Banks, Alice State & Trust Co. and Citizens 
State. Hotels, Commercial. Weekly newspapers, 
The Echo and The News. Industries, stock raising, 
dairying, cotton, corn and trucking. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

ALLEN— Collin County; pop., 500; on H. & T. C. 
Ry. and Sherman-Dallas Interurban, 8 miles south 
of McKinney, the county seat. Bank, First Nat'l. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

ALMA— Ellis County; pop., 250; on H. & T. C. 
Ry., 17 miles east of Waxahachie, the county seat. 
Bank, Alma State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ALPINE — Brewster County seat; pop., 1,200; on 
G. H. & S. A. and E. C. M. & O. Rys. Alt. 4,482 ft. 
Banks, Alpine State and First Nat'l. Hotels, Bell, 
City, Garnett and Holland Industries, stock raising. 

Note — Populations from 1920 Census. 121 



quick silver mines. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ALTA LOMA — Galveston County; pop., 400; on 
G. C. & S. F. Ry., 18 miles west of Galveston, the • 
county seat. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

ALTO— Cherokee County; pop., 1,081; on St. L. S. 
W. Ry., 12 miles southeast of Rusk. Alt., 442 ft. 
Banks, Alto State, Continental State. Hotels, Alto 
and Moore. Has a weekly newspaper. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

ALTOGA— Collin County; pop., 150; 10 miles 
from McKinney, the county seat and shipping point. 
Bank, -A.ltoga State. 

ALVARADO — Johnson County; pop., 1,284; on 
G. C. & S. F. and M. K. & T. Rys., 12 miles east of 
Cleburne, the county seat. Alt., 442 ft. Banks, 
Alvarado State and First Natl. Hotel, Commercial. 
Weekly newspaper, The Bulletin. Industries, cotton 
and grain. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ALVIN — Brazoria County; pop., 1,519; on G. C. 
& S. Fe, T. & B. V. and the Frisco Rys., 20 miles 
northeast of Angleton, the county seat. Alt., 49 ft. 
Banks, Alvin State and Farmers State. Hotels, 
Alvin and Reynolds. Two weekly newspapers. Sun 
and Advocate. Industries, cotton, fruit and vege- 
tables. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ALVORD— Wise County; pop., 1,376; on Ft. W. 
& D. Ry., 12 miles northwest of Decatur, the county 
seat. Alt., 860 ft. Bank, Alvord State. Hotels, 
Boon, Hatchett and Sturdy. Newspaper, the Alvord 
News. Industries, cotton, fruit and truck. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

AMARILLO — Potter County seat and capital of 
the Pan Handle; pop., 15,494. Commercial and dis- 
tributing center for the Pan Handle. On Ft. W. & 
D., the P. & N. T., the S. P. R. R. of Tex., and the 
C. R. I. & G. R. Rys., all four of which centering 
here, with freight terminals, roundhouses, shops, 
etc., make it the principal railroad point between 
Kansas City and Rio Grande. 622 miles from Gal- 
veston and 1,043 miles southwest of Chicago. Alt., 
3,691 ft. Banks, Amarillo Bank & Trust Co., Am. 
Natl., City Natl., First Natl., Guaranty State, Natl. 
Bank of Commerce and the Amarillo Clearing House 
Association. Hotels, Amarillo, Denver, Elk, Elm- 
hirst, Giles, Magnolia and Oriental. Two news- 
papers. A modern city with modern public utilities. 
Government maintains a weather station here. In- 
dustries, farms and ranches. Tel. W. U. Express. 
AMBROSE— Grayson County; pop., 50; on M. K. 
& T. Ry., 18 miles from Sherman. Bank, Farmers' 
Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

AMMANNSVILLE— Fayette County; pop., 300, 
Bank, Ammannsville State. Weimar, P. O. 

ANAHUAC — Chambers County seat; pop., 500; 
on Galveston Bay, 48 miles from Galveston. Bank, 
Chambers County State Bank. Hotels, Anahuac and 
Clove. 

ANDERSON— Grimes County Seat; pop., 600; on 
the Madison branch of the I. & G. N. Ry., 11 miles 
north of Navasota, the principal town in the county. 
Banks, First Natl, and Guaranty State. Industries, 
cotton and lumber. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ANDREWS— Andrews County Seat; pop., 200; 40 
miles northwest of Midland, nearest shipping point. 
Bank, Andrews State. Weekly newspaper, Andrews 
County Times. Telephone connection. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



ANGLETON— Brazoria County seat; pop., 1,043; 
on the St. L. B. & M. and the H. & B. V. Rys., 44 
miles southwest of Houston. Banks, Ang-leton State 
and Brazoria State. Hotels, Angleton, Delaney, 
Phillips. Alt., 56 ft. Newspaper, The Times. Tel. 
• W. U. Express. 

ANNA — Collin County; pop., 538; on interurban 
and H. & T. C. Ry., 11 miles north of McKinney, the 
county seat. Bank, Collin County State. News- 
paper, The Advance. Industries, cotton and alfalfa. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

ANNONA— Red River County; pop., 500. Alt., 
370 ft. On T. & P. Ry., 53 miles northwest of Tex- 
arkana. Banks, First Natl., First State and Russell 
Exchange. Hotel, Gaines. Weekly newspaper. The 
Annona News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ANSON — Jones County seat; pop., 1,425. Alt., 
1,500 ft. On W. V. and the A. & S. Rys., 14 miles 
south of Stamford. Banks, Anson State and First 
Natl. Hotels, Culver, Sanders and Vietch. News- 
paper, The Western Enterprise. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

ANTELOPE—Jack County; pup., 500; 24 miles 
from Jacksboro, the county seat, and 16 from Jer- 
myn, the nearest banking and shipping point. Stage 
daily to Jacksboro. 

APPLEBY^Nacogdoches County; pop., 500; on 
the H. E. and W. T. Ry., 6 miles northeast of 
Nacogdoches. Bank, Appleby State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

APPLE SPRINGS— Trinity County; pop., 150; on 
G. L. & N. Ry., 15 miles from Groveton, the county 
seat. Bank, First State. Express. 

AQUILLA— Hill County; pop., 500. Alt., 635 ft. 
On T. C. Ry, 22 miles north of Waco. Bank, Aquilla 
State. Weekly newspaper. The Times. Hotel, 
Aquilla. Express. 

ARANSAS PASS— San Patricio County; pop., 
1,569. Alt, 20 ft. On S. A. & A. P. Ry., and on 
the gulf coast, 22 miles east of Corpus Christi. 
Banks, First Natl, and First State. Hotels, Com- 
merial, Minter, Royal, Starbuck. Industries, cotton 
and shipping, a deep water port for all ocean-going 
vessels, an important distributing point. 

ARCHER CITY— Archer County seat; pop., 689; 
on W. F. & S. and the S. W. Rys., 25 miles south 
of Wichita Falls. Bank, Power State. Weekly 
newspaper.Industry, cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ARGYLE— Denton County; pop., 300; on T. & P. 
and M. K. & T. Rys., 7 miles south of Denton. Bank, 
Argyle State. Industries, cotton and grain. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

ARLINGTON— Tarrant County; pop., 3,031. Alt., 
607 ft. On T. & P. and N. T. T. Co. Rys., and the 
Dallas-Ft. Worth concrete pike, 14% miles east ot 
Ft. Worth, the county seat. Banks, Arlington 
State, First State. Hotels, Arlington, Hutcheson. 
Institutions, Old Mason's Home, Grub's Vocational 
College and fine high school and public school sys- 
tem. Newspaper, Arlington Journal. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

ARP— Smith County; pop., 200; on I. & G. N. Ry., 
18 miles from Tyler, the county seat. Bank, Arp 
Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ASHERTON— Dimmit County; pop., 1,000. Alt., 
368 ft. On A. & G. R. R., 10 miles from Carrizo 
Springs, the county seat. Bank, Asherton State 
Bank. Newspaper. Hotel, Cactus. Express. 

ASHLAND— Upshur County; pop., 175; on M. & 
E. T. Ry., 16 miles from Gilmer, the County seat. 



Bank, Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ASPERMONT— Stonewall County seat; pop., 436; 
on W. V. Ry., 35 miles west of Stamford. Bank, 
First Natl. Weekly newspaper. The Star. Industry, 
cotton. Tel. Express. 

ATHENS— Henderson County seat; pop., 3,276. 
Alt., 502 ft. On St. L. S. W. and T. & N. O. Rys., 
76 miles south of Dallas. Banks, Athens Natl., First 
Natl, and Guaranty State. Hotels, Athens, Deen. 
Daily newspaper. The Daily Review; two weeklies. 
The Review and Henderson County Journal. Indus- 
tries, brick, tile and crockery manufacturing, cotton 
and grain. Tel. Express. 

ATLANTA— Cass County; pop., 1,469. Alt., 
257 ft. On T. & P. and T. A. & L. Rys., 24 miles 
from Texarkana. Banks, Atlanta Natl., Farmers' 
State and First Natl. Hotels, Hughes, Matthews, 
Meridith. Weekly newspaper. Citizens Journal. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

AUBREY— Denton County; pop., 800; on T. & P. 
and M. K. & T. Rys., 11 miles north of Denton, the 
county seat. Banks, Farmers' and Merchants' State 
and First Guaranty State. Weekly newspaper, The 
Herald. Tel., W. U. Express. 

AUSTIN — The capital of Texas and county seav 
of Travis County; pop., 34,876. Alt., 650 ft. On 
H. & T. C, I. & G. N. and the M. K. & T. Rys. and 
the Colorado River. Banks, Amer. Nat'l., Austin 
Natl., Citizens State, State Natl., Texas Trust Co., 
Brown Bros. Bankers and Brokers and Austin Clear- 
ing House Association. Hotels, Austin, Avenue, 
Driskill, Hancock, Keystone, Kirby and Sutor. News- 
papers, two dailies, ten weeklies and a number of 
monthly and quarterly publications. Institutions, 
University of Texas, St. Edward's College, St. 
Mary's College, Texas Wesleyan College, Kenilworth 
School, Austin College, Texas School for the Deaf, 
Texas School for Defective and Sanitarium for 
Mental Diseases, Whitis School, Swedish College, 
Presbyterian Theological Seminary, State Deaf and 
Dumb and Blind Institutes, Tillotson Institute, Sam 
Houston College for Colored Children, St. John 
Industrial Institute and Orphanage, State Confed- 
erate Home, Confederate Home and Texas State 
Lunatic Asylum. Has paved streets, electric rail- 
way and modern public utilities. Industries, man 
ufacturing and retail center, farming. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

AUSTWELL— Refugio County; pop., 100; on St. 
L. B. & M. Ry., 35 miles northeast of Refugio, the 
county seat. Mail daily. Bank, Austwell State. 

AVALON — Ellis County; post office, Italy; pop., 
300. Bank, First State. 

AVERY— Red River County; pop., 300; on T. P. 
Ry., 16 miles from Clarksville, the county seat. 
Banks, Avery State Bank and First State Bank. 
Newspaper, The Avery News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

AVINGER— Cass County; pop., 505; on M. K. & 
T. Ry., 15% miles southeast of Daingerfield. Bank, 
First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

AVOCA— Jones County; pop., 150; on T. C. R. R., 
18 miles northeast of Anson, the county seat. Bank, 
Guaranty State. Weekly newspaper. The Avdca 
Telegram. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BAGWELL— Red River County; pop., 250; on T. 
& P. Ry., 7 miles from Clarksville, the county seat. 
Bank, First Natl. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BAILEY— Fannin County; pop., 350; on St. L. & 
S. W., 12 miles from Bonham, the county seat. Bank, 



122 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



Continental State. Newspaper, The Bailey Tele- 
gram. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BAIRD— Callahan County seat; pop., 1,902. Alt., 
1,707 ft. On Rio Grande division of the T. & P. Ry., 
140 miles west of Ft. Worth. Banks, First Natl. 
Home Natl. Hotels, .\merican, Mae. Weekly news- 
paper. The Star. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BALLINGER— Runnels County seat; pop., 2,767. 
Alt., 1,637 ft. On G. C. & S. F. and A. & S. Rys. 
and the Colorado River, 225 miles west of Ft. Worth. 
Banks, Ballinger State, Farmers' & Merchants' State 
and First Natl. Hotel, Central. Daily newspaper, 
The Ledger; two weeklies, The Banner-Ledger and 
the Runnels County Democrat. Industries, cotton, 
cotton seed products, bottling works. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BALMORHE A— -Reeves County; pop., 50; on P. 
V. & S. R. R. R., 36 miles from Pecos, the county 
seat. Bank, Toyah Valley State. Weekly news- 
paper, The Toyah Valley Herald. Express. 

BANDERA— Bandera County seat; pop., 700; 20 
miles from Center Point, the nearest railroad con- 
nection. Banks, First State, Bandera Natl, and 
W. J. Davenport, banker. A newspaper, The Bandera 
Enterprise. Stage daily to Boerne and Tapley and 
semi-weekly to Medina. Telephone connection. 

BANGS— Brown County; pop., 709; on G. C. & 
S. F. Ry., 10 miles from Brownwood, the county seat. 
Bank, First State. Weekly newspaper, The Bangs 
Enterprise. Telephone connection. Express. 

BARDWELL— Ellis County; pop., 358. Alt., 580 
ft. On T. & B. V. Ry., 12 miles from Waxahachie, 
the county seat. Bank, First Natl. Hotel, Bardwell. 
Weekly newspaper, The Herald. Express. 

BARKSDALE— Edwards County; pop., 200; 50 
miles from Uvalde, the nearest shipping point. 
Bank, State Bank of Barksdale. Telephone connec- 
tion. 

BARNHART— Irion County; pop., 150. Alt., 1,849 
ft. On K. C. M. & 0. R. R., 31 miles from Sher- 
wood, the county seat. Bank, First State. Hotel, 
Joslin. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BARRETVILLE— No P. 0. Bank, Barretville 
Bank & Trust Co. 

BARRY— Navarro County; pop., 350; on St. L. S. 
W. Ry., 12 miles from Corsicana, the county seat. 
Bank, First State. Weekly newspaper. The News. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

BARSTOW— Ward County seat; pop., 490; on T. 
& P. Ry., 214 miles east of El Paso. Bank, Citizens 
State. Opera house and weekly newspaper. The 
West Texas Journal. Industries, cotton, grain, al- 
falfa, seed and live stock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BARTLETT— Bell and Williamson Counties; pop., 
1,731; alt, 611 ft. On M. K. & T. Ry., 51 miles north 
of Austin, 24 miles south of Temple. Is eastern 
terminal of the Bartlett & Eastern Ry. Has electric 
lights, water works and sewerage. Banks, Bartlett 
National, Bartlett State and First Natl. Hotels, 
Clark, Commercial. A weekly newspaper. The Tri- 
bune. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BASTROP— Bastrop County seat; pop., 1,828; alt., 
377 ft. On M. K. & T. Ry and Colorado River, 35 
miles southeast of Austin. Banks, Citizens State 
and First Natl. Hotel, Bastrop. Has public library 
and weekly newspaper, The Advertiser. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BATSON— Hardin County; pop., 700; 20 miles 
west of Kountze, the county seat, 6 miles from Sara- 



toga and 8 miles from Hull, both of which latter 
places afford shipping facilities. Stages twice daily 
to Saratoga and Hull. Bank, R. S. Sterling & Co.. 

BAY CITY— Matagorda County seat; pop., 2,454; 
alt., 55 ft. On G. H. & S. A., G. C. & S. F. and the 
St. L. B. & M. Rys., 90 miles southwest of Houston. 
Banks, Bay City Bank & Trust Co., First Natl, and 
First State. Hotels, Baker, Bay City, Commercial, 
Nuckles, Progressive and Rice. Daily newspaper, 
The Tribune, and two weeklies, the Matagorda 
County News and Mid-Coast Farmer, and the Mata- 
gorda County Tribune Shipments, cotton, rice, rice 
products, corn, potatoes, live stock and produce, 
brick, tile and marble works. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BEASLEY— Fort Bend County; pop., 350; on 
G. H. & S. A. Ry., 11 miles from Richmond, the 
county seat. Bank, Beasley State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BEAUMONT— Jefferson County seat; pop., 
40,422; alt., 27 ft. On Neches River, 50 miles from 
the Gulf, and on the Frisco lines, the G. & I., the 
G. C. & St. Fe, the K. C. S. and the T. & N. 0. Rys., 
84 miles east of Houston and 278 miles west of New 
Orleans. Banks, Anier. Natl., First Natl., Guaranty 
Bank and Trust Co., Jefferson County Guaranty 
Bank and Trust Co., Security State Bank and Trust 
Co., Te.xas Bank and Trust Co., Davidson Securities 
Co. and Beaumont Clearing House Association. 
Hotels, Clairemont, Crosby, Cowling, Heisig, Ogden, 
Phoenix, Plaza and Woodrow. Largest vessels ply- 
ing the Gulf come direct to Beaumont wharves. In- 
dustries, rice, lumber, oil, jobbing trade and retail 
trade, each of which runs into .the millions of dollars 
annually. Beaumont is located in the heart of the 
"rain belt" where farming is a practical certainty, 
while through its railroads it is the center of the 
f-mpire of East Texas, the seat of the lumber indus- 
try. Is a great summer and winter resort. Has 
three of the largest rice mills in the world; is the 
location of the famous Spindle Top oil fields. Is 
said to have more fine homes, paved streets and 
public improvements than any city of same size in 
the South. Two daily newspapers. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BECKVILLE— Panola County; pop., 606; on T. & 
G. R. R. and on the Sabine River, 10 miles from 
Carthage, the county seat. Banks, Continental State 
Bank and First Natl Bank. Weekly newspaper, The 
Times. Tel., W. U. Express. , 

BEDIAS— Grimes County; pop., 500; on I. & G. N. 
Ry., 21 miles from Anderson the county seat. Banks, 
Citizens Bank and First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BEEVILLE— Bee County seat; pop., 3,063; alt., 
214 ft. On S. A. & A. P. Ry. and terminus of a 
branch of the S. P. Ry., 93 miles southeast of San 
Antonio. Banks, Beeville Bank and Trust Co., Com- 
mercial Natl., and First Natl. Hotels, McAllen, 
Queen. Two weekly newspapers. The Bee and The 
Picayune. Shipments, cotton, cotton seed products, 
farm products, brooms, broom corn, honey. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

BELCHERVILLE— Montague County; pop., 200; 
on M. K. & T. Ry., 13 miles from Montague, the 
county seat, and 7 miles from the nearest banking 
center, Nocona. Railway name is Belcher. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

BELLEVUE— Clay County; pop., 782; alt., 975 ft. 
On the Ft. W. & D. C. Ry., 16 miles south of Hen- 
rietta, the county seat, 80 miles north of Ft. Worth. 



123 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



Banks, First Guaranty and First Natl. Hotel, Bass. 
Weelily newspaper. The Bellevue News. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BELLS— Grayson County; pop., 585; alt., 732 ft. 
On T. & P. and M. K. & T. Rys., 14 miles from 
Sherman, the county seat. Bank, First Natl. Hotel, 
Commercial. Has a newspaper. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

BELLVILLE— Austin County seat; pop., 2,000; 
alt., 263 ft. On A. T. & S. Fe Ry., 108 miles north- 
west of Galveston. Banks, Austin County State and 
First Natl. Hotels, Burns, Steck. Weekly news- 
paper. The Times. Bellville is the receiving and 
distributing- center for great farming district; ship- 
ments, cotton, truck farming, live stock. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BELTON— Bell County seat; pop., 5,098; alt., 
811 ft. On G. C. & S. Fe., 8 miles west of Temple. 
Banks, Belton Natl., First State and People's Natl. 
Hotels, Belton, Central. Modern public utilities. Is 
seat of Baylor College for Women. A daily news- 
paper, The Evening News and two weeklies, The 
Journal and The Messenger. Shipments, cotton, 
grain and live stock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BEN ARNOLD— Milam County; pop., 250; on S. A. 
& A. P. Ry., 8 miles from Cameron, the county seat. 
Bank, BenArnold State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BENAVIDES— Duval County; pop., 500; on T. M. 
Ry., 18 miles southwest of San Diego, the county 
seat. Bank, Merchants Exchange. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BEN FRANKLIN— Delta County; pop., 300; on 
G. C. & S. Fe Ry., 121/2 miles from Cooper, the 
county seat. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BENJAMIN — Knox County seat; pop., 500; on the 
K. C. M. & O. Ry., 32 miles west of Seymour. Bank, 
First Natl. Two hotels and weekly newspaper. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

BEN WHEELER— Van Zandt County; pop., 400; 

13 miles southeast of Canton, the county seat and 

14 miles from Bro\vnsboro, the nearest shipping 
point. Bank, First State. Stage daily to Browns- 
boro; telephone connection. 

BERCL AIR— Goliad County; pop., 300; on S. P. 
R. R., 17 miles from Goliad, the county seat. Bank, 
Berclair State. Express. 

BERTRAM— Burnet County; pop., 420; on H. & 
T. C. Ry., 10 miles southeast of Burnet, the county 
seat. Banks, Farmers' State, First Natl., and D. C. 
Reed & Son, Bankers. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BESSMAY— Jasper County; pop., 1,000; on G. C. 
& S. Fe and Frisco lines, 35 miles from Jasper, the 
county seat, and 15 miles from Kirbyville, the near- 
est banking point. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BETTIE— Upshur County; pop., 284; on St. L. S. 
W. Ry., 6 miles from Gilmer, the county seat. Bank, 
First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BIG LAKE— Reagan County seat; pop., 30.; on 
K. C. M. & O. R. R., 17 miles from Stiles, the county 
seat. Bank, First State. Stage daily to Stiles. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

BIG SANDY— Upshur County; pop., 658; alt., 
329 ft. On T. & P. and St. L. S. W. Rys., 12 miles 
from Gilmer, the county seat. Banks, Continental 
State and Farmers' State. Hotel, Fox. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BIG SPRINGS— Howard County seat; pop., 4,273; 
alt., 2,397 ft. On T. & P. Ry., 107 miles west of 
Abilene. Banks, First Natl., First State, West 
Texas Nat'l. Hotels, Cole, Johnson, Stewart. Two 



weekly newspapers. The Enterprise and The Herald. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

BIGWELLS— Dimmit County; pop., 750; on S. A. 
U. & G. Ry., 17 miles from Carrizo Springs, the 
county seat. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

BISHOP— Nueces County; pop., 1,300; alt., 400 ft.; 
On St. L. B. & M. Ry., 31 miles southwest of Corpus 
Christi, the county seat. Banks, Bank of Bishop 
and First State. Hotel, Bishop. Industries, cotton, 
citi'ous fruits, winter vegetables, live stock, poultry, 
dairying. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BLACKWELL— Nolan County; pop., 500; alt., 
1,880 ft. On K. C. M. & O. Ry., 31 miles southeast 
of Sweetwater, the county seat. Bank, First State. 
Hotel, Star. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BLANCO— Blanco County; pop., 600; alt., 1,300 ft 
15 miles south of Johnson City, the county seat, and 
38 miles from San Marcos, its shipping point. Bank, 
Blanco Natl. Hotels, Comparet and Xellam. Weekly 
newspaper, Blanco Courier. Stages daily to San 
Marcos and triweekly to Johnson City. Telephone 
connection. 

BLANKET— Brown County; pop., 472; on Ft. W. 
& R. G. Ry., 16 miles from Brownwood, the county 
seat. Bank, Blanket State Bank. Weekly news- 
paper. Blanket Signal. Tel., W. U- Express. 

BLESSING— Matagorda county; pop., 500; alt., 
43 ft. On St. L. B. & M. and the G. H. & S. A. Rys., 
20 miles west of Bay City, the county seat. Bank, 
Blessing State Bank. Hotel, Blessing. Tel , W. U. 
Express. 

BLOOMBURG— Cass County; pop,, 436; on K.C.S. 
and T. A. & L. Rys, 25 miles east of Linden, the 
county seat and 20 V2 miles south of Texarkana. 
Bank, Bloomburg State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BLOOMING GROVE— Navarro county; pop., 898; 
alt., 420 ft. On St. L. S. W. Ry., 16 miles west of Cor- 
sicana, the county seat. Banks, Blooming Grove 
State and Citizens Natl. Hotel, Alamo. Shipments, 
cotton and grain. Weekly newspaper. The Rustler. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

BLOOMINGTON— Victoria County; pop., 600; on 
St. L. B. & M. Ry., 14 miles southeast of Victoria, 
the county seat. Bank, First State; newspaper. The 
Bloomington Breeze. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BLOSSOM— Lamar County; pop., 969; alt., 530 ft. 
On T. &. P. Ry., 10 miles west of Paris, the county 
seat. Banks, Farmers State and First Natl. Ho- 
tels, Blossom, Burke, Sharp. Weekly newspaper, 
The Blossom Bee. Is famed for its min3ral wells. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

BLUE RIDGE— Collins County; pop., 450; alt., 640 
ft. 20 miles northwest of McKinney, the county seat, 
and 11 miles from Melissa, its shipping point. Bank, 
Security State. Hotel, Terry. Stage daily to Me- 
lissa. Telephone connection. 

BLUFFDALE— Erath County; pop., 457:; on Ft. 
W. & R. G. Ry., 16 miles northwest of Stephensville, 
the county seat. Bank, Bluffdale State. Weekly 
newspaper. The Sun. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BLUM— Hill County; pop., 496: on A. T. & S. Fe 
Ry., 25 miles northwest of Hillsboro, the county seat 
and 43 miles south of Fort Worth. Banks, Farmers 
State and Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BLYTHE— Gaines County; pop., 21; 17y2 miles 
southeast of Seminole, county seat. Bank, First 
State. 45 miles from Lamesa, the nearest railroad 
point. 



124 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



BOERNE— Kendall County seat; pop., 1,152; alt., 
1,410. On S. A. & A. P. Ry., 32 miles north of San 
Antonio. Banks, Boerne State, Citizens State. Ho- 
tels, Becker, Kendall, St. James. Vogt. Weekly 
newspaper. The Boerne Star. Tel., W. U. Express. 
BOG AT A— Red River County; pop., 500; on Paris 
& Mt. Pleasant Ry., 16 miles northeast of Clarksville 
the county seat. Banks, Bogata Natl, and First 
Natl. Weekly Newspaper, The News. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BOMARTON— Baylor County; pop., 500; on W. V. 
R. R., 12V2 miles southwest of Seymore, the county 
seat. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BONHAM — Fannin County seat; pop., 6,00S; alt., 
5GG ft. On T. &. P. and M. K. & T. Rys., 28 miles 
southeast of Denison. Banks, First Natl., and First 
State. Hotels, Alexander and Bonham. Is lighted 
by electricity, has electric street railway and mod- 
ern public utilities. Daily newspaper; and semi- 
weekly. The News. Industries, cotton, cotton seed 
products, dairy products. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BONITA— Montague County; pop., 400; on M. K. 
& T. Ry., 14 miles from Montague, the county seat. 
Bank, First Natl. Express and Telephone connec- 
tion. 

BOOKER — Lipscomb County; post office in Lak- 
emp, Okla., Bank, First Natl. 

BOONSVILLE— Wise County; pop., 200; 25 miles 
from Decatur, the county seat, and 14 miles from 
Bridgeport, the nearest shipping point. Bank, First 
State. Telephone connections. 

BOOTH— Fort Bend County; pop., 100; on G. C. & 
S. Fe Ry., 9^2 miles southeast of Richmond, the 
county seat. Bank, Bank of Booth. Express. 

BOWIE— Montague County; pop., 3,179; alt., 1,113 
ft. On C. R. I. & G., and Ft. W. & D. C. Rys., 18 
miles west of Montague, the county seat. Banks, 
City Natl., First Natl,. First State and Security 
Natl. Hotels, Bobs, Bowie, National. As Bowie is 
located on the western edge of the famed "Cross 
Timbers" section of North Texas, where timbers and 
prairie meet, it is the central market and distribut- 
ing point for fruit and truck industry on the east, 
cotton, corn and grains on the west. Splendid public 
utilities. Tel. W. U. Express. 

BOYCE— Ellis County; pop., 410. On H. & T. C. 
Ry., 6 miles east of Waxahachie, the county seat. 
Bank, Boyce State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BOYD— Wise County; pop., 410; alt., 714 ft. On 
C. R. I. & G. Ry., 12 miles from Decatur, the county 
seat. Bank, Continental State. Hotel, City. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

BRA CKETTVILLE— Kinney County seat; pop., 
600; alt., 1,020 ft. 10 miles north of Spofford, its 
shipping point, and 135 west of San Antonio. Bank, 
First State. Hotel, Terrell. Weekly newspaper, 
The News-Mail. Is the location of Ft. Clark. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

BRADSHAW— Taylor County; pop., 200. Bank, 
Bank of Bradshaw. On A. & S. Ry., 28 miles from 
Abilene, the county seat. Express and telephone 
connections. 

BRADY— McCullough County seat; pop., 3,200; 
alt, 1,500 ft. On the G. C. & S. Fe Ry., 42 miles 
west of San Saba. Banks, Brady Natl., and Com- 
mercial Natl. Hotels, Central, Gay, Graham, Mor- 
row and Queen. 2 Weekly papers — The Brady Stan- 
dard and The Brady Sentinel. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BRANDON— Hill County; pop., 307; on St. L. S. 



W. Ry., 11 miles east of Hillsboro, the county seat 
Bark, Farmers' State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BRASHEAR — Hopkins County; pop., 300. On M. 
K. & T. Ry., 8 miles from Sulphur Springs, the 
county seat. Has newspaper. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

BRAZORIA— Brazoria County; pop., 500. Is lo- 
cated on the St. L. B. & M. Ry., and on the Brazos 
River, 12 miles west of Angleton, the county seat. 
Bank, First State. Weekly newspaper, The Banner. 
Tel. Express. 

BRAZOS— Palo Pinto County; pop., 500; on T. & 
P. Ry., 16 miles southeast of Palo Pinto, the county 
seat. Bank, Brazos Bank. Tel., W. IT. Express. 

BRECKENRIDGE— Stephens County seat; alt., 
1.300. 28 miles north of Eastland on the T. & P. 
Ry. One of the oil centers in the famous north- 
west Texas district, producing millions of dollars 
worth of oil business annually. Banks, Brecken- 
ridge State, Bank & Trust Co., Fiist Natl., and 
Guaranty State Banks. Hotels, Campbell, Cresent, 
Pearson, Sanger and Shelton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BREMOND— Robertson County; pop., 1,250; alt. 
469. On H. & T. C. Ry., 18 miles west of Franklin, 
the County seat. Bank, First State. Hotel, Bre- 
mond. Has a weekly newspaper. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BRENH AM— Washington County seat; pop., 5,056; 
alt., 350 ft. Is located at the junction of the G. C. & 
S. F. and H. & T. C. Rys., 94 miles east of Austin. 
Banks, Farmers' Natl., First Natl., Washington 
County State, and Giddings and Giddings. Hotels, 
Anthony and Wright. Two daily and weekly news- 
papers. The Banner and The Press. Institutions, 
St Mary's Academy, Blinn Memorial College, numer- 
ous private schools and one of the best public school 
systems in the state. Brenham is the industrial cen- 
ter for a large section. Tel., W. U. Express 

BRIDGEPORT— Wise County; pop., 1,872; alt., 
749. On the C. R. I. & G. Ry., 10 miles west of 
Decatur, the county seat. Banks, Bridgeport State 
and First Natl. Hotel, Beason. A weekly news- 
paper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BRIGGS— Burnett County; pop., 300; 23 miles 
from Burnet, the county seat, and 10 miles from 
Florence, the nearest shipping point. Bank, Briggs 
State Bank. Stage daily to Bertram. 

BRITTON— Ellis County; pop., 300; on H. & T. C. 
Ry., 18 miles from Waxahachie, the county seat. 
Bank, Britton State Bank. Tel., and Express con- 
nections. 

BROADDUS— San Augustine County; pop., 250. 
On the Cotton Belt R. R., 8 miles from San Augus- 
tine, the county seat. Bank, Broaddus State Bank. 
Express and Telephone connections. 

BRONSON— Sabine County; pop., 1,200; on the 
G. C. & S. Fe Ry., 14 miles west of Hemphill, the 
county seat. Banks, Bronson State and Peoples' 
State. Hotels, Low and Wilson. Weekly news- 
paper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BRONTE— Coke County; pop., 529; on the K. C. & 
M. O. Ry., 14 miles from Robert Lee, the county 
Seat. Bank, First State. A newspaper. The Bronte 
Enterprise. Express and telephone connections. 

BROOKELAND— Sabine County: pop., 500; on 
the G. C. & S. Fe Ry., 30 miles south of San Aug- 
ustine. Bank, Brookland State Bank. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BROOKSHIRE— Waller County; pop., 500. On 
the M. K. & T. Ry., 27 miles from Hempstead, the 



125 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



county seat. Bank, Farmers' State. A weekly 
newspaper, The Times. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BROOKSTON— Lamar County; pop., 300; on T. 
& P. Ry., 9 miles from Paris, the county seat. 
Bank, The Brookston State. Tel., W. U. Express. 
BROWNFIELD— Terry County seat; pop., 250; 
alt., 2,080. 28 miles from Tahoka, the nearest 
shipping point. Banks, Brownfield State and The 
First Natl, Weekly newspaper, The Terry County 
Herald. Telephone connection. 

BROWNSBORO— Henderson County; pop., 25. On 
St. L. S. W. Ry., 17 miles from Athens, the county 
seat. Stage daily to Edon, Davidson and Ben 
Wheeler. Bank First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 
BROWNSVILLE — Cameron County seat; pop., 
11,791; alt., 57 ft. Is the extreme southwestern 
city in the United States, the gateway to Mexico, 
the metropolis and commercial center of the Rio 
Grande Valley, "The Garden Spot of America." 
Banks, Fii-st Natl., Merchants' Natl., State Bank 
& Trust Co., and F. Yturria, Banker. Hotels, Miller, 
Park, Plaza, Travelers, Valley. Has several daily 
and weekly newspapers, paved streets, street cars, 
all modern public utilities. Its summers are delight- 
ful, because of Gulf breezes, and its winters very 
mild. Average annual rainfall, 2G.89 in. Abounds 
with tropical plants, flowers the year 'round, "every 
month is seeding time and every month a harvest." 
Agriculture is the chief industry, truck growing be- 
ing conducted on extensive scale. 20 canal com- 
panies provide for irrigation of large territory. 
Historic Matomoros lies just across the Rio Grande, 
reached by ferry or the international bridge, while 
Point Isabel, a fisherman's Mecca, is 22 miles away. 
Game of every description abound. Destined to be 
one of the most important harbors of the U. S., as 
well as one of the most strategical. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BROWN WOOD— Brown County seat; pop., 8,223; 
alt., 1,342 ft. On the G. C. & S. Fe and St. L. B. & 
M. Rys., in Pecan River Valley, 142 miles southwest 
of Fort Worth. Banks, Citizens' Natl., Coggin Natl., 
First Natl., Brooke Smith & Co. Hotels, Barker, 
Graham, Jefferson, Southern. Is seat of Daniel 
Baker College, Howard Payne College besides a 
leading business college for western Texas. Daily 
newspaper. The Bulletin, two weeklies, The Banner- 
Bulletin and The News, has a high school and two 
college monthly publications. Tel., W. U. Express. 
BRUCEVILLE— McLennan County; pop., 500. On 
M. K. & T. Ry., 18 miles south of Waco, the county 
seat. Bank, Bruceville State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

BRYAN— Brazos County seat; pop., 6,307; alt., 
367 ft. On main line H. & T. C. Ry., and the Ft. 
Worth division of the I. & G. N., 100 miles north of 
Houston. Is the home of the great Agricultural and 
Mechanical College of Texas, located at College 
Station six miles out with which it is connected by 
interurban. Other educational institutions are The 
Villa Maria Ursuline Academy, Bryan Baptist 
Academy and Allen Academy, besides its own high 
and graded public schools and a Carnegie Library. 
Banks, City Natl., First Natl.,. Fir.st State Bank & 
Trust Co. Hotels, Bryan and Central. Industry, 
farming, diversified, but cotton leads, Bryan prob- 
ably receiving more wagon cotton than any other 
city or town in the world. Tel., W. U. Express. 
BRYSON— Jack County; pop., 400. On C. R. I. & 



G. Ry., 14 miles southwest of Jacksboro, the county 
seat. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BUCKHOLTZ— Milam County; pop., 800. On G. 
C. & S. Fe Ry., 13 miles west of Cameron, the county 
seat. Bank, Buckholtz State. Weekly newspaper. 
The Bulletin. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BUDA— Hays County; pop., 300; alt., 722 ft. On 
I. & G. N. Ry., 15 miles from San Marcos, the county 
seat. Bank, Farmers' State. Hotel, Commercial.. Tel., 
W. U. Express. Weekly newspaper, Buda Star. 

BUFFALO— Leon County; pop., 510 On I. & G. 
N. Ry., 16 miles from Centerville, the county seat. 
Banks, Buffalo State and Guaranty State. Weekly 
newspaper. The Banner. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BUENA VISTA— Pecos County; pop., 50. 40 
miles from Pyote its nearest shipping point, and 
20 miles from grand falls. Bank, Farmers' State. 
BUFFALO GAP— Taylor County; pop., 249. On 
G. C. & S. Fe Ry., 13 miles southwest of Abilene, 
the county seat. Bank, Buffalo Gap Banking Co. 
Has a weekly newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BULLARD— Smith County; pop., 212. On St. L. 
S. W. Ry., 16% miles south of Tyler, the county seat. 
Bank, Citizens' State. Has weekly newspaper. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

BUNA— Jasper County; pop., 400. On G. C. & S. 
Fe Ry., and the Frisco Lines, 35 miles from Jasper, 
the county seat. Bank Buna State. Newspaper, 
The Home News. Express and telephone connec- 
tions. 

BURKBURNETT— Wichita County; pop., 5,300; 
alt., 100 ft. On the W. F. & N. W. Ry., 14 miles 
north of Wichita Falls, the county seat. Banks, 
American State, Farmers' State, First Natl., and 
Johnson Bros. Banking Co. Hotels, Burkburnett, 
City, Early. Newspaper. One of the active oil 
centers in the northwest district. 

BURKEVILLE— Newton County; pop., 300. 13 
miles northeast of Newton the county seat and ship- 
ping point. Bank, Newton County Bank. Daily 
mail. 

BURLESON— Johnson County; pop., 1,000. On 
the M. K. & T. Ry., and on the Ft. Worth-Cleburne 
Interurban, 15 miles north of Cleburne, the county 
seat. Banks, Continental State, and Farmers & 
Merchants State. Weekly newspaper, The News. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

BURLINGTON— Milam County; pop., 200. On 
ihe S. A. & A. P. Ry., 12 miles north of Cameron, 
the county seat. Bank, Burlington State. Has 
newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BURNET — Judicial Seat of Burnet County;, pop., 
969; alt., 1,295. On the H. & T. C. Ry., 22 miles 
south of Lampasas. Banks, Burnet Natl., and First 
State. Hotel, Burnet. Weekly newspaper, The 
Bulletin. Has a sanitarium. Tel., W. U. Express. 

BURTON— Washington County; pop., 500; alt., 
417 ft. On H. & T. C. Ry., 13 miles west of Bren- 
ham, the county seat. Bank, Burton State. Ex- 
press. 

BYERS— Clay County; pop., 850. On W. V. Ry., 
23 miles northeast of Wichita Falls. Bank First 
Natl. Weekly newspaper, The Herald. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

BYNUM— Hill county; pop., 350. On the T. & 
B. V. Ry., 9Va miles southeast of Hillsboro. Bank, 
First Natl. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CADDO— Stephens County; pop., 1,500. 15 miles 
southeast of Breckenridge, the county seat. Banks, 

126 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



First Natl., First State, Guaranty State. 20 miles 
from Ranger. Mail daily. 

CADDO MILLS— Hunt County; pop., GOO; alt., 550 
ft. On M. K. & T. Ry., 12 miles south of Greenville 
the county seat, and 45 miles north of Dallas. Bank, 
Caddo Mills State. Weekly newspaper, Caddo Mills 
News. Tel., \V. U. Express. 

CAIN CITY— Gillespie County; pop., 100; Bank, 
Cain City State Bank. 

CALDWELL — Burleson County seat; pop., 1,689; 
alt., 404 ft. On the A. T. & S. Fe Ry., 158 miles 
west of Galveston. Banks, Caldwell Natl., and The 
First State. Hotels, Caldwell and Elisk. Municipal 
water works, excellent sewerage system, electric 
lights, a weekly newspaper. The Ledger. Industries, 
cotton and grain, potatoes and truck, live stock and 
dairying. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CALVERT— Robertson County; pop., 2,099; alt., 
338 ft. Banks, Calvert State, Union State. Hotel, 
Colonial. On the H. & T. C. and I. & G. N. Rys., 
13 miles west of Franklin, the county seat. Weekly 
newspaper. The Calvert Picayune. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

CAMDEN— Polk County; pop., oOO. On spur rail- 
road from Moscow, nearest banking center. 

CAMERON— Milan County seat; pop., 4,298: alt., 
390 ft. On Little River at the junction of the G. C. 
& S. Fe and S. A. & A. P. Rys., 188 miles northwest 
of Galveston and 53 miles south of Waco. Banks, 
Cameron State, Citizens' Natl., First Natl. Hotels, 
Auditorium, Commercial, Connor, Murdock. Is a 
modern progressive city with good public utilities. 
Has two weekly newspapers. The Enterprise and The 
Herald, wholesale grocer house, wholesale house for 
knit goods, and mill products. Is the center of a 
very rich farming district. Some mining. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

CAMPBELL— Hunt County; pop., 583; alt., 369. 
On M. K. & T. Ry., 10 miles east of Greenville, the 
county seat. Banks, Campbell Natl. Exchange, and 
First State. Hotels, Marr and Reid. Has a news- 
paper. The Review. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CANADIAN— Hemphill County seat; pop., 2,187; 
alt; 2,339 ft. Banks, Canadian State, First Natl., 
and Southwest Natl. Hotel, Moody. On the A. T. 
& S. Fe Ry., 98 miles northeast of Amarillo. Is 
a division point of the Santa Fe Ry., both freight 
and passenger, with round house and machine shops, 
etc. Is marketing center for great grain crops of 
several counties. Livestock an important industry. 
Large salt deposits underlie the territory and 
much silica suitable for the making of glass. 
Broom corn abundant. Weekly newspaper. The 
Record. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CANTON— Van Zant County seat; pop., 583; alt., 
524 ft. 10 miles from Edgewood, its shipping point, 
and 64 miles from Dallas. Banks, First Natl., and 
Texas State. Weekly newspaper. The Herald. Ho 
tels, Dixie and Peace. 

CANYON— Randall County seat; pop., 1,618; alt, 
3,300 ft. On main line and Sweetwater branch of 
the A. T. & S. Fe Ry., 18 miles southwest of Ama- 
rillo. Is the home of the Texas State Normal 
School. Banks, First Natl., First State. Hotels, 
American and Palace. Weekly newspaper, Randall 
County News. Is surrounded by fine grazing land 
and cattle raising and feeding is the principal indus- 
try. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CARBON— Eastland County; pop., 741. On T. C. 
R. R., 10 miles from Eastland, the county seat. 



Banks, Bank of Carbon, First State. Weekly news- 
paper. The Carbon News. Expre.-(s and telephone 
connections. 

CARLTON— Hamilton County; pop., IGl. On the 
S. N. & S. T. Ry., 171,2 miles from Hamilton, the 
county seat. Bank, Farmers & Merchants State 
Bank. Weekly Newspaper, the Carlton Citizen. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

CARMINE— Fayette County; pop., 500. On H. & 
T. C. Ry., 14 miles southeast of Giddings and 20 
miles west of Brenham. Carmine State Bank. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

CARRIZO SPRINGS— Dimmitt County seat; pop., 
954; alt., 4,603. Situated on the S. A. U. & G. Ry., 
157 miles southwest of San Antonio. Banks, Com- 
mercial State and Guaranty State. Hotels, Cottage 
and White. Weekly newspaper. The Javelin. Stage 
daily to Asherton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CARROLLTON— Dallas County; pop., 573. On 
the M. K. & T., the St. L. S. W., and the St. L. S. F. 
& T. Rys., 14 miles north of Dallas, the county seat. 
Bank, First State. Weekly newspaper. The Chroni- 
cle. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CARTHAGE— Panola County seat; pop., 1,366; 
alt., 340 ft. On the G. C. & S. Fe Ry., 37 miles 
southwest of Longview. Banks, First Natl., Guar- 
anty State. Hotels, Kellie, W. O. W., Vandigriff. 
Two weekly newspapers, Carthage Watchman and 
the East Texas Register. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CASON— Morris County; pop., 315. On M. K. & 
T. -Ry., 6 miles from Daingerfield, the county seat. 
Bank, State Bank of Cason. Tel., W. U. Express. 
■ CAT SPRING— Austin County; pop., 350. On the 
M. K. & T. Ry., 9 miles from Bellville, the county 
seat. Bank, Cat Spring State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

CEDAR HILL— Dallas County; pop., 500. On G. 
C. & S. Fe Ry., 20 miles from Dallas, the county 
seat. Bank, First Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

CELESTE— Hunt County; pop., 1,022; alt., 658 ft. 
On the G. C. & S. Fe, the M. K. & T., and the St L. 
S. W. Rys., 12 miles northwest of Greenville, the 
county seat. Banks, Celeste State Bank, First Natl. 
Bank. Hotels, Franklin, Lindell, Maurice. Weekly 
newspaper. The Celeste Courier. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

CELINA— Collins County; pop., 1,126; alt., 600 ft. 
On St. L. S. Fe & T. Ry., 18 miles from McKinney, 
the county seat. Banks, Celina State, First State. 
Hotels, Childress, Hearne, Pond. Has a newsnaper. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

CENTER— Shelby County Seat; pop., 2,500; alt., 
360 ft. On G. C. & S. Fe and T. & P. Rys., 189 miles 
northeast of Houston, 190 miles southwest of Dallas! 
Banks, Farmers' State, First Natl., State Guaranty. 
Hotels, Adams, Elliott, Padon, Polley. W. U. Tel., 
Express. 

CENTER CITY— Miles County; pop., 1,838. 11 
miles from Goldthwaite, the county seat and bank- 
ing point. Telephone connection. 

CENTER POINT— Kerr County; pop., 543; 10 
miles south of Kerrville, the county seat, 60 miles 
north of San Antonio, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry., on 
the Guadalupe River. Bank, Guadalupe Valley 
Bank. Weekly newspaper. The Center Point News. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

CENTERVILLE— Leon County seat; pop., 10; 8 



127 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



miles from Robin, the nearest shipping point. Bank, 
Centerville State. Weekly newspaper, The Record. 
Telephone Connection. 

CHANDLER— Henderson County; pop., 341; alt., 
404 ft. 25% miles northeast of Athens, the county 
seat. On St. L. S. W. Ry. Banks, Citizens' Guar- 
anty State. Hotel, Leovall. Weekly newspaper. 
The Times. Telephone and Express connections. 

CHANNEL CITY— Harris County; pop., 300. 
Bank, Houston Bank & Trust Co. 

CHANNING— Hartley County seat. 51 miles 
northwest of Amarillo, on the Ft.W.&D.C. Ry. Bank 
First Natl. Weekly newspaper; Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

CHAPEL HILL— Washington County; pop., 1,000; 
alt., 310 ft. 10 miles east of Brenham, the county 
seat. On the H. & T. C. Ry. Bank, Farmers' State. 
Hotel, Toland. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CHARLOTTE^Atascosa County; pop., 500; alt., 
65y ft. 9% miles southwest of Jourdanton, the 
county seat, on the S. A. U. & G. Ry. Bank, Char- 
lotte State. Hotel, Charlotte. Telephone connec- 
tion. 

CHEROKEE— San Saba County; pop., 500. 16V:; 
miles south of San Saba, the county seat and ship- 
ping point. Bank, First State. Mail daily. Tele- 
phone connection. 

CHESTER— Tyler County; pop., 250. 22 miles 
northwest of Woodville, the county seat, on the 
M. K. & T. Ry. Bank, Chester State. Telephone 
and express connection. 

CHICO— Wise County; pop., 800; alt., 938 ft. 14 
miles west of Decatur, the county seat on the C. 
R. L & G. Ry. Bank, First Bank of Chico, and 
Chico State. Hotels, Brown, Chico. Weekly news- 
paper. The Chico Review. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CHILDRESS— Childress County seat; pop., 5,003; 
alt., 1,877 ft. 106 miles west of Wichita Falls, 
on the Ft. W. & D. C. Ry. Banks, City Nat'l., 
Farmers & Merchants' State, First State. Hotels, 
Fagg, Nave. Two weekly newspapers. The Index 
and The Post. It is a division point on the F. W. 
& D. C. Ry. with shops located here. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

CHILLICOTHE — Hardeman County; pop., 1,357; 
alt., 1,406 ft. 65 miles west of Wichita Falls, 13 
miles east of Quanah, the county seat. On the 
Ft. W. & D. and K. C. M. & O. Rys. Banks, Bank 
of Chillicothe, Guaranty State. Hotels, Denver, 
Star. Two weekly newspapers. The Independent 
and the Valley News. Cotton, grain and live- 
stock are the principal shipments. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

CHILTON— Falls County; pop., 231. 10 miles 
west of Marlin, the county seat, and 22 miles south 
of Waco, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry Banks, Chilton 
Citizens' Bank and First State Bank. Weekly 
newspaper. Tel. W. U. Express. 

CHIRENO— Nacogdoches County; pop. 500. 20 
miles southeast of Nacogdoches, the county seat, 
on the A. & N. R. Ry. Bank, Chireno State Bank. 
Telephone and express connection. 

CHISHOLM— Rockwall County; pop., 200. Bank, 
Farmers' State. 

CHRIESMAN— Burleson County; pop., 100. 7 
miles northwest of Caldwell, the county seat, on 
the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. The railroad name is Yellow 
Prairie. Bank, First State. 

CIBOLO— Guadalupe County; pop., 300. 16 
miles west of Seguin, the county seat, on the G. H. 



& S. A. Ry. Bank, Cibolo Bank. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

CISCO— Eastland County; pop., 7,422; alt., 1,606 
ft. 45 miles east of Abilene, 10 miles west of East- 
land, the county seat, on the T. & P. and T. C. Rys. 
Banks, American Nat'l., Cisco Banking Co., First 
Guaranty State, Guaranty State Bank and Trust 
Co. Hotels, Daniels, Grand, Hartman, Mobley. 
Has splendid preparatory boarding school and pub- 
lic high school. Industries, oil and oil products, 
cotton, cotton seed products, peanuts and pecans. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

CLAIREMONT— Kent County seat; pop., 150. 
ll%miles southwest of Jayton, its nearest ship- 
ping point. Bank, Clairemont Bank. Weekly 
newspaper. The Reporter. Stage daily to Jayton. 
Telephone connection. 

CLAIRETTE— Erath County; pop., 500. 16 miles 
southeast of Stephenville, the county seat, on the 
T. C. R. R. Banks, Farmers State. Express and 
telephone connection. 

CLARENDON— Donley County seat; pop., 2,456; 
alt., 2,719 ft. 164 miles west of Wichita Falls, on 
the Ft. W. & D. C. R. R. Banks, Donley County 
State, Farmers' State, and First National. Hotels, 
Atterbury, and Denver. Opera House; weekly 
newspaper, The News. Cotton, grain and livestock 
are the leading shipments. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CLARKSVILLE — Red River County seat; pop.,' 
3,386; alt., 442 ft. 61 miles from Texarkana, 183 
miles from Ft. Worth, on the T. & P. Ry. Banks, 
City Nat'l., First Nat'l., Red River Nat'l. Hotels, 
Brewer, and Main. Has two newspapers. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

CLAUDE — Armstrong County seat; pop., 770; 
alt., 3,397 ft. 194 miles west of Wichita Falls, on 
the Ft. W. & D. C. R. R. Banks, First Natl., First 
State. Hotels, Claude, Palace. Weekly newspaper, 
The News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CLEBURNE— Johnson County seat; pop., 12,820; 
alt., 764 ft. 28 miles south of Ft. Worth, on the 
G. C. & S. F., M. K. & T., T. & B. V., and Ft. W. S. 
(electric) Rys. Banks, Farmers & Merchants Nat'l. 
Home Nat'l. National Bank of Cleburne, and Trad- 
ers' State. Hotels, Cheney, Cleburne, Floore. Here 
are the principal shops of the Santa Fe system, with 
some 1,500 employees sharing a monthly payroll of 
over $100,000.00, which has developed Cleburne an 
important railroad city a trifle more rapid in 
growth than in civic improvements. Institutions, 
Clebarro College, St. Joseph's Academy, a Carnegie 
Library, a R. R. Y. M. C. A. and an unrivalled school 
system. Two daily papers, the Review and the 
Enterprise, each with a semi-weekly edition, and 
and other semi-weekly. The Chronicle. Is in the 
cross timbers, with fruit and truck and cotton to the 
east, grain and hay to the north and south, with 
fine grazing prairies to the west. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

CLEVELAND— Liberty County; pop., 1,500; alt., 
159 ft. 44 miles north of Houston, 25 miles north- 
west of Liberty the county seat, on the H. E. & W. 
T. and G. C. & S. Fe Rys. Banks, Cleveland State, 
First Nat'l. Hotels, Cleveland and Junction. 
Weekly newspaper. The Herald. Lumbering, farm- 
ing and stock raising, principal industries. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

CLIFTON— Bosque County; pop., 1,327; alt., 671 
ft. 12 miles south of Meridian, the county seat, 
and 100 miles southwest of Dallas, on the G. C. & 



128 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



S. Fe Ry. Banks, Farmers' Guaranty State, First 
Guaranty State, Guaranty Loan & Investment Co. 
Hotels, Central, Nelson, Santa Fe. Has creamery, 
machine shops, bottling works, g:rain elevator and 
weekly newspaper, The Record. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

CLINT— El Paso County; pop., 250. 20 miles 
from El Paso, on the G. H. & S. A. and T. & P. Rys. 
Bank, First State. Has weekly newspaper. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

CLYDE— Callahan County; pop., 610; alt., 1,979 
ft. 6 miles from Baird, the county seat, on the 
T. & P. Ry. Banks, Clyde Nat'l., and First Guar- 
anty State. Hotel, Commercial. Weekly newspa- 
per. The Clyde Enterprise. Tel., W. U. Express. 
COAHOMA— Howard County; pop., 250. 10% 
miles northeast of Big Spring, the county seat, on 
the T. & P. Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

COLD SPRING — San Jacinto County seat; pop., 
500; alt., 150 ft. 12 miles from Shepard, the near- 
est shipping point, and 235 miles northeast of 
Austin, on the Trinity River. Bank, San Jacinto 
State. Newspaper, The Times. Hotel, Greenaway. 
Daily stages to Shepard, Camilla, Evergreen and 
MajTiard. 

COLEMAN— Coleman County seat; pop., 2,8G8; 
alt., 1,690 ft. 172 miles southwest of Ft. Worth, on 
the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Banks, Central State, Cole- 
man Nat'l., and First Nat'l. Hotels, Commercial, 
Cottage, Delmar, Jones, Modern. Coleman is the 
receiving and distributing point for a rich agricul- 
tural district. Has two weekly newspapers, The 
Democrat-Voice and The Coleman County Herald. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

COLLINSVILLE— Grayson county; pop., 337; alt., 
750 ft. 22 miles west of Sherman, the county seat, 
on the T. & P. and the M. K. & T. Rys. Banks, Col- 
linsville Nat'l., and First Guaranty State. Hotel, 
Commercial. Weekly newspaper, The Times. In- 
dustries, Cotton and produce. Tel., W. U. Express. 

COLMESNEIL— Tyler County; pop., 600. 9 
miles north of Woodville, the county seat, on the 
M. K. & T. and S. P. Rys. Bank, Guaranty State. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

COLORADO— Mitchell County seat; pop., 1,766; 
alt., 2,066 ft. 69 miles west of Abilene, on the T. 
& F. Ry. Banks, City Natl., Colorado Natl., First 
State. Hotels, Barcroft, Keathley, Majestic. Week- 
ly newspaper. The Record. Tel., W. U. Express. 

COLUMBIA— Brazoria County; pop., 400; alt., 34 
ft. 13 miles west of Angleton, the county seat, on 
the I. & G. N. Ry. Bank, Columbia State. Hotel, 
Phillips. Tel., W. U. Express. 

COLUMBUS— Colorado County seat; pop., 2,000; 
alt., 201 ft. 84 miles west of Houston, on the Colo- 
rado River and the G. H. & S. A. Ry. Banks, Col- 
umbus State, First State Hotel, Live Oak. Week- 
ly newspaper. The Colorado Citizen. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

COMANCHE — Comanche County seat; pop., 
3,524; alt., 1,434 ft. 113 miles west of Ft. Worth, 
on the Ft. W. & R. G. and S., N. & S. T. Rys., and 
on the Leon River. Banks, Commanche Natl., First 
Nat'l., First State, John M. Easley & Co., Bankers. 
Hotels, Comfort. Weekly newspaper, The Co- 
manche Chief-Exponent. Principal products, cotton 
oats, hay, live stock, peanuts and poultry. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

COMFORT— Kendall County; pop., 800. 20 miles 



north of Boerne, the county seat, on the S. A. & A. 
P. Ry. Bank, Comfort State. Weekly newspaper, 
The Comfort News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

COMMERCE— Hunt County; pop., 3,842; alt, 509 
It. 16 miles northeast of Greenville, the county 
seat, on the T. M. and St. L. S. W. Rys. Banks, 
Citizens' State, First Nat'l., Planters & Merchants 
Natl., and State Bank of Commerce. Hotel, Com- 
merce, Fought. Has two newspapers and is the 
home of the East Texas Normal College, also of the 
Cotton Belt Machine shops. Tel., W. U. Express. 
COMO— Hopkins County; pop., 827. 9 miles 
southeast of Sulphur Springs, on the M. K. & T. Ry. 
Bank, Como State. Weekly newspaper. The Como 
Headlight. There are three lignite mines, near its 
eastern limits. Ships cotton, fruit, garden truck, 
cordwood and lignite coal. Tel., W. U. Express. 
CONNVILLE— Sabine County; pop., 3,000. About 
20 miles southwest of San Augustine, and five miles 
east of Jeans, the nearest shipping point. 

CONROE — Montgomery County seat; pop., 804; 
alt., 339 ft. 39 miles north of Houston, on the 
G. C. & S. F. and I. & G. N. Rys. Banks, Conroe 
State, Farmers' & Merchants' State, First State. 
Hotels, Capiton, Conroe, Smith. Two weekly news- 
papers. The Courier, The Montgomery County News. 
Is the home of the Conroe Normal and Industrial 
College, a co-educational institution for negroes. 
The soil of surrounding territory is highly adapted 
to truck growing and potatoes, tomatoes and early 
spring vegetables, which are extensively grown. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

COOKVILLE— Titus County; pop., 420. 8 miles 
from Mt. Pleasant, the county seat, on the St. L. S. 
W. Ry. Bank, State Bank. Tel., W. U. Express. 

COOLEDGE— Limestone County; pop., 880. 15 
miles northeast of Groesbeck, the county seat, on 
the T. & B. V. Ry. Banks, Fij-st Nat'l., First State. 
Weekly newspaper, The Ledger-Local. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

COOPER— Delta County seat; pop., 2,563; alt., 
495 ft. 22 miles south of Paris, on the Texas Mid- 
land Ry.. Banks, Delta Nat'l., Farmers' Nat'l., 
First Natl. Hotels, Ganard, Parish, Robertson. 
Two weekly newspapers. The Delta Courier, and the 
Cooper Review. It is in the heart of the famous 
black land belt. Tel., W. U. Express. 

COPEVILLE— Collins County; pop., 240. 22 
miles southeast of McKinney, the county seat, on the 
G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Bank, Citizens' State. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

COPPELL— Dallas County; pop., 200. 25 miles 
southwest of Dallas, the county seat, on the St. L. 
S. W. Ry. Express. 

COPPERAS COVE— Coryell County; pop., 509; 
alt., 1,092 ft. 26 miles from Gatesville, the county 
seat, on the G. C. & S. F. Ry. Banks, First State 
and Guaranty State. Hotels, Goodson, Middick, 
Simpson. Weekly newspaper. The Bannei-. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

CORPUS CHRISTI— Nueces County seat; pop., 
10,522; alt., 35 ft. Is located on and overlooks 
from its high bluff, two magnificent bays. Corpus 
Christi and Nueces, and with its advantageous sur- 
roundings is destined to become one of the leading 
cities of the nation as commercial, agricultural and 
resort center. Four railways enter the city — the 
T. M., the St. L., B. & M., the S. A. & A. P. and the 
S. A. U. & G. Rys. Banks, City Nat'l., Corpus 
Christi Nat'l., and First State. Hotels, Bidwell, 



129 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



Home, Nueces, St. James, State, Williams. Owing 
to its location and freight rates. Corpus Chiristi is 
the jobbing center of southwest Texas. Paved 
streets, municipal owned docks, splendid public util- 
ities. Cotton, forage crops and winter vegetables 
are very prolific. The surrounding land is as rich 
as any in the United States and produces cotton, 
corn, milo maize, kaffir corn, sorghum and other 
forage crops with heavy production in truck pro- 
duce. This city is known throughout the country 
as a resort city and has 5,000 attractive rooms for 
housing visitors. Bathing, boating-, fishing, hunt- 
ing are afforded at all times. The city has two 
weekly newspapers and an active commercial club. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

CORRIGAN— Polk County; pop., 1,000; alt, 32 
ft. 24 miles north of Livingston, the county seat, 
on the M. K. & T. and the H. E. & W. T. Rys. 
Banks, Citizens State, and Corrigan State. Hotel, 
Holoman. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CORSICANA — Navarro County seat; pop., by 
1920 census, 11,356; alt., 418 ft. 55 miles south of 
Dallas on the H. & T. C, the St. L. S. W. and the 
T. & B. V. Rys., and terminal of the Dallas-Corsi- 
cana Interurban. Banks, Corsicana Nat'l., First 
Nat'l., First State, State Nat'l., Corsicana Clear- 
ing House Association. Hotels, Beaton, Commer- 
cial, Main, Navarro, Wilson. Corsicana has fine 
opera house and public library, with first rate pub- 
lic utilities for its citizenship, as paved streets, 
electrical power, telephone and water systems, etc. 
Is important as an oil and natural gas producing 
center. Corsicana was the first oil center of Tex- 
as, oil having been found in considerable quantities 
long before the discovery at Spindle Top. In 1921 
there was a great deal of activity in oil development, 
and Corsicana has become one of the leading oil 
centers of Texas. The population increased several- 
fold and the industries of the city gi-ew in propor- 
tion, and Corsicana has again come to the front as a 
leading oil city. Corsicana has two daily, a semi- 
week.y and two weekly newspapers. Prominent in- 
dustries, cotton seed products, cotton mills, cotton 
compress, cotton gins, overall factory, candy fac- 
tory foundries, brick and tile works, planing mills, 
bottling works and lumber yards. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

COTULLA— La Salle county seat; pop., 2,000; alt. 
425 ft. 87 miles southwest of San Antonio, on the 
I. & G. N. Ry. and the Nueces River. Banks, 
Farmers & Stockmens Bank, and Stockmens Natl. 
Hotels, La Salle, Travellers. Weekly newspaper. 
The Record. Tel., W. U. Express. 

COUPLAND— Williamson County; pop., 150. 30 
miles from Georgetown, the county seat, on the M. 
K. & T. Ry. Bank, Coupland State. Weekly news- 
paper. The Record. Tel., W. U. Express. 

COVINGTON— Hill County; pop., 500. 15 miles 
north of Hillsboro, the county seat, on the T. & B. V. 
Ry. Bank, First Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

CRANDALL— Kaufman County; pop., 750. 26 
miles south of Dallas, 9 miles north of Kaufman, the 
county seat, on the T. & N. O. Ry. Banks, Citizens' 
Natl. First Natl. Weekly newspaper, The Crandall 
Star. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CRANFILL'S GAP— Bosque County; pop., 97. 18 
miles southwest of Meridian, the county seat, and 
19 miles from Clifton, its shipping point. Bank, 



First Guaranty. Telegraph and telephone connec- 
tions. Express. 

CRAWFORD— McLennan County; pop., 573. 20 
miles from Waco, the county seat, on the G. C. & S. 
Fe Ry. Banks, Farmers' State, First Natl. Week- 
ly newspaper. The Advance. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CROCKETT— Houston County seat, pop., 3,061; 
alt., 350 ft. 162 miles above Houston, on the I. & 
G. N. Ry. Banks, Crockett State and First Natl. 
Hotel, Pickwick. Two newspapers. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

CROSBY— Harris County; pop., 300. 22 miles 
east of Houston, the county seat, on the T. & N. O. 
Ry. Bank, Crosby State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CROSBYTON— Crosby County seat; pop., 697; 
alt., 2,912 feet. 38 miles from Lubbock, on the C. & 
S. P. Ry. Banks, Citizens' Natl., First Natl. Ho- 
tels, City and Star. Weekly newspaper, The Review. 
Express. 

CROSS PLAINS— Callahan County; pop., 700. 
36 miles west of De Leon, on the T. C. Ry. Banks, 
Farmers' Natl., First Guaranty State. Has weekly 
newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CROWELL— Foard County seat; pop., 1,175; alt., 
1,456 ft. 23 miles south of Chillicothe on the K. C. 
M. & O. Ry. Banks, Bank of Crowell, First State. 
Hotels, Crowell, Orient, Rasor, Smith. Weekly 
newspaper, Foard County News. Industries, cotton, 
grain and live stock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CROWLEY— Tarrant County; pop., 250. 12% 
miles south of Ft Worth, on the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. 
Bank, Continental State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CRYSTAL CITY— Zavalla County; pop., 800; alt., 
1,000 ft. 25 miles southwest of Batesville, the 
county seat, on the S. A. U. & G. Ry. Has a bank, 
Zavalla County Bank, and a weekly newspaper. Ho- 
tels, Cross, Jackson. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CRYSTAL FALLS— Stephens County; pop., 74. 
11 miles north of Breckenridge, the county seat. 
Bank, Bank of Crystal Falls. 28 Miles from Al- 
bany the usual shipping point. 

CUERO— DeWitt County seat; pop., 3,671; alt., 
177 ft. 135 miles west of Houston, on the S. A. & 
A. P., and S. P. Rys. Banks, Buechel Natl., First 
State Bank &Trust Co., H. Runge & Co., Bankers. 
Hotels, Butler, Muti. Has two sanitariums, two 
daily and weekly newspapers, The Record and The 
Star; a German weekly, Der Missionfreund, and a 
semi-weekly, Der Deutsche Rundschau. Has one 
of the largest cotton mills in the South, also one of 
the largest cotton oil mills, and cotton compress and 
one of the largest electric water power plants in the 
South. Two of the largest turkey dressing plants 
in the world are here. The climate and soil are 
adapted to raising cotton, corn, alfalfa, onions, cab- 
bage and other kinds of truck which are shipped into 
northern markets early. Tel., W. U. Express. 

CUMBY— Hopkins County; pop., 945. 14 miles 
west of Sulphur Springs, the county seat, on the 
M. K. & T. Ry. Bank, Comby State. Hotels, 
Graves, Mathis. Weekly newspaper. The Rustler. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

GUSHING- Nacogdoches County; pop., 1,500; 
alt., 412 ft. 20 miles northwest of Nacogdoches, 
the county seat, on the T. & N. O. Ry. Banks, Gush- 
ing State, Farmers Guaranty Bank. Hotel, Wal- 
lace. Weekly newspaper. The Enterprise. Tel. W. 
U. Express. 

DAINGERFIELD— Morris County seat; pop., 
11,000; alt., 250 ft. 33 miles northwest of Jeffer- 



130 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



son, on the M. K. & T. Ry. Banks, Citizen's Natl., 
Natl Bank of Daingerfield. Hotel, Smith. Has 
weekly newspaper, cotton gin, cotton seed oil mill, 
saw and grist mills, etc. Tel. W. U. Express. 

DALHART— Dallam County seat; pop., 5,676; alt., 
3,<.i98 ft. 82 miles north of Amarillo, 530 miles 
southwest from Kansas City, at the junction of the 
main lines of the C. R. I. & G. and the Ft. W. & D. 
Rys. Banks, Citizen's State, First Natl., Midway 
Bank. Hotels, DeSoto, Grand. Weekly newspaper, 
The Texan. Dalhart is the center for the growing 
of cattle, horses, hogs, kaffir corn, milo maize and 
other forage crops. From here heavy shipments are 
made of cattle and hogs, kaffir corn and milo maize, 
produce and dairy products. Tel., W. U. Express. 

DALLAS — Dallas County seat; pop., 158,976; alt., 
426 ft. Dallas is located in north central Texas 
on the Trinity River in what is known as the black 
waxey belt of Texas. The first settlement was made 
by John Neely Bryan in 1841; the county was or- 
ganized in 1846 and was named after George M. 
Dallas, vice president of the United States. In 1872 
two steam railways reached the village of 5,000 and 
by 1880 the population was doubled and by 1890 
it was trebled. Within a circle the radius of which 
extends 100 miles from the city of Dallas, more than 
25 per cent of the people of Texas live, there are 
over 17,000 rated business concerns, 686 national 
and state banks with a combined capital of over 
$38,000,000; in the same territory are 156,373 farms 
or 16.6 per cent of the total number of farms of all 
Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas and Louisiana combined, 
yielding 17% per cent of America's cotton crop and 
over 1,200 prosperous towns and villages. Banks, 
American Exch. Natl., Central State, Citizens State, 
City Natl., Dallas County State, Dallas Natl., Dallas 
Trust and Savings, Federal Reserve for the 11th 
District, Guaranty Bank and Trust Co., Liberty 
State, Natl Bank of Commerce, Oak Cliff State Bank 
and Trust Co., Southwest Natl. Financial corpora- 
tions. Bankers and Brokers, are: Bankers' 'Trust 
Co., Dallas Joint Stock Land Bank, Dallas Securi- 
ties Co., Dallas Title & Guaranty Co., Dallas Trust 
Co., Dallas Union Trust Co., Texas Finance Corpora- 
tion, U. S. Bond and Mortgage Co., Breg, Garrett 
& Co., Brown Crummer Co., Jas. Schwartz Co., J. P. 
Scranton & Co., R. T. Stewart & Co., Thomas Mort- 
gage Co., Dallas Clearing House Association. Hotels, 
Adolphus, Cadillac, Campbell, Galloupe, Huntley, 
Jefferson, Oriental, Park, Queen, St. George, South- 
land, Texan and Waldorf. 

The wholesale business for 1920 of Dallas totalled 
$600,000,000; the wholesale business in all automo- 
tive lines is approximately $200,000,000 annually. 
The value of products manufactured in Dallas passes 
the $100,000,000 mark each year. In express busi- 
ness Dallas ranks first per capita of all the cities of 
the Union and is seventh city in volume of express 
business in the nation. Dallas' building permits for 
1920, totalled $13,363,157, giving the city 19th rank 
among the Nation's boilders. Dallas ranks 24th in 
Postal Receipts, and only six cities in the United 
States pay more money orders. Dallas is the farm 
loan center of the Southwest, the census showing 
that 91.8 per cent of the total farm mortgage loans 
of the state are held by Dallas companies. 

Dallas is the distributing center of the southwest, 
as its location and transportation facilities make 
it the jobbing and wholesale center for a territory 
larger than the New England and the Middle At- 



lantic states combined. There are 570 wholesalers 
and manufacturers here, 256 of which are of national 
importance. Dallas leads the world in the manufac- 
ture and distribution of leather goods, cotton gin 
machinery, and ships more galvanized corrugated 
tanks to the oil fields than any other city in the 
nation and is the geographical center for the oil 
territory of the Southwest. Dallas is the largest 
film distributing center in the world and is one of 
the three largest depots for farm implements in 
America. 3,000 travelling salesmen make Dallas 
their heatiquarters. 

Nine railroads entering Dallas give outlet in 
twenty-three different duections and five electric 
interurban railways radiate in seven different direc- 
tions. Within the territory reached from Dallas on 
a lower freight rate than from St. Louis are 6,630,065 
people, 4,082,620 of whom can be reached from 
Dallas on a lower rate than from Gulf points. 
262 telegraph circuits lead out from Dallas and she 
has sixth rank in volume of telegraph business in 
the United States. Dallas has the largest per capita 
development of telephones of any city in the Union. 

Dallas leads the Southwest in population, whole- 
sale business, factory output, freight business, postal 
receipts and new buildings. 172 churches, 112 
schools and colleges, two annual gi'and opera seasons 
provide for the moral, educational and cultural de- 
velopment. Tel., Mackay, Postal and W. U. Ex- 
press. 

DARROUGETT— Lipscomb County; Post Office, 
Lourwood. Bank, Frass State Bank. 

DAWSON— Navarro County; pop., 950. 21 miles 
southwest of Corsicana, the county seat, on the St. 
L. S. W. Ry. Banks, First Natl., Liberty Natl. 
Weekly newspaper. The Herald. Industries, cotton 
and grain. Tel., W. U. Express. 

DAYTON— Liberty County; pop., 787; alt., 89 ft. 
Six miles west of Liberty, the county seat, and 36 
miles east of Houston, on the T. & N. O. Ry. Banks, 
Dayton State, People's Guaranty State. Hotels, 
Hunnicut and Wright. Weekly newspaper, The Day- 
tonite Local. Tel., W. U. Express. 

DEANVILLE— Burleson County; pop., 25. Eight 
miles from Caldwell, the shipping point. Bank, 
First State. Telephone connection. 

DECATUR— Wise County seat; pop., 2,205; alt., 
1,087 ft. 40 miles north of Ft. Worth on the Ft. 
W. & D. C. R. R. Banks, City Natl., First Natl., Se- 
curity State. Hotels, City and Dill. Has two weekly 
newspapers and a college, Decatur Baptist College. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

DeK ALB— Bowie County; pop., 655; alt., 407 ft. 
111/2 miles northwest of Boston, the county seat, 
on the T. & P. Ry. Banks, DeKalb Exchange, First 
State. Hotels, Allen, Whittle. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

DeLEON— Comanche County; pop., 3,302; alt., 
1,300 ft. 20 miles north of Comanche, the county 
seat, on the T. C. Ry. Banks, Farmers and Mer- 
chants Natl, First State, Guaranty State. Hotels, 
City, Lambert, Travelers. Tel., W. U. Express. 

DEL RIO — Valverde County seat; pop., 10,589; 
alt., 952 ft. 169 miles west of San Antonio and 3 
miles north of the Rio Grande River, on the G. H. 
& S. A. Ry. Banks, Del Rio Bank and Trust Co., 
Del Rio Natl., First Natl. Hotels, Frank's, Graf, 
Gray, St. Charles, Val Verde. Two weekly news- 
papers. Tel. W. U. Express. 



131 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



DENISON— Grayson County; pop., 17,065; alt, 
7 24 ft. Three miles from the Red River which sep- 
arates it from Oklahoma and as it is at the entrance 
to the state, it is known as "Gate City;" 10 miles 
from Sherman, the county seat, 95 miles north of 
Dallas, on the M. K. & T., the T. & P., the M. O. 
& G., the H. & T. C. and the Frisco lines, and is a 
terminal of the Dallas-Denison interurban. Each 
of these roads, with the exception of the Frisco 
lines, maintains division terminals, locomotive and 
car shops and have a monthly pay roll exceeding 
$300,000; 47 passenger trains daily leave the Union 
Station, one of the finest in the Southwest. Banks, 
Denison Bank & Trust Co., Natl Bank of Denison, 
Security State, State Natl. Hotels, Bruckers, Pal- 
ace, Park. Two daily newspapers, a semi-weekly 
and two weekly publications. Has two beautiful 
parks, a $150,000 government building, a municipal 
hospital, commission form of government, modern 
public utilities. Has the largest coffee roasting 
plant in the Southwest, the second largest creosoting 
plant in the world, the largest cotton factory in 
Texas, the largest peanut factory in the South, the 
largest handle factory in the state, with other large 
manufacturing concerns. Institutions, St. Xavier 
Academy, a business college, public library, churches 
of the leading denominations. Industries, corn, cot- 
ton, alfalfa, fruits, truck. Tel. W. U. Express. 

DENTON— Denton County seat; pop., 7,626; alt., 
620 ft. 35 miles northwest of Dallas, on the T. & P. 
and M. K. & T. Rys. Banks, Denton County Natl., 
Exchange Natl., First Guaranty State, First Natl. 
Hotels, City and Cottage. Has two state colleges. 
The College of Industrial Arts for Girls and the 
North Texas State Normal College, a co-educational 
institution having the largest enrollment of any 
normal school in the state. Has a daily and two 
weekly newspapers, with all the facilities of a 
hustling commercial center. Industries, flour mill- 
ing, brick, ice, bottling works, cotton seed products, 
broom factory, mattress factory, monument works, 
etc. Tel., W. U. Express. 

DEPORT— Lamar County; pop., 821; alt., 540 ft. 
16 miles from Paris, the county seat, on the P. & Mt. 
P Ry , and on Mustang Creek. Banks, First Natl., 
First State. Hotel, Commercial. Weekly newspaper, 
The Times. Express. 

DESDEMONA— Eastland County; pop., 3,008; 
22 miles southeast of Eastland, the county seat, 10 
miles from Gormon, the nearest railroad point. 
Banks, Desdemona State Bank and Trust Co., First 
Guaranty State, First Natl. One of_ the leading 
centers in the recent west Texas oil fields. 

DESSAU — Travis County; pop., 1,200 about 20 
miles northeast of Austin, on the M. K. & T. Ry. 

DETROIT— Red River County; pop., 1,200; alt., 
482 ft. 13 miles west of Clarksville, the county seat, 
and 117 miles from Dallas, on the T. & P. Ry. 
Weekly newspaper, The Herald. Banks, Detroit 
State, First Natl. Hotel, Duncan. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

DEVINE — Medina County; pop., 995; alt., 653 ft. 
15 miles southeast of Hondo, the county seat, 32 
miles southwest of San Antonio, on the I. & G. N. 
Ry. Bank, Adams Natl. Hotel, Rose. Two weekly 
newspapers. The News and The Reporter. Ships 
cotton, corn, sugar cane and live stock. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

DEWEYVILLE — Newton County; pop., 1,000. 
48 miles south of Newton, the county seat, 35 miles 



from Beaumont, the nearest banking point, on the 
K. C. S. Ry. Ship via Ruliff. Telephone connection. 

DEXTER— Cook County; pop., 350. 15 milep 
north of Whitesboro, the nearest shipping point, and 
24 miles from Gainesville, the county seat. Bank, 
First Guaranty State. Telephone connection. 

D'HANIS— Medina County; pop., 400. Nine miles 
west of Hondo, the county seat, on the G. H. & S. A. 
Ry. Bank, D'Hanis State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

DIALVILLE— Cherokee County; pop., 200. Seven 
miles south of Rusk, the county seat, on the St. L. 
S. W. Ry. Bank, Dialville State. Weekly news- 
paper. The News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

DIBOLL — Angelina County; pop., 500. Eleven 
miles southeast of Lufkin, the county seat and bank- 
ing point, on the H. E. & W. T. Ry. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

DICKINSON— Galveston County; pop., 1,000. 20 
miles northwest of Galveston, the county seat, on 
the I. & G. N., the M. K. & T. and the G. H. & H. 
Rys. Banks, Dickinson State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

DILLEY— Frio County; pop., 600; alt., 569 ft. 
16 miles southwest of Pearsall, the county seat, on 
the I. & G. N. Ry. Bank, Dilley State. Hotel, Run- 
field. Has a weekly newspaper. Express and 
telephone connections. 

DIME BOX— Lee County; pop., 500. 16 miles 
northeast of Giddings, the county seat, and 8 miles 
from Lincoln, the shipping point. Bank, First State. 

DIMMITT— Castro County seat; pop., 500. 22 
mile.« from Hereford, the nearest shipping point. 
Bank, First State. Has newspaper, The Plainsman. 
Stage daily to Hereford. Telephone connection. 

DOBBIN— Montgomery County; pop., 200. 22 
miles northwest of Conroe, the county seat, on the 
G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Bank, First State. Telephone 
connection. 

DODD CITY— Fannin County; pop., 495. Six 
miles from Bonham, the county seat, on the T. & P. 
Ry. Banks, First Natl., First State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

DODGE — Walker County; pop., 500. Nine miles 
from Huntsville, the county seat, on the I. & G. N. 
Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

DODSONVILLE— Collingsworth County; pop., 
700. 17 miles from Wellington, the county seat, on 
the W. & N. W. Ry. Bank, First State. Weekly 
newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

DONIE— Freestone County; pop., 19. 18 miles 
from Fairfield, the county seat, on the T. & B. V. Ry. 
Bank, Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

DONNA— Hidalgo County; pop., 1,072. 12 miles 
from Edinburgh, the county seat, on the St. L. B. 
& M. Ry. Banks, First State, Farmers' State. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

DORCHESTER— Grayson County; pop., 100. 12 
miles southwest of Sherman, the county seat, on 
the St. L. & S. F. Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

DOUGLASSVILLE— Cass County; pop., 170. 12 
miles from Linden, the county seat, and 14 miles 
from Atlanta, the nearest shipping point. Bank, 
First State. Stage daily to Atlanta. 

DUBLIN— Erath County; pop., 3,229; alt., 1,466. 
14 miles southwest of Stephenville, the county seat, 
and 90 miles southwest of Ft. Worth, on the Ft. W. 
& R. G. and T. C. Rys. Banks, Citizens' Natl., 
Dublin Natl., Guaranty State. Hotels, Commercial, 
Evans. Two weekly newspapers. The Telephone and 



132 



CITIES AND TO\lin\S 



The Progress. Industries, cotton and live stock. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

DUFFAU— Erath County; pop., 250; alt., 780 ft. 
Eight miles from Hico, its shipping point. Bank, 
Farmers & Merchants State. Mail daily. Hotel, 
Southland. 

DUMAS— Moore County seat; pop., 200. 30 miles 
northeast of Channing, the usual shipping point. Has 
a bank. First State, and a newspaper. Stage daily 
to Channing. Telephone connection. 

DUNCANVILLE— Dallas County; pop., 300. 14 
miles southwest of Dallas, the county seat, on the 
G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Bank, Farmers'. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

DUNDEE— Archer County; pop., 200. 21 miles 
from Archer City, the county seat, on the W. V. R. R. 
Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

DURAXGO— Falls County; pop., 2,000. About 20 
miles southwest of Marlin, the county seat and 5 
miles from Lott, the nearest shipping point and 
banking center. 

EAGLE LAKE— Colorado County; pop., 2,017; 
alt., 173 ft. At the junction of the S. P., G. C. & S. 
F. and S. A. & A. P. Rys., 60 miles west of Houston, 
and 16 miles east of Columbus, the county seat. 
Banks, Ragle Lake State Bank, First Natl. Hotels, 
Dallas, Drummers', Eagle Lake. V\'eekly newspaper, 
The Headlight. Is situated on a beautiful lake 
bearing its name, 1 mile in width to 3^2 miles in 
length, giving beautiful surroundings, fish products, 
and water for rice irrigation. Is on the edge of 
the famous "cane belt" and much sugar cane is 
grown and manufactured into sugar here. Principal 
products, cotton and corn; important products, figs, 
truck products, live stock, dairying and produce. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

EAGLE PASS— Maverick County seat. Pop., 
8,000; alt., 726 ft. 167 miles southwest of San An- 
tonio, on the Rio Grande River and the G. H. & 
S. A. Ry. Banks, Bonnet Banking Co., Border Natl., 
First Natl., State Bank & Trust Co. Hotels, Dolch, 
Eagle. St. Joseph's Academy caters to the Mexican 
education public and parochial schools care for the 
American families. Weekly newspaper. The News- 
Guide. Tel., W. U. Express. 

EAST BERNARD— Wharton County; pop., 400. 
15 miles southwest of Richmond, on the G. H. & S. 
A. Ry. Bank, Union State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

EASTLAND— Eastland County seat; pop., 9,368; 
alt., 1,420 ft. On the T. & P. Ry., 55 miles east of 
Abilene and 105 miles west of Ft. Worth. Banks, 
American Natl., City Natl., First State, Guaranty 
State, Citizens' Natl. Hotels, Charlotte, Connelles, 
Cottage, Eastland, Planters. One of the leading oil 
centers of Texas, with enormous output. 

ECTOR— Fannin County; pop., 454. Six miles 
from Bonham, the county seat, on the T. & P. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Telephone connection. 

EDDY — McLennan County; pop., 360. 20 miles 
from Waco, the county seat, on the M. K. & T. Ry. 
Bank, First Natl. Weekly newspaper, Eddy Journal. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

EDEN— Concho County; pop., 641. 22 miles from 
Paint Rock, on the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Weekly 
newspaper. The Eden Echo. Bank, Eden State. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

EDGEWOOD— Van Zandt County; pop., 820. 10 
miles north of Canton, the county seat, 53 miles east 
of Dallas, on the M. K. & T. Ry. Banks, Farmers 



& Merchants' State, First Natl. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

EDINBURG— Hidalgo County seat; pop., 1,406. 
On the St. L. B. & M. Ry. Banks, Edinburg State 
Bank & Trust Co., First Natl. Weekly newspaper. 
Tel., W. U. E.xpress. 

EDNA— Jackson County seat; pop., 2,000; alt., 
974 ft. Eight miles from the Gulf of Mexico and 
125 miles southwest of Houston, on the G. H. & S. 
A. Ry. Banks, Allen Natl., Jackson County State. 
Hotel, McDowell. Weekly newspaper, The Herald. 
Sliips cotton, corn, live stock and produce. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

EL CAMPO— Wharton County; pop., 1,766; alt., 
60 ft. 14 miles southwest of Wharton, the county 
seat, and 75 miles from Houston, on the G. H. & 
S. A. Ry. Banks, Citizens' State, First Natl. Hotels, 
Cottage and Rice. Has two weekly newspapers. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

EL DORADO— Schleicher County seat; pop., 850; 
alt., 2,500 ft. 49 miles from San Angelo, its ship- 
ping point. Bank, First Natl. Hotel, Holland. 
Weekly newspaper. Stage daily to Sonora and San 
Angelo. Telephone connection. 

ELECTRA— Wichita County; pop., 4,740; alt, 
902 ft. 26 miles west of Wichita Falls, the county 
seat, on the Ft. W. & D. Ry. Banks, First Natl., 
First State. Hotels, Electra, Jefferson, Marriott, 
Spar. A daily and weekly newspaper. Principal 
industiy, production of oil and gas. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

ELGIN— Bastrop County; pop., 1,630; alt., 577 ft. 
16 miles north of Bastrop, the county seat, 28 miles 
from Austin, 130 miles from Houston, at the junction 
of the M. K. & T. and the H. & T. C. Rys. Banks, 
Elgin Natl., Merchants' & Farmers' State. Hotel, 
McClellan. Manufacture of brick is extensively car- 
ried on. Has weekly newspaper, The Courier. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

ELIASVILLE— Young County; pop., 1,000. 18 
miles from Graham, the shipping point. Bank, First 
State. Mail daily. 

ELKHART— Anderson County; pop., 700. 12 
miles from Palestine, the county seat, on the I. & G. 
N. Ry. Banks, Elkhart Guaranty State, Farmers' & 
Merchants' Bank. Weekly newspaper. Express. 

ELLINGER— Fayette County; pop., 500. 12 miles 
from La Grange, the county seat, on the G. H. & 
S. A. Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ELMO — Kaufman County; pop., 410. 14 miles 
northeast of Kaufman, the county seat, on the T. & 
P. Ry. Bank, First Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

EL PASO— El Paso County seat; pop., 77,543, alt, 
3,762 ft. 712 miles northwest of Austin, and across 
the Rio Grande River from Juarez, an important 
Mexican border city, on the E. P. & S. W., the G. H. 
& S. A., the National of Mexico, the R. G. & El P., 
the S. P. and the T. & P. Rys. Banks, American 
Trust & Savings Bank, Border Natl., City Natl., El 
Paso Bank & Trust Co., Federal Reserve Bank of 
Dallas (branch). First Mortgage Co., First Natl., 
Security Bank & Trust Co., State Natl., Volney B. 
Leonard & Co., El Paso Clearing House. Hotels, 
Alamo, Alberta, Angeles, Arlington, Benson, Boston, 
Bristol Carlyle, Carman Fisher, Grand, Green Tree, 
Herbert, Krahmer, Leon, Laughlin, Linden, Lockie, 
McCoy, Oasis, Oregon, Orndorff, Paso Del norte, 
St. Charles, St. Regis, Savoy, Sheldon, Travelers. 
Has eight hospitals and sanitariums. The press is 



133 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



represented by three dailies, three weeklies, a semi- 
monthly and two monthly publications. There are 
ore smelters, iron foundries, cigar factories, brick 
works, rock drill and machinery works, planing 
mills, larg-e government irrigation works, etc. Tel. 
and express. 

ELYSIAN FIELDS— Harrison County; pop., 250. 
18 miles from Marshall, on the M. & E. T. Ry. Bank, 
Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

EMHOUSE— Navarro County; pnp., 347. 10 miles 
from Corsicana, the county seat, on the T. & B. V. 
Ry. Banks, First State, First Natl. Weekly news- 
paper. The News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

EMORY— Rains County seat; pop., 800; alt., 464 
ft. 30 miles southeast of Greenville, on the M. K. & 
T. Ry. Banks, First Natl., First State. Weekly 
newspaper. The Rains County Leader. Hotels, Gill- 
mour, Rodes. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ENCINAL— LaSalle County; pop., 600. 28 miles 
from Cotulla, the county seat, on the L & G. N. Ry. 
Cotulla is the nearest banking point. Tel., W. U. 
Express. , 

ENLOE— Delta County; pop., 398. Five miles 
from Cooper, the county seat, on the T. M. R. R. 
Banks, First Natl., Guaranty State. Telephone, tele- 
graph and express facilities. 

ENNIS— Ellis County; pop., 7,224; alt., 584 ft. 
15 miles east of Waxahachie, the county seat, and 
33 miles south of Dallas, on the T. M. and H. & T. 
C. Rys. Banks, Citizens' Natl., Ennis Natl., People's 
State, Ennis Clearing House Association. Hotels, 
Central, King. Two newspapers. The Ennis Daily 
News and the Weekly Local. Industry, cotton. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

ERA — Cooke County; pop., 300. 15 miles from 
Gainsville, the county seat, and 7 miles from Valley 
View, the nearest shipping point. Bank, First Guar- 
anty State. Telephone connection. 

ESTELLINE— Hall County; pop., 394. 14 miles 
southeast of Memphis, the county seat, on the Ft. 
W. & D. Ry. Bank, Estelline State. Weekly news- 
paper. The News. Express. 

EUSTACE— Henderson County; pop., 400. 12 
miles northwest of Athens, the county seat, on the 
T. & N. 0. Ry. Bank, First State. 

EVANT— Coryell County; pop., 500. 25 miles 
from Gatesville, the county seat, 19 miles south of 
Hamilton, the nearest shipping point. Bank, Evant 
State. Mail daily. 

EVERMAN— Tarrant County; pop., 500. Ten 
miles north of Ft. Worth, the county seat, on the 
I. & G. N. R. R. and the Ft. Worth and Cleburne 
Interurban. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

FABENS— El Paso County; pop., 100. 22 miles 
from El Paso, on the G. H. & S. A. Ry. Bank, First 
Natl. Telephone and express connection. 

FAIRFIELD — Freestone County seat; pop., 629; 
alt., 390 ft. 12 miles from Teague, the nearest ship- 
ping point. Bank, Fairfield State Bank. Hotel, 
Commercial. Weekly newspaper. The Recorder. 
Stage daily to Teague. Telephone connection. 

FAIRLIE— Hunt County; pop., 248. 22 miles 
northeast of Greenville, the county seat, and 7 miles 
from Wolfe City. Bank, Citizens' Bank. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

FALFURRIAS— Brooks County seat; pop., 2,500; 
alt., 5,000 ft. 299 miles southwest of Houston and 
185 miles south of San Antonio, at the terminus 
of the Falfurrias branch of the S. A. & A. P. Ry. 



Banks, Falfurrias State and First Natl. Hotels, 
Palace, Park. Falfurrias is noted for having prob- 
ably the largest daii-y in the world, milking 1,400 
cows and producing 1,000 pounds of butter daily. 
Produces citrous fruits, cotton, corn, truck farming, 
live stock and dairy products. Tel., W. U. Express. 

FALLS CITY— Karnes County; pop., 500. 12 
miles northwest of Karnes City, the county seat, on 
the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Bank, Falls City Natl. Has 
a weekly newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

FARMERS BRANCH— Dallas County; pop., 300. 
12 miles north of Dallas, the County Seat, on the 
M. K. & T. Ry. Bank, Riddle Banking Co. Cotton 
and grain are the chief shipments. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

FARMERSVILLE— Collin County; pop., 2,167; 
alt., 636 ft. 16 miles east of McKinney, the county 
seat, and 38 miles from Dallas, on the M. K. & T. 
and the G. C. & S. Fe Rys. Banks, Farmers' & 
Merchants' Natl., First Natl., First State. Hotel, 
St. George. Weekly newspaper. The Times. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

FARWELL— Parmer County seat; pop., 600. 90 
miles southwest of Amarillo, on the P. V. and N. E. 
Ry. Its railroad station, express and telegraph of- 
fices are at Texico, N. M., one-half mile distant. 
Bank, Texas State. Has a weekly newspaper. 

FATE— Rockwall County; pop., 299. 41/2 miles 
northeast of Rockwall, the county seat, on the M. K. 
& T. Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express 

FAYETTEVILLE— Fayette County; pop., 390; 
alt., 415 ft. 14 miles from La Grange, the county 
seat, on the M. K. & T. Ry. Banks, Farmers' Natl. 
Fayetteville State. Hotel, Johnson. Has a news- 
paper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

FENTRESS— Caldwell County; pop. 12 

miles southwest of Lockhart, the county seat and 10 
miles from Luling, the nearest shipping point. Bank, 
Fentress State. Telephone connection. 

FERRIS— Ellis County; pop., 1,586; alt., 471 ft. 
18 miles south of Dallas, 16 miles northeast of 
Waxahachie, the county seat, on the H & T. C. Ry. 
Banks, Farmers & Merchants State, Ferris Natl. 
Has six brick plants, a broom factory, three cotton 
gins, a weekly newspaper. The Ferris Wheel. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

FLATONIA— Fayette County; pop., 995; alt., 465 
ft. 24 miles south of La Grange, the county seat, 
120 miles west of Houston, on the S. P. and the 
S. A. & A. P. Rys. Bank, Flatonia State. Hotel, 
Sullivan. A weekly newspaper, The Argus. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

FLORENCE— Williamson County; pop., 650. 18 
miles from Georgetown, the county seat, on the 
B. W. Ry. and the Salado River. Banks, Farmers' 
State, Florence State. Has a weekly newspaper. 
Telephone connection. 

FLORESVILLE— Wilson County seat; pop., 1,518; 
alt., 363 ft. Banks, City Natl., First Natl. Hotel, 
Miller. Weekly newspaper. The Chronicle-Journal. 
Shipments, cotton and farm produce. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

FLOYD— Hunt County; pop., 300. Eight miles 
from Greenville, the county seat, on the M. K. & 
T. Ry. Tel., W. U. Express. 

FLO YD AD A— Floyd County seat; pop., 1,384; 
alt., 3,500 ft. 26 miles southeast of Plainview, 110 
miles southeast of Amarillo, on the Plainview branch 
of the A. T. & S. Fe Ry. Banks, First Natl., First 
State. Hotel, Commercial. Ships broom com, wheat, 



134 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



cotton, oats, kaffir, cattle, hogs, dairy products. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

FLUVANNA— Scurry County; pop., 375. 19% 
miles northwest of Snyder, the county seat, on the 
R. S. & P. Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

FLYNN— Leon County; pop., 300. 13 miles south- 
west of Centerville, the county scat, on the H. & 
T. C. and the T. & B. V. Rys. Bank, Guaranty State. 
Telephone connection. Express. 

FOCH— Scurry County; pop., 600. Bank, First 
State. 

FOLLETT— Lipscomb County; pop., 500. Banks, 
Farmers' Natl., First State. 

FOREST— Cherokee County; pop., 100. 22 miles 
fro mRusk, the county seat, and 5 miles from Wells 
on the St. L. S. \V. Bank, Farmers & Merchants 
State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

FORESTBURG— Montague County; pop., 372. 14 
miles from Montague, the county seat, and 14 miles 
from St. Jo, the usual shipping point. Bank, First 
State. Stage daily to St. Jo. Telephone connection. 

FORNEY— Kaufman County; pop., 1,345; alt., 465 
ft. 20 miles northwest of Kaufman, the county seat, 
on the T. & P. Ry., and 21 miles east of Dallas. 
Banks, City Natl., Farmers' Natl., Citizens' Natl., 
Forney State. Hotels, Ball, Forney. Weekly news- 
paper, The Messenger. Tel., W. U. Express. 

FORRESTON— Ellis County; pop., 233. Nine 
miles from Waxahachie, the county seat, on the M. 
K. & T. Ry. Bank, Forreston State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

FORT DAVIS— Jeff Davis County seat; pop., 
1,06 0; alt., 4,5 00 ft. 22 miles northeast of Marfa, 
the nearest shipping point. Has a bank. Fort Davis 
State, and a weekly a newspaper. Stage daily to 
Marfa. Hotel, Limpea. 

FORT STOCKTON— Pecos County seat; pop., 
1,297; alt., 3,050 ft. 55 miles southeast of Pecos, 
on the K. C. M. & O. Ry. Banks, First Natl., First 
State. Hotels, Rooney, Stockton. Two weekly 
newspapers, The Pioneer and The Journal. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

FORT WORTH— Tarrant County seat; pop., 
106,482; alt., 670 ft. Fort Worth is the Gateway to 
the gi-eat Southwest and has more trunk lines of 
railways than has any other city in Texas, the C. R. 
L & G., Ft. W. & D. C, the Frisco Lines, the G. C. 
& S. Fe, the H. & G. C, the I. & G. N., the M. K. & 
T., the St. L. S. W., the T. & P. and the T. & B. V. 
Rys. Ft. Worth is the greatest railway center in the 
Southwest and is the interchange point of 80 per 
cent of the traffic moving to and from the state. 
Banks, Commercial State, Continental Bank & Trust 
Co., Exchange State, Farmers' & Mechanics' Natl., 
First Natl., Ft. Worth Natl., Ft. Worth State, Guar- 
anty State, National Bank of Commerce, Numis- 
matic Bank of Texas, Security State, Stockyards 
Natl., Texas State; banking companies are the 
Bankers' Loan & Securities Co., Cattlemen's Trust 
Co., Commerce Trust Co., North Texas Trust Co., 
United Trust Co., Ward-Harrison Mortgage Co., 
Broad & Bomar, W. R. Edrington & Co., and the 
Ft. Worth Clearing House Association. Hotels, The 
Texas, Boston, Chandler, Court, Majestic, Melba, 
Metropolitan, Sandegard, Seibold, Terminal, Trinity, 
Westbrook, Yorkley. 

Ft. Worth has the commission form of govern- 
ment, a tax rate of $1.93 on the hundred, over 150 
miles of streets, over 60 miles of paved streets, 80 



mik's of electric street railway, 68 miles of inter- 
urban railway; is the home of Polytechnic College, 
Texas Christian University, St. Ignatius Academy, 
Our Lady of Victory, Southwestern Baptist Theo- 
logical Seminary, St. Andrews' School, Arlington 
Heights College and a number of business colleges. 
The city has 31 public parks and playgrounds with 
an area of 550 acres, an abundant natural gas supply 
from inexhaustible fields at a low rate for the con- 
sumer, a $6,000,000 water plant, the largest and 
most modern power plant in the Southwest, the only 
steel rolling mill in the Southwest, 5 modern and 
fully equipped hospitals, over 100 churches, 21 news- 
papers and publications, some of the largest oil re- 
fineries in the state, and a larger payroll, a larger 
average wage, a larger number of laboring men and 
less trouble with labor than any other city in the 
state. A larger percentage of the people of Ft. 
Worth own their homes than in any other city in 
the South. 

Ft. Worth is the second live stock and packing 
center in the United States. Swift & Co. and 
Armour & Co., two of the big parent packing plants 
of the country, have extensive branches here. The 
stockyards of Ft. Worth can handle in a single day 
25,000 cattle, 10,000 calves, 15,000 hogs and 7,000 
horses and mules. Each of the railroads centering 
at Ft. Worth run directly to the yards and 600 em- 
ployees are kept busy in the yards caring for the 
stock. The National Feeders' and Breeders' Show 
holds its annual exposition at Ft. Worth. The vol- 
ume of grain handled by Ft. Worth mills and ele- 
vators is second only to that handled by Kansas City, 
the leading gi'ain market in the territory of the 
Southwest. Two big flour mills — the largest in this 
section of the United States — have a capacity of 
1,000,000 bushels. In addition to its leadership in 
the flour mill industry. Ft. Worth is rapidly becom- 
ing the chief corn products milling points of this 
section of the United States. In the way of public 
organizations. Ft. Worth has the greatest number 
of any city in the Southwest. Tel., Mackay, Postal, 
W. U. Express. 

FRANCITAS— Jackson County; pop., 300. 23 
miles southeast of Edna, the county seat, on the 
St. L. B. & M. Ry. Bank, First State. Weekly 
newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

FRANKELL — Eastland County; P. O. Ranger. 
Bank, First Natl. 

FRANKLIN— Robertson County seat; pop., 1,131; 
alt., 340 ft. 103 miles northeast of Austin on the 
I. & G. N. Ry. Banks, First Natl., First State, 
Mitchell Bros. Bank. Hotel, National. Weekly 
newspaper. The Central Texan. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

FRANKSTON— Anderson County; pop., 818; alt., 
."iSO. 24 miles southeast of Athens on the T. & N. 
O. Ry. Banks, First State, Frankston State. Hotel, 
White House. Weekly newspaper. Express. 

FREDERICKSBURG— Gillespie County seat; pop., 
2,500; alt., 1,742 ft. 70 miles north of San Antonio, 
on the S. A. F. & N. Ry. Banks, Bank of Fredericks- 
burg, Citizens' Bank. Hotel, Ostrow. Two weekly 
newspapers. The noted Bear Mountain Red Granite 
quarries are four miles north of the city. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

FREEPORT— Brazoria County; pop., 1,789; alt., 
64 ft. 16 miles southwest of Angleton, the county 
seat, 50 miles from Galveston, 60 miles from Hops- 
ton, on the H. & B. V. and on the Brazos River. 



135 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



Bank, Freeport Natl. Hotel, Tarpon. It is the 
location of the largest sulphur mines in the world, 
of the largest storage tanks of the Freeport Mexican 
Oil Co., and headquarters and terminal of the H. & 
B. V. Ry. Has a weekly newspaper. The Freeport 
Facts. Tel., W. U. Express. 

FRIONA— Parmer County; pop., 200. 26 miles 
from Farwell, the county seat, on the P. & N. T. Ry. 
Bank, Friona State. Weekly newspaper. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

FRISCO— Collin County; pop., 733. 16 miles from 
McKinney, the county seat, on the St. L. S. F. & T. 
Ry. Banks, First Natl., Frisco Guaranty State. 
Weekly newspaper. The Journal. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

FROST— Navarro County; pop., 913 21 miles 
west of Corsicana, the county seat, on the St. L. S. 
W. Ry. Banks, Citizens' State, first Natl. Two 
weekly newspapers, The Star and The News. Ship- 
ment, cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

FULBRIGHT— Red River County; pop., 300. 15 
miles from Clarksville, the county seat, iVz mile3 
from Deport, the nearest shipping point. Bank, 
Guaranty State. Telephone connection. 

GAIL— Borden County; pop., 126. 22 miles south- 
west of Fluvanna, the nearest shipping point, on the 
Colorado River. Bank, Gail Bank. Stage daily to 
Big Springs. Weekly newspaper, The Borden 
Citizen. 

GAINESVILLE— Judicial seat of Cooke County; 
pop., 8,648; alt., 738 ft. Six miles from Red River 
on the G. C. & S. Fe and the M. K. & T. Rys., 700 
miles southwest of St. Louis. Banks, First Natl., 
First State and Lindsay Natl. Hotels, Lindsay, 
Turner. Chief products, cotton, wheat, corn, hay, 
every known fruit and vegetable. Is known as the 
"Banner County" from the fact that she has won 
first prize at the Texas State Fair and the Inter- 
national Fair at San Antonio in every contest 
entered with her agricultural products and horses. 
Is a leader in manufacture. Is noted for her at- 
tractiveness and sanitary condition. Has public 
library. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GALLATIN— Cherokee County; pop., 300. Eight 
miles from Rusk, the county seat, on the T. & N. 
O. Ry. Bank, Farmers & Merchants State. Ex- 
press. 

GALVESTON— Judicial seat of Galveston Coun- 
ty; pop., 44,255; alt, six feet. Located on the east 
end of Galveston Island, about two miles from the 
mainland of the Texas coast in the Gulf of Mexico, 
the chief seaport of Texas and of the United States 
on the Gulf of Mexico. Is the greatest cotton ex- 
porting port in the world and ranks second among 
American ports in the total of its foreign com- 
merce, being exceeded by New York City alone. 
Banks, American Bank & Trust Co., City Natl., First 
Natl., People's Bank, Security Trust Co., South 
Texas State Bank, Texas Bank & Trust Co., Gal- 
veston Trust & Safe Deposit Co., Hutchings, Sealy 
& Co., C. P. Mann & Co., Ed. McCarthy & Co., W. L. 
Moody & Co., and the Galveston Clearing House 
Association. Hotels, Atlanta, Atlantic, Bashos, 
Beach, Beacon, Boulevard, Galvez, Grand, Highland, 
Loves, Oriental, Panama, Plaza, Ridgeway, Royall, 
Salt Air, Seaside, Snug Harbor, Southern, Terminal, 
Tremont and Vinson. Fifty-six lines of steamers 
ply regularly between Galveston and foreign ports 
while five lines ply regularly between Galveston and 
other United States ports. Four daily newspapers 



and several weeklies. Medical Department of the 
State University is located here. The climate is ex- 
ceptionally even; the salt atmosphere eradicates all 
malarial influences, and on account of the low alti- 
tude, Galveston is a mecca for those suffering from 
nervous trouble, catarrh or hay fever. 

The dock frontage provides berthing space for 
more than 100 ocean going steamers at one time. 
Custom houses, bonded warehouses, appraisers 
stores, immigration buildings and quarantine sta- 
tions are maintained by the Federal Government 
as well as the Federal courts and officers. The island 
is connected to the mainland by a concrete causeway 
about two miles in length, carrying tracks for both 
steam and electric railways, and a roadway for ve- 
hicles and pedestrians. Since the storm of 1900 
which resulted in large loss of life and property, 
Galveston has a concrete seawall 17 feet high and 
five miles in length, along the entire Gulf side of 
the city. Twenty million cubic yards of sand fillings 
was deposited back of the seawall, raising the grade 
of the city from the old level to that of the seawall. 

Galveston is enjoying an unprecedented era of 
prosperity. Principal lines of business, cotton com- 
press, several of which are among the largest in 
the world, grain elevators of enormous capacity, 
cotton seed cake mills, sacking mills, rice mills, flour 
mills, marine ways, ship yard, machine shops, cotton 
concentration plants, cigar manufacturing, groom 
factories, fish and oyster plants. Surf bathing, 
fishing and hunting are exceptionally good and at- 
tractive and bring many thousands of visitors to the 
city every year. Tel., Mackay, Postal, W. U. Mexi- 
can and Marconi Wireless. Express. 

GANADO— Jackson County; pop., 716; alt., 86 ft. 
Ten miles east of Edna, the county seat, and 93 
miles southwest of Houston, on the G. H. & S. A. Ry. 
Banks, Citizens' State, Farmers' State. Hotels, 
Mitchell, Southside. Weekly newspaper. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

GARDEN CITY— Glasscock County seat; pop., 
100. 33% miles south of Big Springs, the nearest 
shipping point. Bank, First State. 

GARLAND— Dallas County; pop., 1,421; alt., 536 
ft. 16 miles northeast of Dallas, fhe county seat, on 
the G. C. & S. Fe, the M. K. & T. and the Frisco 
Rys. Bank, First State. Weekly newspaper. The 
Garland News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GARRISON— Nacogdoches County; pop., 603; alt, 
378 ft. 19 miles from Nacogdoches, the county seat, 
on the H. E. & W. T. Ry., 150 miles from Houston 
and 7 2 miles southwest of Shreveport; La. Bank, 
First State. Hotels, City, Wiley. Is in the timbered 
area of Texas; principal industries, large saw mills, 
planing mills, cotton gins and brick making plant 
with capacity of 50,000 bricks daily. Shipments, 
cotton, corn, sugar cane, peanuts, fruits of all kinds. 
Here are the noted mineral springs, "Weatherly 
Wells" are annually visited by large numbers of 
people for stomach and kidney healings. Newspaper, 
The Garrison Weekly Newspaper. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

GARWOUD— Colorado County; pop., 400. 21 miles 
from Columbus, the county seat, on the G. C. & 
S. Fe Ry. Bank, Garwood State. Weekly news- 
paper, The Garwood Express. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GARY — Panola County; pop., 350. Ten miles 
from Carthage, the county seat, on the G. C. & S. 
Fe Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GARZA— Denton County; pop., 300. Ten miles 



136 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



from Denton, the county seat, on the M. K. & T. Ry. 
Bank, Garza Bank. Express and telephone con- 
nections. 

GATESVILLE Coryell County seat; pop., 

2,499; alt., 795 feet. 125 miles north of Austin, 
47 miles west of Waco on the St. L. S. W. and S. N. 
& S. T. Rys. Banks, First Natl., Gatesville Natl., 
Guaranty State Bank & Trust Co. Hotels, Bonnet, 
Elliott, Moar, Sloan. Weekly newspaper, The Gates- 
ville Messenger. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GANSE— Milam County; pop., 750; alt, 376 ft. 
20 miles southeast of Cameron, the county seat, on 
the I. & G. N. Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Hotel, 
Wright. Weekly newspaper. The Gause Guide. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

GEORGETOWN— Judicial seat of Williamson 
County; pop., 2,871; alt., 442 ft. 25 miles north of 
Austin, on the M. K. & T. and the I. & G. N. Rys. 
Banks, Farmers' State, First Natl., Guaranty State. 
Hotels, Commercial, Makemson, Swenson. Has all 
civic improvements of a modern city, is the seat of 
the Southwestern University; has two weekly news- 
papers. The Williamson County Sun and The Com- 
mercial. Industries, cotton seed oil mills, cotton 
gins, steam laundry, planing mills, ships cotton, 
grain, live stock and produce. Tel., W. U. Express. 
GEORGE WEST— Live Oak County; pop., 500. 
Bank, First State. 

GERONIMO— Guadalupe County; pop., 150. Six 
miles from Seguin, the county seat and shipping 
point. Bank, Geronimo State. 

GIDDINGS— Lee County seat; pop., 1,650; alt., 
510 ft. 60 miles east of Austin, 107 miles west of 
Houston, on the H. & T. C. and the S. A. & A. P. 
Rys. Banks, Citizens' State, First Natl. Hotels, 
Perkins, Robinson. Two weekly newspapers. Im- 
portant industries, cotton, corn, dairying, live stock 
and pressed brick. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GILMER— Upshur County seat; pop., 2,268; alt., 
378 ft. 100 miles east of Dallas on the St. L. S. W. 
and M. & E. T. Rys. Banks, Farmers & Merchants 
Natl., First Natl., Gilmer State. Hotels, Bell, Com- 
mercial. Two newspapers, ice plant, cotton gin, 
shingle and saw mills, grist mills, cotton seed oil 
mills, crate and basket factories. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

GIRARD — Kent County; pop., 60. 20 miles from 
Clairemont, the county seat, and 11 miles from Jay- 
ton, on the W. V. Ry. Bank, Girard Bank. Express. 
GLADEWATER— Gregg County; pop., 560; alt., 
334 ft. 15 miles west of Longview, the county seat, 
on the T. & P. Ry. Banks, The Riddle Exchange, ana 
The Everett Banking Co. Hotel, Bray. Weekly 
newspaper, The Gladewater Gazette. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

GLAZIER— Hemphill County; pop., 140. 14 miles 
northeast of Canadian, the county seat, on the S. 
K. Ry. Bank, Glazier State. Newspaper. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

GLEN FLORA— Wharton County; pop., 700. 6 
miles northwest of Wharton, the county seat, on 
the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Bank, Glen Flora State. Tel. 
W. U. Express. 

GLEN ROSE— Somerville County seat; pop., 1,000 
17% miles south of Grandbury, its shipping point. 
Bank, First Nat'l. Two newspapers. Telephone 
connection. 

GODLEY— Johnson County; pop., 600. 12 miles 
northwest of Cleburne, the county seat, on the G. 



C. & S. Fe Ry. Bank, Citizens Nat'l. Newspaper. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

GOLDEN— Wood County; pop., 400. 10 miles 
southwest of Quitman, the county seat, on the M. 
K. & T. Ry. Bank, Golden State. Newspaper. 
Tel., W. U. "Express. 

GOLDTHWAITE— Mills County seat; pop., 1,214; 
alt., 1,581 ft. 98 miles northwest of Temple, on the 
G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Banks, Goldthwaite Nat'l., Trent 
State. Hotels, Commercial, Saylor. 2 weekly 
newspapers, The Goldthwaite Eagle and the Rustler. 
Shipments, cotton, grain, cattle. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

GOLIAD— Goliad County seat; pop., 2,500; alt., 
230 ft. About 150 miles west of Houston, and 150 
miles southeast of San Antonio, on the S. P. Ry. 
Banks, Commercial Bank, First Nat'l., Goliad Bank 
& Trust Co. Hotel, Denham. Was settled by the 
Spanish over 200 years ago, by Americans, in 1836. 
Has cotton gins, broom factory, laundry, bottling 
works. Two weekly newspapers. The Advance, and 
The Guard. Principal shipments, cotton, corn, 
broom corn and livestock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GONZALES— Gonzales County seat; pop., 3,128; 
alt., 300 ft. On the Guadalupe River and the Gon- 
zales branch of the S. P. and the Lockhart branch 
of the S. A. & A. P. Rys. Banks, Dilworth Bank, 
Farmers' Nat'l., Guaranty State Bank & Trust Co. 
Hotels, Arlington, Plaza, and Richter. Here oc- 
curred many battles for Texas Independence from 
Mexico. Daily newspaper. The Inquirer; two week- 
lies. The Inquirer and "The Reformer. A number of 
factories. Ships cotton, live stock and dairy pro 
ducts. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GOODLET— Hardeman County; pop., 100. 9 
miles northwest of Quanah, the county seat, on the 
F. W. & D. C. Ry. Banks, Farmers Bank, First 
State Bank. Express. 

GOODNIGHT— Armstrong County; pop., 300. 12 
miles east of Claude, the county seat, on the Ft. W. 
& D. Ry. Bank, Goodnight State. Weekly newspa- 
per. The Free Press. Express. 

GOOSE CREEK— Harris County; pop., 1,500. 27 
miles east of Houston, the county seat, and 5 miles 
from La Porte, the nearest rail approach. Bank, 
Guaranty State. Telephone connection. Is on Gal- 
veston Bay. 

GORDON— Palo Pinto County; pop., 1,000; alt., 
955 ft. 19 miles north of Pal Pinto, the county 
seat, and 73 miles west of P^t. Worth, on the T. & P. 
Ry. Banks, First Nat'l., Gordon Banking & Mer- 
cantile Co., the Guaranty State Bank. Hotel, Kel- 
ly-Ray, McDonald. Weekly newspaper. Shipments 
cotton and livestock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GORDONVILLE— Grayson County; pop., 300. 12 
miles from Whitesboro, the nearest shipping point, 
and 25 miles northwest of Sherman, the county 
seat. Bank, Guaranty State. Telephone connec- 
tion. 

GOREE — Knox County; pop., 614. 23 miles from 
Benjamin, the county seat, on the W. V. Ry. BanV, 
First Nat'l. Express. 

GORMAN— Eastland County; pop., 3,200; alt., 
1,4 20 ft. 22 miles northwest of Eastland, the 
county seat, on the T. C. Ry. Banks, Continental 
State, Farmers' State Bank & Trust Co., Fb-st Nat'l. 
Hotels, Commercial Gorman, Palace. Weekly news- 
paper. The Progress. Industry, cotton. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

137 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



GRAFORD— Palo Pinto County; pop., 63; alt., 
1,049 ft. 15 miles from Palo Pinto, the county 
seat, on the W. M. W. & N. W. Ry. Bank, First 
State. Hotel, Bond. Newspaper, The Herald. Ex- 
press. 

GRAHAM— Young County seat; pop., 2,544; alt., 
1,040 ft. 26 miles west of Jacksboro, on the C. R. 
I. & G. Ry. Banks, Beckham Nat'l., Graham Nat'l., 
Guaranty State. Hotels, Belmont, Commercial, Dal- 
man, Henderson, Robown, Walker. Has Flour mill, 
oil mill, gins, weekly newspaper. The Leader. Te^. , 
W. U. Express. 

GRANBURY— Hood County; pop., 1,364; alt., 698 
ft., 41 miles southwest of Ft. Worth on the Ft. W. 
& R. G. Ry. Banks, City Nat'l., First Nat'l. Hotel, 
Colonial. Has oil mill, flour mill, five cotton gins, 
two weekly newspapers. The Graphic-Democrat, and 
The News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GRAND PRAIRIE— Dallas County; pop., 1,263; 
alt., 519 ft. 13 miles west of Dallas, the county 
seat, on the T. & P. Ry. and on the Ft. Worth-Dal- 
las Interurban, and the Dallas-Ft. Worth Concrete 
Pike. Banks, First State, Guaranty State. Has 
furniture factory, planing mill, gins, ships cotton, 
grain and live stock. Weekly newspaper. The 
Grand Prairie Texan. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GRAND SALINE— Van Zandt County; pop., 1,528 
alt., 399 ft. 12 miles south of Emory, the county 
seat, 63 miles east of Dallas on the T. & P. and 
Texas Short Line Rys. Banks, First State, National 
Bank of Grand Saline. Hotels, Berry, Commercial, 
Has salt works, foundry and two weekly newspapers. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

GRAND VIEW — Johnson County; pop., 1,084; 16 
miles southeast of Cleburne, the county seat, and 
36 miles south of Ft. Worth, on the M. K. & T. 
Ry. Banks, Farmers & Merchants Nat'l., First 
Nat'l. Hotel, Commercial. Weekly newspaper, 
The Tribune. Shipments, cotton and Grain. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

GRANGER — Williamson County; pop., 1,944; alt., 
539 ft. 15 miles north of Georgetown, the county 
seat, and 47 miles north of Austin, on the M. K. & 
T. Ry. Banks, Farmers' State, First Nat'l., Granger 
Nat'l. Hotel, Commercial. Industry, c o 1 1 o.n 
Weekly newspaper. The Granger News. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

GRAPELAND— Houston County; pop., 1,200; 12 
miles from Crockett, the county seat, on the I. & 
G. N. Ry. Banks, Farmers & Merchants State, 
Guaranty State. Weekly newspaper. The Grape- 
land Messenger. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GRAPEVINE— Tarrant County; pop., 821. 21 
miles east of Ft. Worth, the county seat, on the 
St. L. S. W. Ry. Banks, Farmers' Nat'l., Grape- 
vine Home, Tarrant County State. Newspaper, 
The Grapevine Sun. Shipments, cotton and grain. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

GRAYBURG— Hardin Gounty; pop., 1,406. 18 
miles northeast of Kountze, the county seat, and 1 
mile from Sour Lake, on the S. P. & F. Ry. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

GREENVILLE— Hunt County seat; pop., 12,384; 
alt., 549 ft. 5 4 miles northeast of Dallas, on the 
M. K. & T., the St. L. S. W. and T. M. R. Rys., and 
on the Eastern Texas and Greenville & White- 
wright Traction Co's. Lines. Banks, Citizens' State 
Commercial Nat'l., First Nat'l., Greenville Nat'l. 
Exchange, the Guaranty State, Matheng, Dixon & 
Co. Hotel, Beckham. Has nine railway outlets, 33 



passenger trains daily. Has municipal ovmed 
electric light plant and water works, a splendid 
street railway system, 65 acres of parks and play- 
grounds. Is the seat of Wesley, Peniel and Bur- 
leson Colleges. Has a Carnegie Library, 4 cotton 
gins, the largest cotton compress in the world, the 
largest cotton seed oil refinery in the south, a 
beehive factory, sheet metal factory, brick works, 
mattress factory, broom factory, four nachine shops, 
newspapers, Greenville Banner, (daily and weekly). 
The Greenville Herald (daily and weekly). The Gree.T 
ville Messenger, weekly. Tel., W. U. and Postal. 
Express. 

GREGORY— San Patricio County; pop., 26; alt., 
3 6 ft. 16 miles southeast of Sinton, the county 
seat, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Bank, First Nat'l. 
Hotel, Green. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GROESBECK— Limestone County seat; pop., 1920 
census, 1,522; alt., 480 ft. 96 miles south of Dallas, 
on the H. & T. C. Ry. Banks, Citizens Nat'l., Con- 
tinental State, Farmers' Guaranty State. Hotel, 
Brown. Weekly newspaper. The Groesbeck Jour- 
nal. Tel., W. U. Express. In the development of 
the oil fields in Limestone County in 1921, Groes- 
beck became a prosperous and progressive oil city. 
Much production has been developed in the immedi- 
ate vicinity of Groesbeck, and the population as 
well as the industries of the city, has increased 
many-fold. Groesbeck is destined to be one of the 
prosperous and progressive oil centers of Texas. 

GROOM— Carson County; pop., 100. 20 miles 
from Panhandle, the county seat, on the C. R. I. & 
G. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l., Guaranty State, and 
the State Bank of Groom. Tel., W. U. Express. 

GROVETON— Trinity County seat; pop., 1,103; 
alt., 331 ft. 100 miles north of Houston, 265 miles 
from Austin, on the G. L. & N. and M. K. & T. 
Rys. Banks, First Nat'l., Guaranty State. Hotel, 
City, Locke and Swinney. Two newspapers. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

GUFFEY— Jefferson County; pop.,. 1,200. 5 
miles from Beaumont, the county seat, on the T. & 
N. O. Ry. Express and telephone connection. 

GUNTER — Grayson County; pop., 575. 20 miles 
south of Sherman, the county seat, on the St. L. S. 
F. & T. Ry. Banks, Continental State, Gunter 
State. Weekly newspaper, The Grayson County 
Advocate. Express. 

GUSTINE— Comanche County; pop., 750. 12 
miles from Comanche, the county seat, on the St. L. 
S. W. Ry. Banks, Farmers & Merchants State. 
Newspaper, The Gustine Gazette. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

HAGERMAN— Grayson County; pop., 150. 16 
miles northwest of Sherman, the county seat, on 
the M. K. & T. Ry. Bank, Hagerman State. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

HALE CENTER— Hale County; pop., 250. 16 
miles southwest of Plainview, the county seat, on 
the P. & N. T. Ry. Bank, First State. Has a news- 
paper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HALLETTSVILLE— Lavaca County seat; pop., 
1,444; alt., 2,235 ft. 101 miles west of Houston, 
137 miles southeast of San Antonio, on the main 
line of the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Banks, First Natl., 
First State, Rosenberg Bros. Bank. Hotel,s Brick, 
Finks, Sokol. Lavaca county is noted as the best 
watered county in the state, with ten living running 
streams of water in its boundary, all well bridged 
p.nd timbered along the streams. Hallettsville has 



138 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



more newspapers than has any other town its size 
in the state — there being eight publications with 
circulation of 25,000. Prominent for turkey raising 
and shipping large quantities of produce. Cotton is 
the staple crop, considerable live stock is raised, 
and dairying is carried on. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HAMILTON— Judicial seat of Hamilton county; 
pop; 2,018; alt., 1,200 ft. 130 miles southwest of 
Dallas, on the St. L. S. W. Ry. Banks, Hamilton 
Bank & Trust Co., Hamilton Natl., and the Perry 
cotton compress, ice plant, flour mill and weekly 
newspapers. The Herald and The Record. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

HAMLIN— Jones County; pop., 1,633; alt., 1,800 
ft. 17 Miles northwest of Anson, the county seat, 
on the K. C. M. & O., and the T. C, and the A. & 
S. R. Rys. Banks, First Natl., First State. Hotels, 
Hamlin, Morgan. Has cotton gins, cotton oil mill, 
coton compress, ice plant, flour mill and weekly 
newspaper. The Herald. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HANDLEY— Tarrant County; pop; 1,000; alt., 581 
ft. 7 miles east of Ft. Worth, the county seat, on 
the T. & P. Ry, and the Dallas-Ft Worth interurban 
as also on the Dallas-Fort Worth concrete highway. 
Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HANSFORD^udicial seat of Hansford County; 
pop., 41. 35 miles southeast of Texhoma, Okla., the 
nearest shipping point. Banks, First Natl., Guar- 
anty State. Weekly newspaper, and telephone con- 
nection. 

HAPPY — Swisher County; pop., 250. 17 miles 
from Tulla, the county seat, on the P. & N. T. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HARLETON— Harrison County; pop., 360. 18 
miles northwest of Marshall, on the M. & E. T. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HARLINGEN— Cameron County; pop., 1,784; alt., 
36 ft. 25 miles north of Brownsville, the county 
seat, on the St L. B. & M. Ry. Banks, Harlingen 
State, Blantes State, First Natl. Hotel, Moreland. 
Weekly newspaper. The Star. Produces good crops 
of corn, cotton, sugar cane, dairy products and for- 
age crops. Great irrigation district. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

HARPER— Gillespie County; pop., 300. 21 >2 miles 
from Kerrville, its shipping point, and 25 miles 
west of Fredricksburg, the county seat. Bank, First 
State. Mail daily. 

HARRISBURG— Harris County; pop., 1,461. 5^2 
miles from Houston, the county seat, on the G. H. & 
S. A., the I. & G. N.,the G. H. & H., and the M. K. & 
T. Rys., and on the Houston Ship Canal. Bank, 
American State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HARROLD— Wilbarger County; pop., 250. 16 
miles from Vernon, the county seat, on the Ft. W. & 
D. C. Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

HARWOOD— Gonzales County; pop., 200. 9 miles 
from Luling on the G. H. & S. A. Ry. Bank, 
First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HASKELL — Judicial seat of Haskell County; pop., 
2,300; alt., 4,010 feet. 16 miles north of Stamford, 
on the W. V. Ry. Banks, Farmers State, Haskell 
Natl. Hotels, Commercial, Haskell, Hunt. Weekly 
newspaper. The Free Press. Principal shipment, 
cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HASLET— Tarrant County; pop., 100. 16 miles 
from Ft. Worth, the county seat, on the G. C. & S. 
Fe Ry. Bank, Haslet State. Express. 

HASSE — Comanche County; pop., 350. Eight 



miles from Comanche, the county seat, on the Ft. 
W. & R. G. Ry. Bank, Merchants' & Planters' Bank. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

HAWKINS— Wood County; pop., 300. 27 miles 
southeast of Quitman, the county seat, on the T. & 
P. Ry. Bank, First Natl. In the east Te.xas fruit 
district. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HAWLEY— Jones County; pop., 100. 11 miles 
from Anson, the county seat, on the W. V. Ry. Bank, 
First State. Tel., W. U., Express. 

HEARNE— Robertson County; pop., 2,741; alt., 
303 ft. 13 miles west of Franklin, the county seat, 
and 119 miles north of Houston, on the H. & T. C, 
the I. & G. N. and the H. & B. V. Rys. Banks, First 
Natl., Planters & Merchants State. Hotels, Junction, 
Oriental, Oxford. A weekly newspaper. The Hearne 
Democrat. Is division headquarters for the H. & 
T. C. Ry. and repair shops are located here. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

HEATH— Rockwall County; P. O., Rockwall. Pop., 
98. Bank, Farmers' Guaranty State. 

HEBBRONVILLE— Judicial seat of Jim Hogg 
County; pop., 600; alt., 440 ft. 47 miles southwest 
of San Diego. Bank, Hebbronville State. On the 
T. M. N. Ry. Hotel, Veggo. 

HEBRON— Denton County; pop., 150. 25 miles 
from Denton, the county seat, on the Frisco Lines. 
Bank, Hebron State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HEDLEY— Donley County; pop., 594; alt., 2,170 
ft. 14 miles from Clarendon, the county seat, on 
the Ft. W. & D. C. Ry. Banks, First State, Guar- 
anty State. Hotels, Hedley, Nippert. Has a news- 
paper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HEIDENHEIMER— Bell County; pop., 249. Ten 
miles from Belton, the county seat, on the G. C. 
& S. F. Ry. Bank, Heidenheimcr State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

HEMPHILL — Sabine County; pop., 2 000; alt., 340 
ft. 20 miles southeast of San Augustine, on the 
L. H. & G. Ry. Banks, First Natl., State Guaranty 
Bank. Hotel, Williams. Two newspapers. Tele- 
phone connection. 

HEMPSTEAD— Waller County; pop., 2,000; alt., 
254 ft. 51 miles northwest of Houston at the junc- 
tion of the Austin branch and main line of the H. & 
T. C. Ry.- Banks, Citizens' State, Farmers' Natl. 
Hotels, Arlington, Crescent, Parks, Royal. Famous 
as a watermelon center in the United States, 1,000 
carloads are shipped annually from this point to 
northern markets. Truck farming, berries, small 
fruits do exceptionally well. Weekly newspaper. The 
News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HENDERSON Rusk County seat; pop., 2,373; 

alt., 380 ft. 45 miles southeast of Tyler, on the I. & 
G. N. Ry. Banks, Farmers' & Merchants' Natl., 
First Natl., First State. Hotels, Southwestern, 
Whitson. Two weekly newspapers, Henderson 
Times, Rusk County News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HENRIETTA— Clay County seat; pop., 2,563; alt., 
880 ft. 96 miles northwest of Ft. Worth, on the 
Ft. W. & D. C, the M. K. & T. and the H. & S. W. 
Rys. Banks, Dale Bros. & Co., Merchants' & 
Planters' Bank, W. B. Worsham & Co. Hotels, Elm- 
wood, Imperial, St. Elmo. Two weekly newspapers. 
The Henrietta Independent and The Peoples Re- 
view. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HEREFORD— Judicial seat of Deaf Smith Coun- 
ty; pop., 1,696; alt., 3,400 ft. 47 miles southwest 
of Amarillo, on the main line of the A. S. & S. Fe 
Ry. Banks, First Natl., First State Bank & Trust 



139 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



Co., Western Natl. Hotel, Cordova. Is the center 
of the famous irrigated plain section. For many 
miles in every direction, the city is surrounded by a 
plain sloping to the southeast, as if built by nature 
for irrigation. There underlies an inexhaustible sup- 
ply of purest water, with many wells pumping daily 
1,000 to 2,000 gal. a minute. Soil is fertile as the 
Nile, fields level as a table, climate unsurpassed for 
plant growth. Produces wheat, oats, rye, barley, 
alfalfa, kaffir, maize and other forage crops, melons, 
fruits, celery and highly adapted to intensive farm- 
ing. Weekly newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HICO— Hamilton County; pop., 1,635; alt., 790 ft. 
23 miles northeast of Hamilton, 83 miles west of 
Waco, on the T. C. Ry. Banks, First Natl., Hico 
Natl. Hotels, Commercial, Midland. Principal in- 
dustries, flour mills, oil mills, cotton gins, ice plant. 
Weekly newspaper. The News-Review. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

HIGGINS— Lipscomb County; pop., 688; alt., 
2,568 ft. 20 miles southeast of Lipscomb, the coun- 
ty seat, on the S. K. Ry. of Texas. Banks, Citizens' 
Natl., First Natl. Hotels, Commercial, Higgins, 
Roberts. Weekly newspaper. The Times. Is the 
center of fine farming district, producing wheat, 
corn, alfalfa, broom corn, cattle, horses, mules, 
cream and produce. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HIGHLAND PARK— Pop., 2,321, an incorporated 
town sun-ounded by the city of Dallas, Dallas Coun- 
ty. See Dallas. 

HILLSBORO— Hill County seat; pop., 6,952; alt., 
634 ft. 35 miles north of Waco, 55 miles south of 
Ft. Worth, 65 miles southeast of Dallas, on the M. 
K. & T., T. & B. v., St. L. S. W. Rys., and the Dallas- 
Waco Interurban, in the midst of the black land 
district. Banks, Citizens' Nat'l., Colonial Trust, 
Farmers' Natl., First State. Hotels, the J. K. House, 
the Wear. Industries, cotton, cotton mill, oil mill, 
ice factory, planing mill. Is the home of Texas 
Novelty Company, founded 1898, which has grown 
to be the largest house of its kind in the Southwest. 
Three newspapers. The Daily iMirror, the Hillsboro 
Mirror, weekly, and The Hillsboro Dispatch, weekly. 
Shipments, cotton, grain, live stock. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

HITCHCOCK— Galveston County; pop., 350. 14 
miles west of Galveston, the county seat, on the 
G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Bank, H. L. Roberts & Co. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

HOLDER— Brown County; pop., 500. 16 miles 
north of Brownwood, the county seat, four from 
Hutson, the nearest shipping point, and 8 miles 
from May, the nearest banking point. Telephone 
connection. 

HOLLAND— Bell County; pop., 690. 26 miles 
south of Belton, the county seat, on the M. K. & 
T. Ry. Banks, First Natl., First State. Weekly 
newspaper, The Holland Progress. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

HONDO— Medina County seat; pop. 3,000; alt., 
901 ft. 50 miles west of San Antonio, on the S. P. 
Ry. Banks, First Natl., Hondo State. Hotels, Arm- 
strong, Richter. Two weekly newspapers. The Hondo 
Times and The Anvil-Herald. Has foundry and bolt 
works. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HONEY GROVE— Fannin County; pop., 6,242; 
alt., 65 6 ft. 16 miles east of Bonham, the county 
seat, 86 miles northeast of Dallas, on the T. & P., 
the G. C. & S. Fe Rys. Banks, First Natl., Planters' 
Natl., State Natl. Hotels, Vaughn, Yeager. Two 



newspapers. The Honey Grove Weekly, the Weekly 
Texas Citizen. Industry, cotton. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

HOOKS— Bowie County; pop., 100. Eight miles 
from Boston, the county seat, on the T. & P. Ry. 
Bank, Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Express. News- 
paper. 

HOUSTON— Han-is County seat; pop., 138,276; 
alt., 53 ft. Founded by the Allen family and Gen- 
eral Sam Houston, one of the first products of the 
Republic of Texas, and the first capital of the New 
Republic, at the head of the Buffalo Bayou waters, 
an arm of the Gulf. This Bayou, now Houston Ship 
Channel, wit ha depth of 25 feet and a width at the 
bottom of 200 feet is Houston's greatest commercial 
asset, traffic over its waters amounting to over 
$55,000,000 annually. It has given Houston the 
water rate and made it a port of entry. Free wharf 
facilities are guaranteed by the city and the govern- 
ment forever. Here seventeen railroads meet the 
sea — over 100 passenger trains operate in and out 
daily. Here are the headquarters for the Sunset- 
Central Lines, the I. & G. N. Ry., the Texas-Frisco 
Lines, and the T. & B. V. Ry. The only general of- 
fice building of the Southern Pacific is at Houston, 
the nine-story half-million dollar genera! offices of 
the Sunset-Central Lines; the Southern Pacific here 
has a modern half-million dollar hospital. 

Houston is the financial center of the Southwest, 
with moz-e banking- capital, gi-eater clearings, greater 
deposits, than any city in Texas. Banks, Bankers' 
Trust Co., Central & Magnolia Park State, Citizens' 
State, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas (branch). 
Fidelity Trust Co., First Natl., Guaranty State, 
Guardian Trust Co., Gulf State, Houston Bank & 
Trust Co., Houston Natl. Exchange, Houston Trust 
& Savings Bank, Lumbermans Natl., the Natl Bank 
of Commerce, People's State, San Jacinto Trust Co., 
South Texas Commercial Natl., State Bank & Trust 
Co., Union Natl., American Title Guaranty Co., Fed- 
eral Land Bank of Houston, First Texas Joint Stock 
Land Bank, Houston Land & Trust Co., H. C. Burt & 
Co., Dunn & Carr, Neuhaus & Co., Sherwood & 
King, Harold G. Wise & Co., Houston Clearing House 
Association. Hotels, The Bender, Brazos, Bristol 
Capital, Cotton, DeGeorge, Field, Globe, Grand Cen- 
tral, Harvard, Hot Well, Macatee, Milby, Rice, Rusk, 
Stratford, Tremont and Woods. 

Houston is the largest inland port cotton market 
in the world, handling the bulk of the cotton crop 
of Texas and Oklahoma. Houston is a chief oil 
center in the Lone Star State with 23 oil corpora- 
tions -with combined capital of $70,000,000 in the 
city. It is the lumber center of the southwest, with 
49 lumber corporations with capital of $40,000,000. 
The city is a great industrial and manufacturing 
center. It is the heart of the sugar and rice ter • 
ritory for Texas. It has a Municipal Auditorium 
with seating capacity for 7,000. Houston is called 
an all-the-year-round city, a pleasant winter resort 
and cool in the summer. The Rice Institute, with 
$10,000,000 endowment, is located here. Houston 
is one of the wonderful new cities of the South. Tel., 
Mackay, Postal, W. U. Express. 

HOUSTON HEIGHTS— Pop., 6,984.- An incor- 
porated suburb of Houston, a part of which it is. 
See Houston. 

HOWE — Grayson County; pop., 583. 54 miles 
north of Dallas, 8 miles south of Sherman, the 
county seat, on the H. T. C. and on the Texas Trac- 



140 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



tion Company. Banks, Farmers' Natl., Home Guar- 
anty State. Weekly newspaper, The Howe Herald. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

HOWLAND— Lamar County; pop., 525. Ten miles 
from Paris, the county seat, on the T. M. Ry. Bank, 
Howland State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HUBBARD— Hill County; pop., 2,072; alt., 638 ft. 
25 miles southeast of Hillsboro, the county seat, 28 
miles northeast of Waco, on the St. L. S. W. and 
T. & B. V. Rys. Banks, First Natl., First State. 
Hotels, Alford, Bounds, Carroll, City, Magnolia. 
Daily newspaper. The Pantograph, and a weekly 
newspaper. The Hubbard City News. Has hot wells 
spring for the treatment of nervous and stomach dis- 
eases. Industry, cotton and grain. Tel., W. TJ. 
Express. 

HUGHES SPRINGS— Cass County; pop., 831. 20 
miles west of Linden, the county seat, 150 miles east 
of Dallas, on the M. K. & T. Ry. Bank, First Natl. 
Weekly newspaper, saw, shingle and flour mills, 
cotton gins, etc. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HULL— Liberty County; pop., 1,000. 14 miles 
from Liberty, the county seat, 8 miles from Batson. 
Bank, Hull State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HUMBLE— Harris County; pop., 1,500; alt., 93 ft. 
18 miles northeast of Houston, the county seat, on 
the H. E. & W. T. Ry. Banks, Guaranty State, 
Humble State. Hotels, Arlington, Lone Star, 
Matthews. Weekly newspaper. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

HUNTINGTON— Angelina County; pop., 400. Ten 
miles southeast of Lufkin, the county seat, on the 
T. & N. O. and the T. & L. Rys. Banks, Guaranty 
State. Weekly newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

HUNTSVILLE— Walker County seat; pop., 4,689; 
alt, 400 ft. 134 miles north of Houston, on the 
I. & G. N. Ry. Banks, Gibbs Natl., Huntsville 
State. Hotels, Keep, Lindley. Two weekly news- 
papers, The Herald and The Post-Item. Site of the 
State Penitentiary. State normal. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

HUTCHINS— Dallas County; pop., 500. 11 miles 
from Dallas, the county seat, on the H. & T. C. Ry., 
and the Southern Traction Co. Banks, Citizens' 
Guaranty State and C. H. Bussey & Co. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

HUTTO— Williamson County; pop., 571. 15 miles 
north of Georgetown, the county seat, on the 1. & 
G. N. Ry. Banks, Farmers' & Merchants' State, 
Hutto Natl. Hotel, Higgins. Express. 

HYATT— In Tyler County; pop., 3,500. 

INDEPENDENCE— Washington County; pop., 
715. About 15 miles north of Brenham, the county 
seat, usual shipping point and banking center. 

INDIAN GAP— Hamilton County; pop., 150. 
Bank, German-American State. 

INDUSTRY— Austin County; pop., 600. 16 miles 
from Bellville, the county seat, and 7 miles from 
New Ulm, the nearest shipping point. Bank, First 
Guaranty. Telephone connection. 

INEZ — Victoria County; pop., 200. 15 miles east 
of Victoria, the county seat, on the G. H. & S. A. Ry. 
Bank, Inez State. Telephone and express. 

lOLA — Grimes County; pop., 300. 23 miles north- 
west of Anderson, the county seat, on the H. & T. C. 
and T. & B. V. Rys. Bank, lola State. Express and 
telephone. 

IOWA PARK— Wichita County; pop., 2,041; alt., 
950 ft. Ten miles northeast of Wichita Falls, the 
county seat, on the Ft. W. & D. C. Ry. Banks, 



First Natl., First State. Weekly newspaper, Iowa 
Park Herald. Hotel, Park. Tel., W. U. Express. 

IREDELL — Bosque County pop., 571. 26 miles 
northwest of Meridian, the county seat, 78 miles 
from Ft. Worth, on the T. C. Ry. Banks, Continental 
State, Farmers & Merchants State. Hotel, Iredell. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

IRELAND— Coryell County; pop., 250. 16 miles 
west of Gatesville, the county seat, on the St. L. S. 
W. Ry. Bank First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

IRENE— Hill County; pop., 264; 21 miles east of 
Hillsboro, the county seat, on the I. & G. N. Ry. 
Bank, First Natl. Weekly newspaper, The Irene 
Motor. Tel., W. U. Express. 

IRVING— Dallas County; pop., 357; alt, 425 ft 
Nine miles from Dallas, the county seat, on the 
C. R. I. & G and the Frisco Lines. Bank, Irving 
State. Hotel, Irving. Newspaper, The Irving In- 
dex. Express. 

ITALY— Ellis County; pop., 1,350; alt., 583 ft 15 
miles south of Waxahachie, the county seat, and 46 
miles southwest of Dallas, on the I. & G. N. and the 
M. K. & T Rys., and the Waco-Dallas Interurban. 
Banks, Farmers' State, First Natl. Hotel, Com- 
mercial. Weekly newspaper, Italy News-Herald. 
Industry, cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ITASCA— Hill County; pop., 1,599; alt., 711 ft 
Ten miles north of Hillsboro, the county seat, 44 
miles south of Ft. Worth, on the M. K. & T. Ry. 
Banks, First Natl., Itasca Natl. Hotel, Ross. Weekly 
newspaper. The Item. Three gins, oil mill, cotton 
mill. Shipments, cotton and grain. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

JACKSBORO— Jack County seat; pop., 1,373; alt., 
1,050 ft. 72 miles northwest of Ft. Worth on the 
C. R. I. & G and the G. T. W. Rys. Banks, First 
Natl., Jacksboro Natl. Hotels, Jacksboro, St. 
Frances, Fanner. Two newspapers, The Gazette 
and The News. Two cotton gins, a stone crusher, 
cotton oil mill, flour mill. Tel., W. U. Express. 

JACKSONVILLE— Cherokee County; pop., 3,723; 
alt., 525 ft. 15 miles northwest of Rusk, the county 
seat, and 27 miles northeast of Palestine and 208 
miles northeast of Austin, on the I. & G. N. an! the 
T. & N. O. and the Lufkin branch of the St. L. S 
W. Rys. Banks, Farmers' Guaranty State, First 
Guaranty State, First Natl. Hotels, Commercial, 
Liberty, Park. Two weekly newspapers, one daily. 
Has a Baptist college, 2 box factories, 2 planing 
mills, 2 cotton gins, an ice plant, cotton seed oil 
mill, 2 bottling works and a laundry. A great fruit 
center in the productive east Texas district. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

JAKEHAMON— Ranger P. O., Comanche County; 
pop., 100. Bank, First Natl. 

JARRELL— Williamson County; pop., 400; 161/2 
miles south of Georgetown, the county seat, on the 
B. & W. Ry. Bank, First State. Weekly newspaper. 
Telephone connection. 

JASPER — Jasper County seat; pop., 5,225; alt., 
320 ft. 150 miles north of Galveston, on the G. C. 
& S. Fe Ry. Banks, Citizens' Natl, and Jasper State. 
Hotels, Belle-Jim, Richardson, Swann. Newspaper. 
Industry, lumber and truck. Tel., W. U. Express. 

JAYTON— Kent County; pop., 750. 11 Vz miles 
northeast of Clairemont, the county seat, on the 
W. V. Ry. Bank, First Natl. Newspaper. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

JEAN — Young County; pop., 200. 14 miles north- 
west of Graham, the county seat, and 8 miles from 



141 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



Loving, on the G. T. & W. Ry. Bank, Jean State. 
Express. 

JEFFERSON — Marion County seat; pop., 2,549; 
alt., 219 ft. 162 miles east of Dallas on the M. K. 
& T., the J. & M. W. and the T. & P. Rys. Banks, 
Commercial Natl., Guaranty State, Rogers Natl. 
Hotel, Excelsior. Two weekly newspapers. Indus- 
try, lumber. Tel., W. U. Express. 

JERMYN— Jack County; pop., 400; 16 miles west 
of Jacksboro, the county seat, on the G. T. & W. Ry. 
Bank, Oliver Loving & Co. Newspaper, The News. 
Express. 

JEWETT—Leon County; pop., 460; alt., 496 ft. 
121/3 miles northwest of Centerville, the county 
seat, on the L & G. N. and the H. & T. C. Rys. Bank, 
Jewett State. Hotels, Adkinson, Logan. News- 
paper, telegraph and express. 

JOAQUIN— Shelby County; pop., 300; 24 miles 
northeast of Center, the county seat, on the H. E. 
& W. T. Ry. Bank, First State. Newspaper. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

JOHNSON CITY — Blanco County seat; pop., 400. 
28 miles south of Marble Falls, the nearest shipping 
point, with which place it is connected by daily mail 
stage. Bank, Johnson City State. Newspaper, tele- 
phone connection. 

JOSEPHINE— Collin County; pop., 600. 42 miles 
southwest of McKinney, the county seat, on the 
St. L. S. W. Ry. Bank, Josephine State. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

JOSHUA— Johnson County; pop., 600. Eight 
miles north of Cleburne, the county seat, and 24 
miles south of Ft. Worth, on the C. G. & T. F. Ry., 
and the Ft. Worth S. Traction Line. Weekly news- 
paper. The Joshua Star. Bank, Citizens Banking 
Co. Tel., W. U. Express. 

JOURDANTON— Judicial seat of Atacosa Coun- 
ty; pop., 682; alt., 659 ft. 40 miles south of San 
Antonio, on the S. A. U. & G. and the A. B. Rys. 
Bank, Atacosa State. Hotel, Yeates. Weekly news- 
paper. The Atacosa Monitor. Shipments, cotton and 
live stock. Te!., W. U. Express. 

JUNCTION— Kimble County S3at; pop., 1,500. 
40 miles south of Menard, the nearest shipping point. 
Banks, First Natl., Junction State. Two newspapers. 
Telephone connection. 

JUSTIN — Denton County; pop., 476. 17 miles 
southwest of Denton, the county seat, and 25 miles 
north of Ft. Worth, on the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Bank, 
Justin State. Weekly newspaper. The Tribune. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

KARNES CITY— Judicial seat of Karnes County; 
pop., 1,000; alt., 660 ft. 55 miles southeast of San 
Antonio, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Bank, Karnes 
County Natl. Hotel, Farr. Weekly newspaper. The 
Karnes Citation. Shipments, cotton and farm prod- 
ucts. Tel., W. U. Express. 

KATY— Harris County; pop., 400. 28 miles from 
Houston, the county seat, on the M. K. & T. Ry. 
Bank, Katy Natl. Tel., W. U. Express. 

KAUFMAN — Judicial seat of Kaufman County; 
pop., 2,501; alt., 430 ft. 35 miles southeast of Dallas, 
on the T. & N. O. and the T. M. Rys. Banks, Farm- 
ers & Merchants Natl., First Natl., First State. 
Hotels, Blakeley, Kaufman, Mathis. Newspapers, 
The Post, daily and The Herald weekly. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

KEENE— Johnson County; pop., 1,500. Five miles 
from Cleburne, the county seat, the banking and 
shipping point. 



KELLER— Tarrant County; pop., 350. 14 miles 
from Ft. Worth, the county seat, on the T. & P. and 
the M. K. & T. Rys. Bank, First State. Weekly 
newspaper. Express. 

KELTYS— Angelina County; pop., 1,000. Twu 
miles from Lufkin, the county seat and banking point 
on the St. L. S. W. and A. & N. R. Rys. Express 
and telephone connection. 

KEMP— Kaufman County; pop., 1,500; alt., 436 
ft. 47 miles south of Dallas and 12 miles south of 
Kaufman, the county seat, on the T. & N. 0. Ry. 
Banks, Farmers Guaranty State, First Natl. Hotel, 
Bowlby. Tel., W. U. Express. 

KEMPNER— Lampasas County; pop., 103. 11 
miles from Lampasas, the county seat, on the G. C. & 
S. Fe Ry. Bank, Kempner State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

KENEDY— Karnes County; pop., 2,015; alt., 275 
ft. 62 miles southeast of San Antonio, 88 miles 
north of Corpus Christi, 7 miles south of Karnes 
City, the county seat, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry., being 
the junction of the Houston and Corpus Christi 
lines. Banks, Farmers & Merchants State, First 
State Bank & Trust Co. Hotels, Commercial, Goffe, 
Junction, Parker. Weekly newspaper. Shipments, 
cotton, cotton seed products, farm products, live 
stock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

KENNARD— Houston County; pop., 600. 30 miles 
west of Lufkin, on the E. T. Ry. Bank, Farmers 
Guaranty State. Express. 

KENNEY— Austin County; pop., 200. Nine miles 
from Bellville, the county seat, on the G. C. & S. F. 
Ry. Bank, Kenney State. Express and telephone 
connection. 

KERENS— Navarro County; pop., 1,343. 15 miles 
east of Corsicana, the county seat, on the St. L. S. 
W. Ry. Banks, First Natl., First State, Kerens Natl. 
Newspaper. Industry, cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

KERRVILLE— Kerr County; pop.. 2,353., alt, 
1,650 ft. 70 miles north of San Antonio, on the S. 
A. & A. P. Ry., and on the Guaialupe river. 
Banks, First State, Charles Schreiner Bank. Two 
weekly newspapers. The Advance and The Kerrville 
Mountain Sun. Hotels, Hill, McRea, St. Jo. 

KILGORE— Gregg County; pop., 725; alt., 371 ft. 
18 miles west of Longview, on the I. & G. N. Ry. 
Bank, Kilgore State. Hotels, Hobbs and Wood. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

KILLEEN— Bell County; pop., 1,298; alt, 835 ft. 
18 miles west of Belton, the county seat, on the G. 
C. & S. Fe Ry. Banks, First Natl., First State. 
Weekly newspaper. The Herald. Hotels, Califor- 
nia, Hudson, Killeen, Newby. Tel., W. U. Express. 

KINGSBURY— Guadalupe County; pop., 250; 10 
miles from Seguin, the county seat, on the G. H. & 
S. A. Ry. Bank, First Natl. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

KINGSVILLE— Kleberg County seat; pop., 4,770; 
alt, 30 ft. 253 miles southwest of Houston, 59 
miles southwest of Corpus Christi, on the St. L. B. & 
M. Ry. Banks, First State, Robert J. Kleberg & Co. 
Hotel, Casa Ricardo. City is in the center of the 
King ranch, the largest individually owned ranch in 
the United States. General shops of the St. L. B. & 
M. Ry., are here. Weekly newspaper, cotton gins, 
cotton oil mill, ice plant, laundry and creamery. 
Favorably situated for dairying, cotton and corn 
raising and truck farming. Tel., W. U. Express. 

KIRBYVILLE— Jasper County; pop., 1,165; alt 
3 60 ft. 18 miles from Jasper, the county seat, on 



142 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Banks, Kirbyville State, 
Peoples State. Hotels, Commercial^ Dubose, Gilbert. , 
Newspaper, Telegraph and Express. 

KIHKLAND— Childress County; pop., 600. 11 
miles east of Childress, the county seat, on the Ft 
W. & D. C. Ry. Bank, First State. Express and 
Telephone Connection. 

KIRVIN— Freestone County; pop., 288. 12 miles 
west of Fairfield the county seat, on the T. & B. V. 
Ry. Banks, Guaranty State and Kirvin State. 
Express. 

KLEBURG— Dallas County; pop., 3.50. ISVa 
miles southeast of Dallas, the county seat, on the 
T. & N. O. Ry. Bank, Farmers & Merchants. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

KLONDIKE— Delta County; pop., 154. Five miles 
southwest of Cooper, the county seat, on the T. M. 
Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

KNOX CITY— Knox County; pop., 6<JS; alt., 3,964 
ft. 13 miles south of Benjamin, the county seat, 
on the K. C. M. & O. Ry. Bank, First Natl. Hotel, 
Boyd. Newspaper, Telegraph and Express. 

KOPPERL— Bosque County; pop., 329. 1.5 miles 
from Meridian, the county seat, on the G. C. & S. Fe 
Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Express and telephone 
connection. 

KOSSE— Limestone County; pop., 872; alt., 503 ft. 
l(j miles south of Groesbeck, the county seat, and 
112 miles south of Dallas, on the H. & T. C. Ry. 
Banks, First Natl., First State, Merchants& Fann- 
ers Bank. Hotels, Armada, Commercial. Weekly 
newspaper. The Kosse Cyclone. Shipment, cotton. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

KOUNTZE— Judicial seat of Hardin County; pop., 
225; alt., 46 ft. 25 miles north of Beaumont on the 
T. & N. O. and the G. C. & S. Fe Rys. Bank, Hardin 
County State. Hotels, Commercial, Sims. News- 
paper, The Texas News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

KRESS — Swisher County; pop., 200. 12»2 miles 
from Tulia, on the T. & N. T. Ry. Bank, Farmers 
State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

KRUM— Denton County; pop., 600. Nine miles 
northwest of Denton, the county seat, and 38 miles 
north of Ft. Worth, on the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Bank, 
Farmers & Merchants State. Tel., W. U. Express. 
Shipments, wheat, corn, hay, livestock. 

KYLE — Hays County; pop., 744. Eight miles 
northeast of San Marcos, on the I. & G. N. Ry. 
Bank, Kyle State. Newspaper, Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

LACOSTE— Medina County; pop., 400. 23 miles 
east of Hondo, the county seat, and 25 miles west of 
San Antonio, on the G. H. & S. A. Ry. Bank, La- 
Coste Natl. It is the shipping point for the great 
Medina Dam. Principal industries, farming and 
stocKraising. Weekly newspaper. The Medina Val- 
ley Herald. Shipments, cotton, corn, oats, pecans 
anu honey. Tel., W. U. Express. 

i^aDONI A— Fannin County; pop., 1,713; alt., 620 
ft. 18 miles south of Bonham, the county seat, and 
63 miles northeast of Dallas, on the G. C. & S. Fe 
Ry. Banks, First Natl., First S^tate. Hotel, Hardy. 
Weekly newspaper. The Ladonia News. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

LA FERIA — Cameron County; pop 236. 35 miles 
from Brownsville, the county seat, on the St. L. B. 
& M. Ry. Bank, Cameron County Bank. Weekly 
newspaper. The Leader. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LAGRANGE— Judicial seat of Fayette County; 



pop., 1,669; alt., 276 ft. 100 miles west of Houston, 
on the M. K. & T. and the S. P. Rys. Banks, First 
Natl., John Schumaker State. Hotels, Kainer, Les- 
ter. Settled in 1822. Three weekly newspapers. 
Industry, cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LAKEVIEW— Hall County; pop., 150; 15 miles 
southwest of Memphis, the county seat and shipping 
point. Bank, First State. Telephone connection. 

LAMESA— Dawson County seat; pop., 1,188; 30 
miles south of Tahoka, on the P. & N. Ry. Banks, 
First Natl., First State. Newspaper, telegraph, and 
express. 

LAMKIN — Comanche County, pop., 200. 21 
miles south of Comanche, the county seat, on the St. 
L. S. W. Ry. Bank, First State. Telephone con- 
nection. 

LAMPASAS — Judicial seat of Lampasas County; 
pop., 2,107; alt., 1,025 ft. 43 miles west of Temple, 
on the G. C. & S. Fe and the H. & T. C. Rys. Banks, 
First Natl., Peoples Natl., Stokes Bros., Bankers. 
Hotels, Commercial, Lampasas, Moore, Smith, Wach- 
en, Wachendorfer. Two weekly newspapers. In- 
dustry, Cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LANCASTER— Dallas County; pop., 1,190; alt., 
579 ft. 15 miles south of Dallas, the county seat, 
on the M. K. & T. the H. & T. C. Rys., and on the 
Dallas Waco Interurban. Banks, First Natl., R. P. 
Henry & Sons, White & Co. Hotel, Head. Weekly 
newspaper. The Lancaster Herald. Cotton Oil Mill, 
three cotton gins, flour mill. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LA PORTE— Harris County; pop., 678. 22 miles 
south of Houston, the county seat; alt., 30 ft. Bank, 
Brenton & McKay, Bankers. Hotel, Mathews. Has 
newspaper, telegraph and express. 

LA PRYOR— Zavalla County; pop., 400. 15 miles 
west of Batesville, the county seat, on the S. A. U. & 
G. Ry. Bank, La Pryor State. Weekly newspaper. 
The Zavalla County Sentinel. Stage daily to Bates- 
ville. Tel. W. U. Express. 

LAREDO— Judicial seat of Webb County; pop., 
22,710; alt., 438 ft. 153 miles southeast of San 
Antonio, located on the Rio Grande River, the I. & G. 
N., the T. M., the G. R. & E. P, and the N. R. of M. 
Rys. Banks, First State & Trust Co., Laredo Natl., 
Merchants State Bank & Trust Co., and Milmo Natl. 
Hotels, Bender, Hamilton, St. Anthony, Travelers. 
Two daily newspapers, The Propress and The Times, 
as well as a number of weeklies. Here is located the 
Laredo Seminary for Girls and Boys, Industrial In- 
stitutions, large brick works, roller mills, ice plants, 
foundry and machine shops, gas engine works, cigar 
factories, bottling works, flour mills, railroad shops 
and coal mines. Magnificent climate, cheap fuel, 
electric power, a splendid opportunity for manufac- 
turing enterprises. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LARUE — Henderson County; pop., 500; Banks, 
Citizens State and Laurwood Bank. 

LAURELIA— Polk County; pop., 500. 

LAVERNIA— Wilson County; pop., 500. 25 
miles east of San Antonio, and 18 miles north of 
Floresville, the county seat, on the G. H. & S. A. Ry. 
Bank, La Vernia State. Shipments, wool, cotton 
and corn. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LAVON— Collins County; pop., 200. 25 miles 
southeast of McKinney, the county seat, on the St. L. 
S. W. Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

LAWN— Taylor County; pop., 175. 28Va miles 
from Abilene, the county seat, and five miles from 



143 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



Ovalo, on the P. & N. T. Ry. Bank, Security State. 
Express. 

LEAGUE CITY— Galveston County; pop., 800. 
24 miles northwest of Galveston, the judicial seat, 
on the G. H. & H., the I. & G. N., and the M. K. & 
T. Rys. Bank, Citizens State. Newspaper, tele- 
graps and express. 

LEAKEY — Real County seat; pop., 150. 40 miles 
northwest of Sabinal, on the Rio Frio River. Banks, 
First State, Real County State. Daily stage con- 
nection with Sabinal, the nearest railroad point. 

LEANDER— Williamson County; pop., 200. 12 
miles west of Georgetown, the county seat, on the 
H. & T. C. Ry. Bank, First State. Express. 

LEARY — Bowie County; pop., 25. 10% miles to 
Texarkana, 12 miles east of Boston, the county seat, 
on the T. &. P. Ry. Bank, The Guaranty State. 

LEESBURG — Camp County; pop., 320. Seven 
and one half miles from Pittsburg, the county seat, 
on the M. K. & T. Ry. Bank, First Guaranty State. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

LEGGETT— Polk County; pop., 300. Eight miles 
from Livingston, the county seat, on the H. E. & W. 
T. Ry. Bank, Farmers' State. Express. 

LELIA LAKE — Donley County; pop., 150; seven 
miles from Clarendon, the county seat, on the Ft W. 
& D. C. Ry. Bank, Farmers & Merchants State. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

LEMING — Atascosa County; pop., 300. 12 miles 
northeast of Jourdanton, the county seat, on the 
S. A. U. & G. Ry. Bank, Farmers. Telephone and 
express connection. 

LEONARD— Fannin County; pop., 1,383. 20 
miles southwest of Bonham, the county seat, 34 miles 
southeast of Denison, on the M. K. & T. Ry. Banks, 
First Natl., First State. Hotel, Rock Shipments, 
cotton and livestock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LEROY — McLennan County; pop., 250. 15 miles 
southwest of Waco, the county seat, on the L & G. 
N. Ry. Bank, LeRoy Bank. Tel., W. U. Express. 
LEWISVILLE— Denton County; pop., 1,500; alt., 
477 ft. 15 miles south of Denton, the county seat, 22 
miles north of Dallas, on the M. K. & T. Ry. Banks, 
First Natl., Lewisville State. Hotels, Prague, Sal- 
mon. Weekly newspaper, The Enterprise. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

LEXINGTON— Lee County; pop., 600; 456 Feet 
elevation. 18 miles north of Giddings, the county 
seat, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Bank, Lee County 
State. Hotel, Commercialf Newspaper, telegraph 
and express. 

LIBERTY — Judicial seat of Liberty County; pop., 
1,117; alt., 38 ft. 42 miles east of Houston, on the 
T. & N. O. Ry. Banks, First State and Liberty 
State. Weekly newspaper. The Vindicator. Tel., 
W. U. Express. Hotels, Commercial, Liberty, Mc- 
Arthus, Norman. 

LIBERTY HILL— Williamson County; pop., 500. 
38 miles northwest of Austin, on the H. & T. C. Ry. 
Banks, First State, Potts, Connell & Reed, Bankers. 
Weekly newspaper, telegraph and express. 

LILLIAN— Johnson County; pop., 340. 2OV2 
miles southeast of Ft Worth, on the I. & G. N. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Tel., Express. 

LINDALE— Smith County; pop., 701. 14 miles 
northwest of Tyler, the county seat, on the I. & G. 
N. Ry. Bank, Citizens' Guaranty. Weekly news- 
paper. The Lindale Reporter. Tel., W. U. Express. 
LINDEN — Judicial Seat of Cass County; pop., 
702; alt., 220 ft. 18 miles north of Jefferson, on 



the J. & M. W. Ry. Banks, Cass County State, First 
Natl. Hotels, Commercial, Jackson. Two weekly 
newspapers. The Cass County Sun and the Weekly 
Memo. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LIN GLEVILLE— Erath County; pop., 400. 12 
miles from Dublin, its shipping point. Bank, First 
State. Telephone connection. 

LIPAN— Hood County; pop., 750. 19 V2 miles 
northwest of Granbury, the county seat, and 12 miles 
from Bluff Dale, the usual shipping point. Banks, 
First Natl., Lipan State. Telephone. 

LIPSCOMB— Lipscomb County seat; pop., 200; 
18% miles northwest of Higgings, the nearest ship- 
ping point. Bank, Bank of Lipscomb. Weekly news- 
paper. Has a daily mail stage route, Higgins to 
Ochiltree. 

LITTLEFIELD— Lamb County; pop., 500. 18 
miles southwest of Olton, the county seat, and 35 
miles fro mLubbock, on the P. & N. T. Ry. Bank, 
Littlefield State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LIVINGSTON— Polk County; pop., 928; alt., 192 
ft. 72 miles nort hof Houston, on the H. E. & W. T. 
and the B. & G. N. Rys. Banks, First Natl., Guar- 
anty State. Hotels, Cottage, Denham, Oleander. 
Weekly newspaper. The Polk County Enterprise. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

LLANO — Llano County seat; pop., 2,100; alt., 
1,040 ft. 100 miles northwest of Austin, on the H. 
& T. C. Ry. Banks, Home Natl., Llano Natl. Ho- 
tels, Dobbs, Don Carlos, Southern. Marble and 
granite works, stone quarries, abound. Hah three 
cotton gins, ice plant, sanitarium, and weekly news- 
paper. The Llano News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LLANO GRANDE— Hildalgo County; pop., 1,645. 
25 miles southeast of Edinburg, the county seat, and 
three miles from Mercedes, the nearest banking 
point. 

LOCKHART— Caldwell County; pop., 3,731. 30 
miles south of Austin, 60 miles northeast of San An- 
tonio, on the M. K. & T. and S. A. & A. P. Rys. 
Banks, First Natl., Lockhart Natl., Lockhart State, 
Farmers' Natl. Hotels, Carter, Griesenbeck. Cot- 
to noil mill, compress, and several gins. Here was 
originated the famous Mebane cotton seed for plant- 
ing and is grown extensively and exported through- 
out the cotton growing country. Two weekly news- 
papers. The Register and The Poht. Has a Catholic 
Academy. Shipments, cotton, cotton seed, livestock. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

LOCKNEY— Floyd County; pop., 1,118; alt., 3,300 
ft. 14 miles northwest of Floydada, the county seat, 
on the P. & N. T. Ry. Banks, First Natl., Lockney 
State. Hotels, Brewster, Commercial. Weekly 
newspaper, telegraph, express. 

LOMETA— Lampasas County; pop., 995; alt., 310 
ft. 18 miles northwest of Lampasas, the county 
seat, on the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Banks, First Natl., 
Lometa State. Hotels, DeBaun, Holiday, Page. A 
weekly newspaper. The Lometa Reporter. Tel., W. 
U. Express. , 

LONE OAK— Hunt County; pop., 1,017; 15 miles 
south of Greenville, the county seat, and 68 miles 
northeast of Dallas, on the M. K. & T. Ry. Banks, 
Farmers' Natl., Guaranty State. Weekly news- 
paper. The News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LONGVIEW— Gregg County seat; pop., 5,713; 
alt., 336 ft. 120 miles southeast of Dallas, on the 
I. & G. N., the T & P., and the G C. & S. Fe Rys. 
Banks, Citizens' Natl., Commercial Guaranty State. 
First Natl., Guaranty State. Hotels, Bodie, Daniels, 



144 



CITIES AND TOWTVS 



Magnolia, Mobberly, Palace, Schmidt. Two weekly 
newspapers, two cotton gins, a cotton compi'ess, 
ware house, ice factory, bottling works, box factory, 
iron works, plow works, etc. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LORAINE— Mitchell County; pop., 1,200; alt., 
2,265 ft. 10 miles from Colorado, the county seat, on 
the T. & P. Ry. Bank, First State. Hotel, Thornton. 
Weekly newspaper, telegraph and express. 

LORENA— McLennan County; pop., 342. 15 
miles south of Waco, the county seat, on the M. K. 
& T. Ry. Banks, First Natl., Lorena State. News- 
paper, The Register. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LORENZO— Crosby County; pop., 300. 18 miles 
from Crosbyton, the county seat, on the Crosbyton 
South Plains Ry. Bank, First State. Express. 

LOTT— Falls County; pop., 1,093; alt., 522 ft. 12 
miles west of Marlin, the county seat, and 28 miles 
south of Waco, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Banks, 
First Natl., Lott State. Hotel, Commercial. Weekly 
newspaper. The Tribune. Industries, cotton and 
grain. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LOUISE— ^\'harton County; pop., 300. 24 miles 
southwest of Wharton, the county seat, and 85 miles 
southwest of Houston. Banks, Louise State and 
Peoples' Bank. Rice ware houses, cotton gins, hay 
shippers, machine shops. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LOVELADY— Houston County; pop., 625. 14 
miles from Crockett, the county seat, on the I. & G. 
N. Ry. Banks, First Natl., Lovelady State. Week- 
ly newspaper. The Lovelady Light. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

LUBBOCK— Lubbock County seat; pop., 4,051; 
alt., 3106 ft. 123 miles south of Amarillo, on the 
A. T. &. S. Fe and the South Plains and Crosbyton 
Rys. Banks, Citizens' Natl., Lubbuck State, Secur- 
ity State Bank & Trust Co. Hotels, Alpins, City, 
Clyde, Jackson, Leidet, Lubbock. Weekly newspa- 
per. The Avalanche. Has an inexhaustible supply 
of water at depth of sixty feet and great are the 
irrigation possibilities. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LEUDERS— Jones County; pop., 200; alt., 1,720. 
18 miles northeast of Anson, the county seat, on the 
T. C. Ry. Bank, Leuders State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

LUFKIN — Angelina County seat; pop., 4,878; 
alt., 326 ft. 290 miles northeast of Austin, 118 
miles north of Houston, on the H. E. & W. T., the 
Cotton Belt, the I. & G. N., and the T. S. E. Rys. 
Banks, Citizens' Guaranty Bank & Trust Co., Luf- 
kin Natl. Hotels, Bonner, Mahaffey, Sickles. Has 
large saw mills. Shipments, cotton and lumber. 
Two newspapers. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LULING — Coldwell County; pop., 1,502, alt., 421 
ft. 15 miles south of Lockhart, the county seat, and 
58 miles east of San Antonio. Banks, Citizens' 
State, Lipscomb Bank lb Trust Co. Industry, cot- 
ton. Hotel, Wilson. Weekly newspaper. The Sig- 
nal. Tel., W. U. Express. 

LYFORD— Cameron County; pop., 300; alt., 40 ft. 
411/2 miles north of Brownsville, the county seat, on 
the St L. B. & M. Ry. Bank, First State. Hotel, 
Lyford. Express. 

LYONS— Burleson County; pop., 500. 12y2 miles 
southwest of Caldwell, thecounty seat, on the G. C. & 
S. Fe Ry. Bank First State. Tel., W.U. Express. 

LYTLE — Atascosa County; pop., 700; 35 miles 
north of Jourdanton, the county seat, on the I. & G. 
N. Ry. Bank, Lytle State. Weekly newspaper, 
The Herald. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MAGNOLIA PARK— pop,, 4,080. 



MALAKOFF— Henderson County; pop., 750. 10 
miles west of Athens, the county seat, on the St L. 
S. W. Ry. Bank, First Natl. Newspaper, Malakoff 
News. Has express and telephone connections. 

MALONE— Hill County; pop., 488. 18 miles 
from Hillsboro, the county seat, on the T. & B. V., 
and the I. & G. N. Rys. Banks, First State, Malone 
Bank. Weekly newspaper. The Malone Register. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

MANNING— Angelina County; pop., 1,000. 19 
miles southwest of Lufkin, the county seat, and its 
nearest bankin gpoint, on the S.H. & G. Ry. Tel- 
ephone and express connections. 

MANOR— Travis County; pop., 827. 15 miles 
east of Austin, the county seat, and 149 miles west 
of Houston, on the H. & T. C. Ry. Banks, Citizens' 
Guaranty State, Farmers' Natl. Weekly newspa- 
per. The Enterprise. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MANSFIELD— Tarrant County; pop.., 719; alt., 
587 ft. 19 miles southeast of Ft Worth, on H. & T. 
C. Ry. Banks, First Natl., State Bank of Mans- 
field. Hotel, Royal. Weekly newspaper, the Mans- 
field News. Chief industry, cotton oil business. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

MARATHON— Brewster County; pop., 218. 30 
miles from Alpine, the county seat, on the G. H. & 
S. A. Ry.Bank, Marathon State. Newspaper, The 
Hustler. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MARBLE FALLS— Burnet County; pop., 639; 
alt., 770 ft. 30 miles south of Burnet, the county 
seat, on the H. & T. C. Ry. Banks, Citizens' State, 
Ebeling Banking Co., First Natl. Hotel, Roper. 
Granite quarries. Weekly newspaper. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

MARFA — Presidio County seat; pop., 3,553; alt., 
4,689 ft. 22 miles southwest of Ft Davis, on the G. 
H. & S. A. Ry. Banks, Marfa Natl., Marfa State. 
Hotel, St George. Marfa is known as the illumi- 
nated city of the plains, from the large number of 
its lights burning brightly. Has most handsome 
opera house for its size of any city in the state. 
Twa newspapers. Telegraph, Express. 

MARIETTA— Cass County; pop., 124. 10 miles 
from Maples, the nearest shipping point, and 16 
miles from Linden, the county seat. Banks, Mari- 
etta State, and Marietta Bank. 

MARION— Guadalupe County; pop., 500. 25 
miles east of San Antonio, 12 miles north of Sequin, 
the county seat. Bank, Marion State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

MARLIN— Falls County seat; pop., 4,310; alt, 
460 ft. 28 miles south of Waco, on the I. & G. N. 
and H. &. T. C. Rys. Banks, Citizens' State, First 
Nati., First State, Marlin Natl. Hotels, Arlington, 
Artesia, Exchange, Imperial, Lamb, Majestic, May- 
Bill, Sebesta. Daily and semi-weekly newspaper, 
The Democrat. Marlin is noted as a health resort 
owing to its mineral waters. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MARQUEZ— Leon County; pop., 700. 18 miles 
west of Centerville, the county seat, on the I. & 
G. N. Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MARSHALL — Judicial seat of Harrison County; 
pop., 14,271; alt., 375 ft. 47 miles south of Tex- 
arkana, on the T. & P. and the M. K. & T. Rys. 
Banks, Citizens' State, First Natl., Guaranty State 
& Saving Bank, Marshall Natl. Hotels, Belmont, 
Elgin, Gonocchia, Lake, Marshall, White Way. 
Newspapers, The Messenger, daily. The Sunday Sen- 
tinel, semi-weekly and Louisiana Watchman (negro 
publication). Industries, saw mills, cotton gins. 



145 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



locomotive and car shops, car wheel works, grist and 
planing mills, cotton compress and oil mills, foun- 
dries, pottery, popcorn, candy, ice, shingle and fer- 
tilizer factories. Tel. W. U. Express. 

MART— McLennan County; pop., 3,105; alt., 410 
ft. 20 miles east of Waco, the county seat, on the 
I. & G. N. Ry. Banks, Farmers & Merchants Natl., 
First Natl., First State. Hotel, Abrams. Two 
weekly newspapers. The Enterprise and The Herald. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

MARTIND ALE— Caldwell County; pop., 500. 8 
miles from San Marcos, the nearest shipping point 
and 15 miles from Lockhart, the county seat. Bank, 
Merchants & Plenters Bank. Telephone connection. 

MASON — Judicial seat of Mason County; pop., 
1,200; alt, 1,400 ft. 32 miles south of Brady, the 
nearest shipping point. Banks, Commercial Bank of 
Mason, First State, Mason Natl. Hotels, Denver, 
Ricks, Southern. Two weekly newspapers. Stages 
to surrounding points. 

MATADOR— Motley County seat; pop., 692. 38 
miles west of Paducah, on the M. & N. Ry. Banks, 
First Natl., First State. Weekly newspaper. The 
Motley County News. Telephone connection. 

MATAGORDA— Matagorda County; pop., 1,000. 
22 miles south of Bay City, 95 miles southwest of 
Houston, on the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. and on the Inter- 
costal canal, near where the Colorado River enters 
Matagorda Bay. Bank, Bank of Matagorda. Set- 
tled in 1832. Important fish and oyster markets of 
the Gulf states. Oil wells and sulphur mines near 
by. Shipments, fish, oysters, mud shells for road 
building and farm produce. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MATHIS— San Patricio County; pop., 500; alt, 
42 ft. 26 miles northwest of Sinton, the county 
seat, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Banks, Bank of 
Mathis, First State, First Natl. Hotels, Alexander, 
Whitworth. Newspaper, telegraph, express. 

MAUD — Bowie County; pop., 378. 11 miles from 
Boston ,the county seat, on the St L. S. W. Ry. 
Bank, Maud Natl. Express and telephone. 

MAXWELI^Caldwell County; pop., 250. Eight 
and a half miles from Lockhart, the county seat, on 
the M. K. & T. Ry. Bank, C. T. Schawe, Banker. 
Express. 

MAY — Brown County; pop., 600. 17 Vi miles 
north of Brownwood, the county seat, on the B. N. 
& S. Ry. Bank, First Natl. Newspaper, telphone. 

MCALLEN— Hidalgo County; pop., 5,331; alt., 400 
ft. 12 miles uorth of Edinburg, the county seat, on 
the St L. B. & M. Ry. Banks, First Citizens' Bank 
& Trust Co., First Natl. Hotels, Casa De Palms, 
Clark, Palmas. Newspaper, Monitor. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

MCCAULLEY— Fisher County; pop., 200. 14 
miles northeast of Robey, the county seat, on the 
K. C. M. & O. Ry. Bank, First Guaranty. Tel., 
and Express. 

MCDADE— Bastrop County; pop., 600. 14 miles 
from Bastrop, the county seat, on the H. & T. C. Ry. 
Bank, McDade Guaranty State. Express. 

MCGREGOR— McLennan County, pop., 2,081; alt., 
713 ft. 20 miles southwest of Waco, the county 
seat, on the G. C. & S. Fe and the St L. S. W. Rys. 
Banks, First Natl., First State. Hotel, White. 
Newspaper, The McGregor Mirror. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

MCKINNEY— Collin County seat; pop., 6,677; 
alt., 592 ft. 32 Miles north of Dallas on the H. & 
T. C, the M. K. & T. Rys,, and the Texas Traction 



Co.'s interurban lines. Banks, Collins County Natl., 
Continental State, First Natl. Hotels, Commercial, 
Throckmorton. All modern public utilities. Some 
manufacturing. Daily newspaper, Courier-Gazette, 
and two weeklies, the Democrat-Gazette, and The 
McKinney Examiner. Ships hay, cotton, and dry 
products. Tel. and Express. 

MCLEAN— Gray County; pop., 74; alt., 2,780 ft 
23 miles south of Lefors, the county seat, on the 
C. R. I. & G. Ry. Banks, American Natl., and Citizens' 
State. Hotels, Hindman, Smith. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

MEDICINE MOUND— Hardeman County; pop., 
200; 15 miles from Quanah, the county seat, on the 
K. C. M. & O. Ry. Bank, First Guaranty State. 
Express. 

MEGARGEL— Archer County; pop., 300. 25 miles 
southwest of Archer City, the county seat, on the 
G. T. & W. Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

MELISSA— Collin County; pop., 500. Five miles 
north of McKinney, the county seat, and 37 miles 
north of Dallas, on the H. & T. C. Ry., and on the 
Texas Traction Co., Interui-ban. Bank, Melissa 
Natl. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MELVIN— McCulloch County; pop., 300. 18 miles 
from Brady, the county seat, on the G. C. & S. Fe 
Ry. Bank, First State. Telephone connection. 

MEMPHIS— Hall County seat; pop., 2'839; alt., 
1,800 ft. 137 miles west of Wichita Falls, on the 
Ft &. & D. Ry. Banks, Citizens' State, First Natl., 
Hall County Natl. Hotels, Cobb and Stephens. 
Opera house, public library and two weekly news- 
papers, the Herald and The Democrat. Industry, 
cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MENARD — Judicial seat of Menard County; pop., 
1,164. 228 miles southwest of Ft Worth, on the Ft 
W. & R. G. Ry. Banks, Bevans Natl., and the Me- 
nard Natl. Newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MERCEDES— Hidalgo County; pop., 3,414, alt., 
36 ft. 23 miles southwest of Edinburg, the county 
seat, on the St L. B. & M. Ry. Banks, Bank of 
Commece & Trust Co., Hidalgo County, First Natl. 
Hotels, American, Mercedes. Weekly newspaper. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

MERCURY— McCuUich County; pop., 450. 25 
miles from Brady, the county seat, on the Ft W. & 
R. G. Ry. Banks, Bank of Mercury, Mercury State. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

MERIDIAN— Bosque County seat; pop., 1,024; 
alt., 793 ft. 65 miles south of Ft Worth, on the 
G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Banks, Farmers Guaranty State, 
First Natl. Hotel, Meridian. Weekly newspaper. 
The Meridian Times. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MERIT— Hunt County; pop., 450. 16 miles from 
Greenville, the county seat, on the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. 
Bank, First Natl. Express. 

MERKEL— Taylor County; pop., 1,810; alt., 1,871 
ft. 18 miles west of Abilene, the county seat, on the 
T. & P. Ry. Banks, Farmers & Merchants Natl., 
Farmers' State. Hotels, Collins, Commercial. No- 
ted as having the healthiest climate in Texas; public 
library, modern improvements. Two newspapers. 
The Mail and The Herald. Shipments, cotton, stock, 
farm produce. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MERTENS— Hill County; pop., 500. 15 miles 
east of Hillsboro, the county seat and 60 miles south 
of Ft Worth, on the I. & G. N., and the St L. S. W. 
Rys. Bank, First Guaranty State. Weekly news- 



146 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



paper, The News. Shipments, cotton and grain. 
Telegraph and Express. 

MERTZON— Irion County; pop., 400; alt., 1,850 
ft. Two and one half miles from Sherwood, the 
county seat, on the K. C. M. & 0. Ry. Bank, First 
Natl. Newspaper, The Weekly Star. Daily stage 
to Sherwood. Te!., W. U. Express. 

MESQUITE— Dallas County; pop., 674; alt., 483 
ft., 12 miles east of Dallas, the county seat, on the 
T. & P. Ry. Banks, First Nat!., Guaranty State. 
Hotel, Mesquite. Brick works. Weekly newspaper. 
Tel., W. U., Express. 

MEXIA — Limestone County; pop., by 1920 census 
3,482, but estimated in 1922 as 30,000; alt., 536 
ft. 12 miles north of Groesbeck, the county seat, 
and 96 miles south of Dallas, on the T. & B. V. 
and the H. & T. C. Rys. Banks, Farmers State, 
Prendergast Bank, Smith & Co. Two newspapers, 
the Evening News (weekly and daily) and The 
Herald (weekly). Tel., W. U. Express. In the 
fall of 1920, oil was discovered by Col. Humphreys 
a short distance from Mexia, and thus opened 
up the greatest oil fields of Texas with Mexia as 
the center of activities. Mexia rapidly increased in 
all lines of activities and has grown to be one of 
the leading centers of the Southwest. 

MIAMI— Roberts County seat; pop., 935. 76 
miles east of Amarillo, on the A. T. & S. F. Ry. 
Banks, Bank of Maimi, First State. Industry, cat- 
tle, and the raising of corn, wheat, kaffir corn, niilo 
maize, oats, hay and broom corn. Ships over 300 
car loads of cattle annually and over fifty carloads 
of broom corn. Good climate. Weekly newspaper, 
The Chief. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MIDLAND— Midland County seat; pop., 1,795; 
alt., 2,779 ft. 152 miles west of Abilene, on the T. & 
P. Ry. Banks, First Natl., Midland State. Hotels, 
City, Llano, Yeakel. Weekly paper. The Reporter. 
Has an opera house. Ships cotton, grain and live 
stock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MIDLOTHIAN— Ellis County; pop., 1,298' alt., 
737 ft. llVa miles northwest of Waxahachie, the 
county seat, on the H. & T. C. and the G. C. & S. Fe 
Rys. Banks, Farmers' Guaranty State, First Natl. 
Hotels, Cowart, Mullin. Newspaper, The Argus. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

MIDWAY— Madison County; pop., 500. 12 miles 
from Madisonville, the county seat and nearest ship- 
ping point. Bank, Midway State. Telephone con- 
nections. 

MILANO— Milano County; pop., 500; alt., 497 ft. 

14 mile from Cameron, the county seat, on the G. C. 
& S. Fe and the I. & G. N. Rys. Bank, First State. 
Hotels, Hudson, Milano. Weekly newspaper. The 
Gazette. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MILES — Runnels County; pop., 853 miles from 
Concho River and 17 miles west of Ballinger, the 
county seat, on the S. F. Ry. Bank, Miles Natl. 
Hotel, Childress. Newspaper, The Messenger. Tel., 
and Express. 

MILFORD— Ellis County; pop., 800; alt., 811 ft. 
20 miles south of Waxahachie, the county seat, on 
the M. K. & T. Ry., and the Southern Traction Line, 
electric. Banks, Bank of Milford, Citizens' Bank. 
Hotel, Milford. Weekly newspaner. The Courier. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

MILLSAP— Parker County; pop., 800; alt., 811 ft. 

15 miles west of Weatherford, the county seat, 46 
miles from Ft Worth, on the T. & P. Ry. Bank, 
First State. Hotels, Dewey, Millsap. Large brick 



plants, cotton gins. Weekly newspaper. The Millsap 
News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MINEOLA— Wood County; pop., 2,299; alt., 406 
ft. 14 miles south of Quitman, the county seat, and 
7 Smiles east of Dallas, on the I. & G. N., and M. K. 
& T. Rys. Banks, Farmers' State, First State, Min- 
eola State. Hotels, Abney, Bailey, Beckman, City. 
Weekly newspaper, The Mineola Monitor. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

MINERAL WELLS— Palo Pinto County; pop., 
7,890; alt., 1,400 ft. 13 miles northwest of Palo Pin- 
to, the county seat, and 53 miles northwest of Ft 
Worth, on the W. M. W. & N. W. and the G. T. & 
W. Rys. Banks, Bank of Mineral Wells, First Natl., 
First State Bank & Trust Co., Security State. Ho- 
tels, Carlsbed, Crazy Well, Damron, Fairfield, Miller, 
Oxford and Piedmont. Noted health resort, its min- 
eral waters having a nation wide reputation. Daily 
and weekly newspaper. The Index. Coal mines in 
the vicinity and a superior quality of sand stone is 
quorried. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MINGUS— Palo Pinto County; pop., 210. 22 miles 
southwest of Palo' Pinto, the county seat, on the T. & 
P. Ry. Bank, First State. Opera House; stage 
daily to Thurber. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MISSION— Hidalgo County; pop., 3,847; alt., 80 
ft. 15 miles southwest of Edinburg, the county 
seat, on the St L. B. & M. and the S. B. & R. G. V. 
Rys. Banks, First Natl., First State. Hotel, Mis- 
sion. Industries, cotton, and truck produce. Can- 
ning. Newspapers, The Citizen and The Times. 
Tel., W. U. Expres. 

MOBEETIE— Wheeler County; pop., 200. 13 miles 
from Wheeler, the county seat, ^nd 20 miles from 
Miami, its shipping point. Bank, First State. 
Weekly nevi'spaper, The News. 

MONTAGUE— Montague County seat; pop., 500. 
Nine miles south of Nacona, its nearest shipping 
point. Bank, Citizens' State. Weekly newspaper. 
The Montague Enterprise. Stage daily to Nacona 
and Bowie. 

MONTGOMERY— Montgomery County; pop., 500. 
18 miles west of Conroe, the county seat, and 56 
miles northwest of Houston, on the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. 
Bank, First State. Shipments, cotton and farm 
products. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MOODY— McLennan County; pop., 1,106. 30 
miles southwest of Waco, the county seat, on the G. 
C. & S. Fe Ry. Banks, Farmers State, First Natl. 
Weekly newspaper, The Moody Courier. Industry, 
cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MOORE — Frio County; pop., 150; 12 miles from 
Pearsall, the county seat, on the I. & G. N. Ry. 
Bank, City Natl. Weekly newspaper, telegraph and 
express. 

MORAN— Shackelfrod County; pop., 950; alt., 299 
ft. 16 miles southeast of Albany, the county, seat, 
on the T. C. Ry. Banks, First Natl, Moran State. 
Hotel, Commercial. Has newspaper. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

MORGAN— Bosque Couty; pop., 672. Seven 
miles north of Meridian, the county seat, and 59 
miles south of Ft Worth, on the G. C. & S. Fe and 
the T. C. Rys. Bank, First Natl. Weekly newspa- 
per. The Morgan Mirror. Ships, cotton, grain and 
live stock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MORGAN HILL— Erath County; pop., 300. 12 
miles north of Stephensville, the county seat and 
shipping point. Bank, Farmers & Merchants Bank. 
Telephone connection. 



147 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



MOULTON— Lavaca County; pop., 800; 18 miles 
northwest of Hallettsville, the county seat, and 160 
miles west of Galveston, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Weekly newspaper, The Eagle. 
Industry, cotton and poultry raising is extensive. 
Ships more eggs than any other town its size in the 
state. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MOUNT CALM— Hill County; pop., 626. Six 
riiles southeast of Hillsboro, the county seat, and 
35 miles west of Corsicana, on the Navasota River, 
and on the St L. S. W. Ry. Banks, First Natl., and 
First State. Weekly newspaper, The Banner. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

MOUNT ENTERPRISE— Rusk County; pop., 655; 
alt., 282 ft. 21 miles southeast of Henderson, the 
county seat, on the Cairo Northern Branch of the 
T. & N. O. Ry. Bank, Merchants & Planters State. 
Hotel, Moss. Weekly newspaper, The Herald. In- 
dustries, lumber and cotton. 

MOUNT PLEASANT— Titus County; pop., 4,099; 
alt., 397 ft. 133 miles northeast of Dallas, on the 
St. L. S. W. and the P. & M. P. Rys. Banks, First 
Nati., Guaranty State, State Natl. Hotels, City, 
Crossett, Jefferson, Main. Spear School for Boys 
here. Two weekly newspapers, The Journal and 
The Times-Review. Shipments, cotton, fruit, truck, 
nursery stock, staves and heading. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

MOUNT SELMAN— Cherokee County; pop., 500. 
22 miles from Rusk, the county seat, on the St. L. S. 
W. Ry. Bank, Farmers & Merchants State. Ex- 
press. 

MOUNT VERNON— Franklin County; pop., 1,212; 
alt., 540 ft. 139 miles east of Ft. Worth, on the 
St. L. S. W. Ry. Newspaper, The Optic-Herald. 
Banks, First Natl., Merchants & Planters Natl. 
Hotel, Palmer. Tel., W. U. Express. 

MUENSTER— Cooke County; pop., 1,000. 15 
miles west of Gainesville, the county seat, on the 
M. K. & T. Ry. Bank, German-American Bank. 
Ships cotton, grain and farm produce. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

MULE SHOE— Bailey County; pop., 200. Bank, 
Black Water Valley State Bank. 

MULLIN— Mills County; pop., 558. 11 miles 
from Goldthwaite, the county seat, on the G. C. & 
S. Fe Ry. Bank, First State. Newspaper. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

MUNDAY— Knox County; pop., 998; alt, 3,992 ft. 
20 miles southeast of Benjamin, the county seat, 
and 21 miles northeast of Haskell, on the W. V. Ry. 
Banks, First Natl., First State. Hotel, Munday. 
Newspaper (weekly) The Times. Shipment, cotton. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

MURCHISON— Henderson County; pop., 500. 
Nine miles northeast of Athens, the county seat, on 
the St. L. S. W. Ry. Bank, First State. Tel.,. W. U. 
Express. 

MURPHY— Collin County; pop., 150. 12 miles 
from McKinney, the county seat, on the St. L. S. W. 
Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Tel. W. U. Express. 

MYRA — Cooke County; pop., 700. 12 miles from 
Gainesville, the county seat, on the M. K. & T. Ry. 
Bank, First Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 
NACOGDOCHES— Nacogdoches County seat; 
pop., 3,546; alt, 283 ft 138 miles north of Houston, 
and 150 miles southeast of Dallas, on the H. E. & W. 
T., the T. & N. O. and the N. & S.E. Rys. Banks, 
Commercial Guaranty State, Nacogdoches State, 
Stone Fort Natl. Hotels, Banta, Redland. Was the 



old Spanish stone fort, erected in 1819 under Span- 
ish rule. Is the distributing point for a large sur- 
rounding territory. Two weekly newspapers. The 
Weekly Sentinel and The Redland Herald, and a 
daily. The Daily Sentinel. Brick works, bottling 
works, many saw mills. Industries, lumber, farm- 
ing, truck produce, hides. Tel. and express. 

NAPLES— Morris County; pop., 887; alt., 407 ft. 
20 mile snorth of Daingerfleld, the county seat, on 
the St. L. S. W. Ry. Banks, Morris County Natl., 
First State. Hotels, Davis, Floyd. Weekly paper, 
The Monitor. Tel., W. U. Express. 

NASH — Bowie County; pop., 481. 17 miles east 
of Boston, the county seat and 5 miles from Tex- 
arkana, on the T. & P. Ry. Bank, Natl. Exchange. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

NAVASOTA— Grimes County; pop., 5,060; alt.. 
216 ft. 11 miles south of Anderson, the county seat, 
and 71 miles northwest of Houston, on the H. & 
T. C, the I. & G. N. and the G. C. & S. Fe Rys. 
Banks, Citizens Natl., Farmers State Guaranty. 
First Natl., Texas Loan & Trust Co. Hotel. Capm. 
Daily newspaper. The Examiner-Review (with week- 
ly edition also). Center of cotton and corn produc- 
ing district. Ships cotton, live stock, dairy produce, 
lumber and barrel hoops and headings. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

NECESSITY— Stephens County, P. O., Caddo; 
pop., 1,500. Banks, First Natl., Guaranty State 
Bank of Cottonplant. 

NECHES— Anderson County; pop., 400fl 12 miles 
north of Palestine, the county seat, on the I. & G. 
N. Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Express. 

NEEDVILLE— Fort Bend County; pop.. 300. 15 
miles from Richmond, the county seat, and 12 miles 
from Rosenberg, the nearest shipping point. Bank. 
Needville State Bank & Trust Co. Mail daily. 

NEVADA— Collin County; pop., 578. 25 miles 
from McKinney, the county seat, on the St. L. S. W. 
Ry. Banks, First Natl., First. Weekly newspaper. 
The Citizen. Tel., W. U. Express. 

NEWARK— Wise County; pop., 600. 20 miles 
south of Decatur, the county seat and 21 miles north 
of Ft. Worth, on the C. R. I. & G. Ry. Bank. First 
State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

NEW BOSTON— Bowie County seat; pop., 960: 
alt., 352 ft. 22 miles northwest of Texarkana, on 
the T. & P. Ry. Banks, First Natl., New Boston 
Natl., State Exchange. Weekly newspaper. The 
Bowie County News. . Shipments are garden prod- 
ucts, grain and live stock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

NEW BRAUNFELS— County seat of Comal Coun- 
ty; pop., 3,590; alt, 645 ft. 31 miles northeast ofo 
San Antonio, 50 miles southwest of Austin, on the 
I. & G. N. andthe M. K. & T. Rys., the confluence 
of the Comal and the Guadalupe Rivers. Banks, First 
Natl., New Braunfels State. Was founded in 1845 
by Prince Solms Braunfels, for whom it was named. 
Is in an agricultural district, is strictly German, and 
is beautiful due to its location and delightful climate. 
The Comal River is only three miles in length with 
a source of artesian springs which flow 60,000 cubic 
feet of crystal clear water a minute.. This stream, 
well stocked with game fish and within the city, is 
one of the most beautiful natural narks in the world. 
Lime plant, rock crusher, two canneries, whip cord 
factories, horse collar factory, broom and brush fac- 
tories, cotton, roller and cotton oil mills, ice plant, 
power plant, all run by natural power. Diversified 
agriculture and stock raising extensively carried 



148 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



on. Two weekly newspapers, The Herald, (English) 
and The Zeitung (German). Hotels, Plaza, Prince 
Solms, Wills. Principal shipments, grains, mill 
products, cotton seed products, farm produce, 
crushed rock, lime, fertilizer, live stock and hay. 
Tel. W. U. E.xpress. 

NEW CASTLE— Young County; pop., 1,452; alt, 
86 ft. 15 miles northwest of Graham, the county 
seat, on the W. F & S. Ry. Banks, First Natl., First 
State. Hotels, Arlington, Grand, Harris, Imperial, 
Jeter. Newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

NEWLIN— Hall County; pop., 200. Ten miles 
southwest of Memphis, the county seat, on the Ft. 
W. & D. C. Ry. Bank, Farmers' State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

NEW PORT— Clay County; pop., 500. 35 miles 
southwest of Henrietta, the county seat and 14 miles 
from Bowie, the nearest shipping point. Bank, First 
Guaranty State. Daily mail; stage to Bowie. Tele- 
phone connection. 

NEWSOME— Camp County; pop., 165. Ten miles 
■west of Pittsburg, the county seat, on the M. K. & 
T. Ry. Bank, First Natl. Weekly newspaper, The 
Argus. Tel., W. U. Express. 

NEWTON — Judicial seat of Newton County; pop., 
800; alt., 260 ft. 60 miles northeast of Orange, on 
the O. & N. W. Ry. Bank, Newton County State. 
Hotels, Powell, Snell, Tatum. Weekly newspaper. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

NEW ULM— Austin County; pop., 500. 70 miles 
west of Houston, on the M. K. & T. Ry. Bank, New 
Ulm State. Weekly newspaper. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

NEW WAVERLY— Walker County; pop., 600. 14 
miles southeast of Huntsville, the county seat, on 
the I. & G. N. Ry. Bank, New Waverly State. 
Newspaper. Telegi-aph and express. 

NILES — Milam County; pop., 715. 25 miles south- 
west of Cameron, the county seat, and 4 miles from 
Thorndale, the nearest banking point, on the I. & 
G. N. Ry. Telephone connection. 

NIXON— Gonzales County; pop., 1,124; alt., 306 
ft. 24 miles southwest of Gonzales, the county seat, 
on the G. H. & S. A. Ry. Banks, First Natl., Nixon 
State. Hotel, Talley. Newspaper. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

NOCONA— Montague County; pop., 1,422; alt., 
930 ft. Nine miles north of Montague, the county 
seat, on the M. K & T. Ry. Banks, Farmers & 
Merchants Natl., Nocona State. Hotel, Nocona. Two 
newspapers. Tel., W. U. Express. 

NOLAN VILLE— Bell County; pop., 133. Eight 
miles from Belton, the county seat, on the G. C. & 
S. Fe Ry. Bank, Farmers' Bank. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

NORDHEIM— Dewitt County; pop., 443; alt., 160 
ft. 25 miles southwest of Cuero, the county seat, on 
the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Bank, Nordheim State, Oster- 
lah lb Neutzler, Bankers. Hotel, City. Newspaper. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

NORMANGEE— Leon County; pop., 662; alt., 380 
ft. 20 miles southwest of Centerville, the county 
seat, and 107 miles north of Houston, 144 miles 
south of Dallas, on the T. & B. V. and the H. & T. C. 
Rys. Banks, First Natl., First State. Hotel, Com- 
mercial. Newspaper, The Star. Shipments, cotton, 
corn, live stock and farm products. Soil very fertile. 
Crop failures unknown. Tel., W. U. Express. 

NORTH PLEASANTON— Atascosa County; pop., 
364. Bank, First State. 



NORTH ZULCH— Madison County; pop., 400. 13 
miles from Madisonville, the county seat, on the 
T. & B. V. and the H. & T. C. Rys. Bank, Farmers 
Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

NOVICE— Coleman County; pop., 200. 20 miles 
northwest of Coleman, the county seat, on the P. 
& N. T. Ry. Bank, Novice State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

OAKHURST— San Jacinto County; pop., 500. 
91/2 miles northeast of Huntsville, the usual bank- 
ing point, on the T. & B. V. Ry. Express and tele- 
phone. 

GARWOOD— Leon County; pop., 1,110. 30 miles 
from Centerville, the county seat, on the I. & G. N. 
Ry. Banks, Fii-st State, Oakwood State. Weekly 
newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

O'BRIEN— Haskell County; pop., 300. 22 miles 
northwest of Haskell, the county seat, on the K. C. 
M. & 0. Ry. Bank, First State. Express and tele- 
phone. 

OCHILTREE— Judicial seat of Ochiltree County; 
pop., 600. 45 miles from Glazier, its nearest ship- 
ping point. Settled in 1885. See Perryton. 

ODELL — Wilbarger County; pop., 500. 25 miles 
northwest of Vernon, the county seat, on the K. C. 
M. & 0. Ry. Banks, Bank of Odell, Farmers' State. 
Two newspapers. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ODEM— San Patricio County; pop., 300: T% 
miles from Sinton, the county seat, on the St. L. B. 
& M. and the S. A. N. & G. Rys. Bank, Odem State. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

ODESSA — County seat of Ector County; pop., 750. 
GO miles southwest of Big Springs, on the T. & P. 
Ry. Bank, Citizens Natl. Weekly newspaper. The 
Herald. Tel., W. U. Express. 

O'DONNELL — Lynn County; pop., 400. 14Vi 
miles south of Tahoka, the county seat, on the T. 
& N. T. Ry. Bank, Bank of O'Donnell. Express. 

OGLESBY— Coryell; pop., 360. 18 miles from 
Gatesville, the county seat, on the St. L. S. W. Ry. 
Bank, Bank of Oglesby. Tel., W. U. Express. 

OKLAUNION— Wilbarger County; pop., 300; 71/2 
mile seast of Vernon, the county seat, on the Ft. 
W. & D. C. Ry. Bank, First Guaranty. Hotel, Ash- 
ley. Tel., W. U. Express. 

OLDEN— Eastland County pop., 1,850. Banks, 
First State, Guaranty State. 

OLNEY— Young County; pop., 1,164; alt., 1,200 
ft. 28 miles north of Graham, the county seat, and 
42 miles south of Wichita Falls, on the G. T. & W. 
and the W. F. & S. Rys. Banks, Campbell Banking 
Co., First Natl. Hotels, Central, Linzy, Yates. 
Weekly newspaper, The Enterprise. Industry, cot- 
ton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

OMAHA— Morris County; pop., 492; alt., 407 ft. 
15 miles north of Daingerfield, the county seat, on 
the St. L. S. W. Ry. Bank, State Bank of Omaha. 
Hotels, Beasley, Omaha. Weekly newspaper. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

ONALASKA— Polk County; pop., 800. 14 miles 
northwest of Livingston, the county seat, on the B. 
& G. N. Ry. Bank, Onalaska Exchange Bank. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

OPLIN— Callahan County; pop., 100. 25 miles 
southwest of Baird, the county seat and 12 miles 
from Novice, the shipping point. Bank, First State. 

ORANGE— Orange County seat; pop., 9,212; alt., 
10 ft. 105 miles east of Houston and 255 miles west 
of New Orlean La. 20 miles from the Gulf of Mexico 
and by river 32 miles to the open sea on the O. & N. 



149 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



W. and the T. & N. 0. Rys. Banks, First Natl., 
Orange Natl., Guaranty Bank & Trust Co. Hotels, 
Bailey, Dillard, Holland, Jellison. Is at the junction 
of the Sabine River and the Intercostal Canal; it has 
a 26 ft. deep water canal to the open sea, such that 
ocean vessels have access to the city. Daily news- 
paper, The Daily Leader, The Orange Leader is a 
weekly publication. Industries, saw mills, planers, 
paper mill, bag manufacture, rice mill, box factory, 
ship yard, oil refinery, iron work and an electric 
power plant. The output of the Orange saw mills 
exceeds 125,000,000 feet of merchantable lumber an- 
nually. Oil in paying quantities are in the county; 
the rice crop annually approximates one million 
dollar valuation. Shipments, lumber, rice, paper, 
paper boxes, box shooks. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ORANGE GROVE— Jim Wells County; pop., 800; 
alt., 38 ft. 17 miles from Alice, the county seat, 
on the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Bank, State Bank of 
Orange Grove. Hotel, Germania. Weekly news- 
paper. The Orange Grove Record. Express. 

ORE CITY— Upshaw County; pop., 500. 20 miles 
northeast of Gilmer, the county seat, on the T. & 
G. Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Chief industry, lum- 
berber. Tel., W. U. Express. 

OSCEOLA— Hill County; pop., 400. 11 miles 
from Hillsboro, the county seat, on the T. & B. V. Ry. 
Bank, Guaranty State. Hotel, Lone Star. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

OTTO— Falls County; pop., 1,000. 14 miles north 
of Marlin, the county seat, on the I. & G. N. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Express. 

OVALO— Taylor County; pop., 300. 20 miles 
south of Abilene, the county seat, on the A. & S. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

OVERTON— Rusk County; pop., 525. 15 miles 
northwest of Henderson, the county seat, on the I. & 
G. N. and T. & H. Rys. Bank, First Guaranty 
State. Hotel, Hull. Newspaper, The Overton Tele- 
gram. Tel., W. U. Express. 

OVILLA— Ellis County; P. O., Midlothian; pop., 
200. Bank, Guaranty State. 

OZONA— Crockett County seat; pop., 1,200. 31 
miles south of Barnhart, the nearest shipping point, 
located at the head of Devil's River. Bank, Ozona 
Natl. Newspaper. .Stage daily to Barnhart, tri- 
weekly to Comstock and Sheffield and weekly to 
Pandale. Telephone connection. 

PADUCAH— Cottle County seat; pop., 1,357; alt., 
1,900 ft. 42 miles west of Quanah, on the Q. A. 
& P. Ry. Banks, Farmers' & Merchants' and First 
Natl., and First State. Hotel, Paducah. Weekly 
newspaper. The Post. Ships cotton, grain and live 
stock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PAIGE— Bastrop County; pop., 400. 18 miles 
Bank, Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PAINT ROCK— Concho County seat; pop., 750. 
20 miles south of Ballinger on the C. S. S. & L. V. 
Ry. Bank, Guarantee State. Newspaper, The Con- 
cho Herald. Express. 

PALACIOS— Matagorda County; pop., 1,325; alt., 
10 ft. 32 miles southwest of Bay City, the county 
seat, and 115 miles southwest of Houston, on the 
G. H. & S. A. Ry., and on the Tres-Palacios Bay, a 
branch of the Matagorda Bay. Bank, Palacios State. 
Hotels, Lone Star, Palacios. Is a very popular 
camping and outing resort. The Baptist Young Peo- 
ple's Union of Texas meets here annually for ten 
days. Shipments, cotton, corn, fig preserves, fish, 
oysters and live stock. Tel., W. U. Express. 



PALESTINE — Anderson County seat; pop., 
11,939; alt., 510 ft. 181 miles northeast of Austin, 
on the T. S. & I., and I. & G. N. Rys. Bank, CampJ 
bell State, First Natl., Guaranty State, Royal Natl., 
Robinson Guaranty State Bank & Trust Co., Pales- 
tine Clearing House Association. Hotel, Palestine. 
Five weekly newspapers and three dailies. . Has all 
the facilities and appointments of a modern busi- 
ness city. Important industries, saw and grist mills, 
foundry and machine shop, brick works, cotton com- 
press, cotton gins, railroad shops, salt works and 
creamery. Tel., W. U. Express. . 

PALMER— Ellis County; pop., 748. 12 miles 
west of Waxahachie, the county seat, on the H. & T. 
C. Ry. and the Southern Traction Co.'s Line. Banks, 
Citizen's Bank, First Guaranty State. Newspaper, 
The Hustler. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PALO PINTO— Palo Pinto County seat; pop., 500. 
Four miles from the Brazos River, 35 miles west of 
Weatherford, and 14 miles from Mineral Springs, 
the nearest shipping point. Bank, Banking House 
of Cunningham Bros. Has weekly newspaper and 
stage daily to Mineral Wells. 

PAMPA— Gray County; pop., 987; alt., 2,700 ft. 
13 miles from Lefors, the county seat, on the S. K. 
Ry. Banks, First Natl., Gray County State Bank. 
Hotels, Liberty, Schneider. Weekly newspaper. 
Stage daily to Lefors. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PANHANDLE— Carson County; pop., 638. 27 
miles east of Amarillo, 426 miles southwest of 
Kansas City, on the A. T. & S. Fe Ry. Banks, First 
State, Panhandle Bank. Is the center of an ex- 
tensive grazing country. 700 cars of cattle and 15 
cars of hogs are usually shipped from this towTi 
annually. Wheat, oats, corn, kaffir corn, broom corn, 
are extensively grown. Weekly newspaper. The 
Herald. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PARADISE— Wise County; pop., 500. 12 miles 
south of Decature, the county seat, and 38 miles 
north of Ft. Worth, on the C. R. I. & G. Ry. Banks, 
Paradise State, People's Bank. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PARIS — Lamar County seat; pop., 15,040; alt., 
592 ft. 100 miles northeast of Dallas and 91 miles 
west of Texarkana, on the T. & P., the P. & Mt. P., 
the T. & M., the G. C. & S. Fe and the Frisco Rys. 
Banks, American Natl., City Natl., First Natl., First 
State, Lamar State Bank & Trust Co., Red River 
Valley Trust Co., Scott & Baldwin. Hotels, Eagle, 
Gibralter, Imperian, Morgan, Phoenix, Woodland. 
Was settled in 1845 and is one of the most prosper- 
ous cities in North Texas. Has two daily and three 
weekly newspapers. Important industrial concerns, 
cotton gins, cotton compress, cotton oil mills, plan- 
ing mills, flour mills, ice plant, handle factory, crate, 
box, peanut and chair factories, bottling works, 
mattress factory, canning factory, brick works, foun- 
dries, etc. Tel., Postal and W. U. Express. 

PARK SPRINGS— Wise County; pop., 200. 25 
miles west of Decatur, the county seat, and 60 miles 
northwest of Ft. Worth, on the C. R. I. & G. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PASEDENA— Harris County; pop., 250. 10 miles 
southeast of Houston, the county seat, on the G. H. 
& S. A. Ry Banks, Guaranty State, Pasedena 
State. Express. 

PATTONVILLE— Lamar County; pop., 110. 11 
miles southeast of Paris, the county seat. Bank, 
First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PEARLAND— Brazoria County; pop., 150. 37 



150 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



miles northwest of Angelton, the county seat, 10 
miles from Alvin, and 13 miles from Houston, on 
the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Bank, Pearland Bank. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

PEARSALL— Frio County seat; pop., 2,160; alt., 
629 ft. 53 miles southwest of San Antonio, on the 
I. & G. N. Ry. Banks, Pearsall Natl., Peoples' 
State. Newspaper, The Pearsall Leader. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

PEASTER— Parker County; pop., 250. 10 miles 
northwest of weatherford, the county seat and ship- 
ping- point. Bank, Farmers' Bank of Peaster. Tel- 
ephone connection. 

PECAN GAP— Delta County; pop., 500. 12 miles 
west of Cooper, the county seat, and 70 miles north- 
west of Dallas. Weekly newspaper. The Delta 
County News. Bank. Pecan Gap State. Ship- 
ments, cotton, grain and hay. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PECOS— Reeves County seat; pop., 1,445; alt., 
2,581 ft. 90 miles east of Van Horn, on the T. & P., 
A. T. & S. F., and the P. V. S. Rys. Is in center of 
one of the largest irrigated belts in Texas. Banks, 
First Natl., Pecos Valley State, Pecost Natl. Ho- 
tels, Orient, Pecos. Semi-weekly newspaper. Famed 
for the Pecos Valley cantalopes, shipped to all parts 
of the United States. Shipments, cotton, grain, 
livestock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PENDLETON— Bell County; pop., 210. 14 miles 
northwest of Belton, the county seat, on the G. C. & 
S. Fe Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PENELOPE— Hill County; pop., 400. 20 miles 
south of Hillsboro, the county seat, on the L & G. N. 
Ry. Bank, First State. Newspaper, Telegraph. 
Express. 

PENIEL — Hunt County; pop., 571. Two miles 
north of Greenville, the county seat and banking 
point with which it is connected by street car line. 
On the M. K. & T. Ry. Is the home of Peniel Uni- 
versity and Peniel Orphans Home. Newspaper. 
Telephone connection. 

PERRIN— Jack County; pop., 250. 15 miles 
southeast of Jacksboro, the county seat, on the G. 
T. & W. Ry. Express and telephone connections. 

PERRY— Falls County; pop., 400. Eight miles 
north of Marlin, the county seat, on the H. & T. C. 
Ry. Bank, Farmers' State. Tel., \V. U. Express. 

PERRYTOWN — Ochiltree County; pop., 600. 
Banks, Farmers & Stockmens State, First Natl., 
Perrytown Natl. 

PERSONVILLE— Limestone County; pop., 600. 13 
miles from Groesbeck, the county seat, on the H. & 
T. C. Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Express. 

PETERSBURG— Hale County; pop., 200. 27 
miles southwest of Plainsview, the county seat, 15V2 
miles to Abernathy, the nearest shipping point. 
Bank, Citizens' Bank. Stage daily to Plainview. 
Telephone connection. 

PETROLIA— Clay County; pop., 914; alt., 912 ft. 
1 9miles from Herietta, the county seat, on the W. 
V. Ry. Bank, Continental State. Hotel, Leath. 
Has newspaper. Is very productive of oil and gas. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

PETTY— Lamar County; pop., 500. 15 miles west 
of Paris, the county seat, on the T. & P. Ry. Bank, 
Citizens' Natl. Two newspapers. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

PFLUGERVILLE— Travis County; pop., 500... 18 
miles northeast of Austin, on the M. K. & T. Ry. 
Bank, Farmers' State. Newspaper. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 



PHARR— Hidalgo County; pop., 1,565; alt., 425 ft. 
15 miles northwest of Edinburg, the county seat, on 
the St L. B. & M. Ry. Banks, First Natl., First 
W. U. Expres. 

PICKTON— Hopkins County; pop., 500. 15 miles 
from Sulphur Springs, the county seat, on the M. K. 
& T. Ry. Banks, Farmers & Merchants, First 
State, First Natl. Weekly newspaper. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

PILOT POINT— Denton County; pop., 2,000; alt., 
684 ft. 17 miles north of Denton, the county seat, 
on the T. & P., and the M. K. & T. Rys. Banks, 
Farmers & Merchants, First State, Pilot Point Natl. 
Hotels, Commercial, Yeary. Weekly newspaper. 
The Post-Signal. Shipments, cotton and grain. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

PINEHILL— Rusk County; pop., 251. 12y2 
miles southeast of Henderson, the county seat. Bank, 
First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PINELAND— Sabine County; pop., 1,500. Ten 
miles southwest of Hemphill, the county seat, and 
8 miles from Brookeland, the nearest banking point. 
Express. 

PITTSBURG— Camp County seat; pop., 2,540; 
alt., 397 ft. 127 miles east of Dallas, on the M. K. 
& T. and the St. L. S. W. Rys. Banks, Camp Coun- 
ty Bank, First Guaranty State, First Natl., Pitts- 
burg Natl. Hotel, Main. Newspaper, The Gazette. 
Some manufacturing. Industry, lumber and farm- 
ing. Tel.,W. U. Express. 

PLAINS — Yoakum County seat; pop., 150. 85 
miles east of Lubbock, the nearest shipping point. 
Has a newspaper and two banks. First State Bank 
of Plains, Stockmen's Exchange. 

PLAINVIEW— Hale County seat; pop., 3,989; alt., 
3,200 ft. 78 miles south of Amarillo, on the A. T. 
& S. F. Ry. Banks, First Natl., Guaranty State, 
Third Natl. Hotels, Broadway, Missouri, Nash, 
Plainview, Ware, Wayland. Plainview is the second 
largest city on the Texas plains and is the center 
of the wealthiest agricultural district in west Texas. 
It is the home of Wayland Baptist College and Seth 
Ward Methodist College. Has lumber yards, whole- 
sale houses, flour mills, grain elevators, planing 
mill, sub-irrigation and drainage, tile factory, steam 
laundry, opera house, modern city conveniences, 
semi- weekly newspaper, The Herald, one weekly 
the News, and one semi-monthly religious publica- 
tion. The Plains Baptist. Climate and atmosphere 
invigorating. The entire district is underlaid with 
an inexhaustible water supply from a depth of 30 
to 60 feet, which is being developed for irrigation 
purposes, a number of wells supplying 1,000 to 1,500 
gals a minute. This union of pure water and per- 
fect soil produces increditable crops. Industries, 
live stock breeding, raising and feeding, growing of 
fruits, berries, melons, celery, peanuts, vegetables 
and alfalfa. Marketing facilities and transporta- 
tion rates good; direct railroad connection to Denver, 
Chicago and Kansas City tothe north and north- 
west, to Ft. Worth and Dallas and the bulk of Texas 
to the east, to Houston, San Antonio, Galveston and 
other cities of the South. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PLANO— Collin County; pop., 1,715; alt., 692 ft. 
12miles south of McKinney, the county seat, and 15 
miles north of Dallas, on the H. & T. C. and the 
St. L. S. W. Rys., and the Texas Traction Co.'s line. 
Banks, Farmers' & Merchants' Natl., Piano Natl. 
Hotel, Piano. Weekly newspaper, The Star-Courier. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 



151 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



PLANTERSVILLE— Grimes County; pop., 400. 
75 miles south of Anderson, the county seat, on the 
G. C. & S. Fe Ry., and 15 miles from Navasota. Bank, 
First State. Express and telephone connections. 

PLEASANTON— Atascosa County; pop., 1,036. 
3% miles from Jourdonton, the county seat, on the 
S. A. U. & G.' Ry. Bank, First Natl. Two news- 
papers and express. 

POINT— Rains County; pop., 500. Seven miles 
from Emory, the county seat, on the M. K. & T. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Newspaper and express. 

POLYTECHNIC— Tarrant County; pop., 4,338. 
Bank, First State. Is a branch of the Ft. Worth 
post office. See Ft. Worth. 

PONDER — Denton County; pop., 200. 12 miles 
northwest of Denton, the county seat, and 32 miles 
north of Ft. Worth, on the G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Bank, 
Ponder State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PONTA— Cherokee County; pop., 400. Five miles 
from Rusk, the county seat, on the T. & N. 0. Ry. 
Bank, Guaranty State. Express. 

POOLVILLE— Parker County; pop., 400. 17 miles 
from Weatherford, the county seat and shipping- 
point. Bank, First State. Telephone connections. 

PORT ARTHUR— Jefferson County; pop., 22,251; 
alt., 8 ft. I8V2 miles southwest of Beaumont, 
the county seat, 103 miles from Houston, on the 
bank of Sabine Lake and on the K. C. S. and S. P. 
Rys. and the Beaumont-Port Arthur Interurban. 
Banks, First Natl., Merchants' State. Hotels, Lake- 
view, Plaza, Thornton. Ranks as the twelfth port 
of the United States and is one of the largest oil 
refining points on the country. The inland location 
12% miles from the Gulf of Mexico affords abso- 
lute protection from Gulf storms. The harbor and 
docks are reached through a canal 270 feet wide and 
27 feet deep, a canal owned and maintained by the 
Federal Government. Two newspapers. Port Ar- 
thur is famous as a summer resort. Lake Sabine 
is one of the finest sheets of water on the entire 
Gulf coast, safe for yachting, rowing, boating, bath- 
ing and aquatic sports of every kind. Stocked with 
Spanish Mackerel, trout, flounders, bass, redfish, 
sheephead, tarpon and other fish. In winter climate 
is everything that could be desired, fishing and boat- 
ing as well as hunting, still good. The local indus- 
tries provide the largest monthly payroll of any 
city in the South of the same size. Roads in the 
vicinity are all macadamized. Tel., Postal, Mackay, 
W.. U. Express. 

PORTLAND— San Patricio County; pop., 300. 20 
miles from Sinton, the county seat, and 3 miles 
from Gregory on the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Bank, First 
State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PORT LAVACA — Calhoun County seat; pop., 
1,213; alt., 40 ft. 140 miles southeast of San An- 
tonio, on Lavaca Bay, and on the G. H. & S. A. Ry., 
and on the Intercostal Canal. Banks, First Natl., 
First State. Hotels, Lavaca, Navidad. Weekly 
newspaper. The Wave. Tel., W. U. Express. In- 
dustry, cotton. 

PORT NECHES— Jefferson County; pop., 1,500. 
12 miles from Beaumont, the county seat, on the 
Neches River. Bank, First Natl. Telephone connec- 
tion. 

POST— Garza County seat; pop., 1,436; alt., 270 
ft. 25 miles southeast of Tahoka, on the P. & N. T. 
Ry. Banks, First State, First Natl. Hotel, Al- 
gerita. Newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 



POTEET— Atascosa County; pop., 800. Ten miles 
from Jourdonton, the county seat, on the Artesian 
Belt Ry. Banks, Farmers Bank, First State. Week- 
ly newspaper. The Register. Tel., W. U. Express. 

POTH— Wilson County; pop., 300. Eight miles 
southeast of Floresville, the county seat, on the S. A. 
& A. P. Ry. Bank, First Natl. 

POTTSBORO— Grayson County; pop., 454. 20 
miles northwest of Sherman, the county seat, on the 
M. K. & T. Ry. Banks, Farmers' State, Pottsboro 
Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

POWELL— Navarro County; pop., 500. Eight 
miles east of Corsicana, the county seat, on the 
St. L. S. W. Ry. Bank, Powell State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

POYNER— Henderson County; pop., 200. 18 miles 
from Athens, the county seat, on the T. & N. O. Ry. 
Bank, Poyner State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PRAIRIE HILL— Limestone County, Mart, P. O. 
Pop., 152. Bank, Guaranty State. 

FREMONT— Jim Wells County, pop., 600. 27 
miles from Alice, the county seat, on the S. A. & 
A. P. Ry. Bank, Fremont State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

PRIDDY— Miller County; pop., 28. 17 miles from 
Goldthwaite, the county seat and usual shipping 
point, and 9 miles from Indian Gap. Bank, Farmers 
& Merchants Bank. Telephone connection. 

PRINCETON— Collin County; pop., 500. Eight 
miles east of McKinney, the county seat, on the 
M. K. & T. Ry. Banks, Citizens State, Farmers 
State. Weekly newspaper. The Princeton News. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

PRITCHETT— Upshur County; pop., 245; Six 
miles from Gilmore, the county seat, on the St. L. 
S. W. Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PROCTOR— Comanche County; pop., 300. 13 
miles northeast of Comanche, the county seat, on the 
Ft. Worth and R. G. Ry. Bank, State Bank of Pros- 
tor. Tel., W. U. Express. 

PROSPER— Collin County; pop., 315. 14 miles 
from McKinney, the county seat, on the St. L. S. 
F. Ry. Bank, Continental State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

PURDON — Navarro County; pop., 600; 15 miles 
from Corsicana, the county seat, on the St. L. S. 
W. Ry. Banks, First Natl., First State. Newspaper. 
Express. 

PUTNAM— Callahan County; pop., 363; alt., 800 
feet. 12 miles east of Baird, the county seat and 125 
miles northwest of Ft. Worth, on the T. & P. Ry. 
Bank, Farmers State. Hotel, Mission. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

QUANAH — Hardeman County seat; pop., 3,691; 
alt., 1,528 ft. 195 miles northwest of Ft. Worth, be- 
tween the Red River and the Pease River, on the 
F. W. & D. C, the Quanah Acme & Pac, and the 
St. L. S. F. Rys. Banks, First Guaranty State, Se- 
curity State. Hotel, Quanah. Two weekly news- 
papers, The Ti-ibune-Chief and The Observer. Ship- 
ments, cotton, grain, live stock, hay. The largest 
alfalfa and hog ranch in the United States is near 
here. Cement, plaster and flour mills, railroad 
shops, laundry, creamery, overall factory, ice cream 
factory, bottling works, power house and an unusual 
complement of mercantile firms are the industrial 
factors. Tel., W. U. Express. 

QUEEN CITY— Cass County; pop., 398. 22% 
miles south of Texarkana, on the T. & P. Ry. Bank, 
Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 



152 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



QUINLAN— Hunt County; pop., 580. 18 miles 
south of Greenville, the county seat, on the T. M. Ry. 
Banks, Continental State, Quinlan State. Weekly 
newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

QUITMAN— Wood County seat; pop., 800. Tor 
miles north of Mineola, the nearest shipping point. 
Banks, Farmers & Merchants State, First Natl. 
Newspaper. Telephone connection. 

RALLS— Crosby County; pop., 800. IOV2 miles 
from Crosbyton, the county seat, on the Crosbyton 
South Plains Ry. Banks, First State, Guaranty 
State Bank & Trust Co. Weekly newspaper. Tele- 
phone connection. 

RANDOLPH— Fannin County; pop., 221. Ten 
miles from Bonham, the county seat, on the St. L. 
S. W. Ry. Bank, Continental State. Express and 
telephone connections. 

RANGER— Eastland County; pop., 16,205; alt., 
1,426 ft. Ten miles east of Eastland, the county 
seat, and 96 miles west of Ft. Worth, on the H. P. 
Ry. Banks, Farmers & Merchants State, First Natl., 
Guaranty State, Texas Bank & Trust Co. Hotels, 
Bernado, Gholson, McCleskey, Paramount, South- 
land. Newspapers, daily and weekly. Ranger is 
one of the leading oil centers of Texas, in the midst 
of an oil producing territory that ranks with the 
World-famed fields of Mexico and Russia. It was 
the coming in of this territory in oil production that 
brought Texas to the first ranks among Uncle Sam's 
oil territories. 

RATCLIFF— Houston County pop., 2,000. 21 
miles from Crockett, the county seat, on the Eastern 
Texas Ry. Bank, First State. Newspaper. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

RAVENA— Fannin County; pop., 412. Ten miles 
from Bonham, the county seat, on the M. K. & T. Ry. 
Bank, Ravena State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

RAYMONDVILLE— Cameron County; pop., 400. 
4 6 miles north of Brownsville, the county seat, on 
4 6 miles north of Brownsville, the county seat, on 
the St. L. B. & M. Ry. Banks, Raymondville State, 
Raymondville Trust Co. Weekly newspaper. Tel., 
W. U. Express. Hotel, Raymondville. 

REAGAN— Falls County;" pop., 500 10 miles 
from Marlin, the county seat, on the H. & T. C. Ry 
Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

RED OAK— Ellis County; pop., 400. 10 miles 
from Waxahachie, the county seat, on the M. K. & T. 
Ry. and Southern Traction Co's. line. Banks, First 
State, and L. F. White & Sons. Tel., W. U. Express. 

RED ROCK— Bastrop County; pop., 350. 16 
miles from Bastrop, the county seat, on the M. K- 
& T. Ry. Bank, First State. Express and telephone 
connection. 

RED WATER— Bowie County; pop., 2 5S. 12 
miles southeast of Boston, the county seat, on the 
St L. S. W. Ry. Bank, Citizens Guarantv Bank 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

REFUGIO— Refugio County seat; pop., 933; alt., 
169 feet. 60 miles northwest of Corpus Christi, on 
the Mission River, and on the St. L. B. & M. Ry. 
Bank, Bank of Refugio. Hotel, Refugio. One f 
the oldest towns in Texas, dating its settlement from 
1790; was the battleground of many fierce strug- 
gles in the war for Texan independence. Here Capt. 
King and his followers were massacred by the 
Mexicans; the state of Texas has erected a beautiful 
monument in memory of Capt King and his martyrs 
Industry, cattle. Newspaper, The Review. Tel. W. U. 
Express. 



REINHARDT— Dallas County; pop., 100. 8 
miles from Dallas, the county seat, on the G. C. & 
S. F. Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. 

RENNER— Collin County; pop., 200 20 miles 
from McKinney, the county seat, on the St. L. & 
S. W. Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Express and 
telephone. 

RHOME— Wise County; pop., 400. 15 miles 
south of Decatur, the county seat, and 25 miles 
from Ft. Worth on the Ft. W. & D. C. Ry. Bank, 
First Nat'l. Tel., W. U. Express. 

RHONESBORO— Upshur County; pop., 225. 13 
miles from Gilmer, the county seat, on the M. & E. 
T. Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

RICE — Navarro County; pop., 611. 10 miles 
from Corsicana, the county seat, on the H. & T. C 
Ry. and the Corsicana-Dallas Interurban line. Banks 
First Nat'l., First State. Newspaper, Telegraph, W. 
U. Expi-ess. 

RICHARDS — Grimes County; pop., 500. 111/2 
miles southeast of Singleton on the T. & B. V. Ry. 
Bank, Richards State. Weekly newspaper. Ex- 
press. 

RICHARDSON— Dallas County; pop., 400; alt., 
63 2 ft. 12 miles from Dallas, the county seat, on 
the H. & T. C. Ry. and Texas Traction Go's. line. 
Bank, Citizens State. Weekly newspaper. Hotel, 
Driscoll. Express. 

RICHLAND — Navarro County; pop., 750; alt., 
377 ft. 12 miles from Corsicana, the county seat, 
on the H. & T. C. Ry. Bank, First State. "Hotel, 
Swink. Has newspaper, telegraph (W. U.) and ex- 
press. 

RICHLAND SPRINGS— San Saba County; pop., 
600. 15 miles from San Saba, the county seat, 
on the G. C. & S. F. Ry. Bank, First State. News- 
paper, express and telephone connection. 

RICHMOND— Ft. Bend County seat; pop., 1,272; 
alt., 86 ft. 3 3 miles southwest of Houston, on the 
G. H. & S. A., the G. C. & S. F., and the N. Y. T. 
& M. Rys., on the Brazos River. Banks, J. H. P. 
Davis & Co., First Nat'l. Hotel, National. News- 
paper, telegraph and express. 

RIDGEWAY— Hopkins County; pop., 150. 10 
miles northwest of Sulphur Springs, the county seat, 
on the St. L. S. W. Ry. Bank, Ridgeway State. Tel. 
W. U. Express. 

RIESEL — McLennan County; pop., 268. 15 miles 
from Waco, the county seat, on the H. & T. C. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Hotel, Shepard. Newspaper, 
express and telephone. 

RINGGOLD — Montague County; pop., 4 00. 20 
miles west of Montague, the county seat, and 90 
miles north of Ft. Worth, on the M. K. & T. and the 
C. R. I. & G. Ry. Bank, Ginggold State. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

RIO GRANDE— Starr County seat; pop., 3,000; 
alt., 3,4 6 2 ft. 24% miles northwest of Samfordyce, 
the nearest shipping point, on the Rio Grande River. 
Banks, First Nat'l., First State Bank & Trust Co. 
Hotel, Phillips. Mail daily. 

RIO HONDO — Cameron County; pop., 250. 25 
miles from Brownsville, the county seat, and 9 miles 
from San Benito where connection is made with the 
St. L. B. & M. Ry., on the S. B. & R. G. Ry. Bank. 
Farmers & Traders. The city is on the San Be- 
nito Land & Water Co. Irrigation system which sup- 
plies all the surrounding country with water. TeL 
W. U. Express. Hotel, Arroyo Inn. 



153 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



RIO VISTA— Johnson County; pop., 750. 9 miles 
from Cleburne, the county seat, on the G. C. & S. F. 
Ry. Bank, Farmers & Traders Bank. Tel., W. U 
Express. 

RISING STAR— Eastland County; pop., 906; alt., 
1,500 ft. 23 miles from Eastland, the county seat, 
on the T. C. Ry. Banks, Continental State, First 
Nat'l. Hotels, Commercial, Livingston. Newspa- 
per, express and telephone connections. 

RIVERSIDE— Walker County; pop., 100. 2IV2 
miles northeast of Huntsville, the county seat, on the 
I. & G. N. Ry. Bank, Riverside State Bank. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

RIVIERA— Kleberg County; pop., 400. 151/2 
miles south of Kingsville, the county seat, on the St. 
L. B. & M. and R. B. & W. Rys. Bank, Riviera 
State. Has newspaper, telegraph, W. U., and ex- 
press. 

ROANOKE— Denton County; pop., 5 00. 16 miles 
south of Denton, the county seat, and 20 miles 
north of Ft. Worth, on the M. K. & T. and the T. & 
P. Rys. Bank, Continental State. Weekly news- 
paper, The Enterprise. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ROARING SPRINGS— Motley County; pop., 500. 
8y2 miles southwest of Matador, the county seat, 
on the Q. A. & P. Ry. Bank, First State. News- 
paper, express and telephone. 

ROBERT LEE— Coke County seat; pop., 582 
I3V2 miles west of Bronte, the nearest shipping 
point with which place it has daily mail-stage con- 
nection. Is on the Colorado River. Bank, First 
Guaranty State. Has weekly newspaper and tele- 
phone connection. 

ROBSTOWN— Nueces County; pop., 948; alt., 36 
ft. 16 miles west of Corpus Christi, the county 
seat, on the St. L. B. & M. and T. M. Rys. Banks. 
First State, Guaranty State. Weekly newspaper, 
The Reporter. Hotels, Brendle, Hardesty. Robs- 
town is the receiving and distributing point for a 
rich surrounding territory and ships large quantities 
of Cotton, corn, dairy and truck products and live- 
stock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ROBY— Fisher County seat; pop., 635. 41/2 
miles north of South Roby, on the T. C Ry., and 7 
miles west of Longworth, on the K. C. M. O. Ry., the 
shipping points, and about 225 miles west of Ft. 
Worth. Banks, First Nat'l., First State. Farm- 
ing, fruit growing and livestock raising are the 
leading industries. Mail daily from Longworth and 
from North Roby. Has a weekly newspaper. Tele- 
phone connections. 

ROCHELLE— McCullough County; pop., 700. 10 
miles from Brady, the county seat, on the Ft. W. & 
R. G. Ry. Banks, Bank of Rochelle, and Rochelle 
State Bank. Newspaper, telegraph, W. U., and ex- 
press. 

ROCKDALE— Milam County; pop., 2,323; alt., 
46 ft. 15 miles southwest of Cameron, the county 
seat, at the junction of the I. & G. N. and the S. 
A. & A. P. Rys. Banks, Citizens' State, First Nat'l., 
Rockdale State. Is center of the great lignite dis- 
tricts of Texas. A number of companies are suc- 
cessfully operating here, and over 7,0 cars of 
lignite are shipped from this city annually. The 
city is the center of a rich agricultural district; cot- 
ton is the principal crop. General farming and stocK 
raising are carried on. Weekly newspaper. The Re- 
ported. Hotel, Wolf. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ROCK ISLAND— Colorado County; pop., 500. 14 
miles from Columbus, the county seat, on the S A 



6 A. P. Ry. Bank, Rick Island State. Express 
and telephone connection. 

ROCKPORT— Aransas County seat; pop., 1,54 5: 
alt., 6 ft. 31 miles east of Corpus Christi, on the 
shore of Aransas Bay and the S, A. & A. P. Ry. 
Banks, First Nat'l., State Bank of Rockport. Hotel, 
Craig. Is picturesquely located, and is a popular 
summer resort; has an extensive fishing interest and 
a good port for small boats. Trucking is largely 
tarried on, its produce reaching the farthest nor- 
thern markets. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ROCKSPRINGS— Edwards County; pop., 600 

7 5 miles west of Kerrville, the usual shipping point. 
Rocksprings is the judicial seat of its county; 
banks. First Nat'l., First State. Has a newspaper, 
The Rustler-Standard. Stage daily to Kerrville: 
telephone connection. 

ROCKWALI^Rockwall County seat; pop., 1,388; 
alt., 545 ft. 2 miles from Trinity River and 25 
miles northeast of Dallas, on the M. K. & T. Ry. 
Banks, Farmers Nat'l., Guaranty State. Hotels, 
Cottage, Stephenson. Two weekly newspapers. The 
Success and The Tribune. Tel., W. U., Express. 

ROCKWOOD— Coleman County; pop., 200. 20 
miles from Santa Anna, 28 miles from Coleman, the 
county seat; stage daily to Santa Anna. Bank, 
Rockwood State. Telephone connection. 

ROGERS— Bell County; pop., 1,256: alt., 539 ft. 
25 miles southeast of Belton, the county seat, on 
the G. C. & S. F. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l., Rogers 
State. Hotel, Ater. Weekly newspaper. The En- 
terprise. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ROMA — Starr County; pop., 1,000. 15 miles 
west of Rio Grande, the county seat and nearest 
banking point, and 41 miles from Samfordyce, the 
nearest rail approach, on the Rio Grande River. 
Telephone connection. 

ROSCOE— Nolan County; pop., 1,079; alt., 2,600 
ft. 9 miles southwest of Sweetwater, the county 
seat, on the T. & P. and R. S. & P. Rys. Bank, 
Roscoe State. Hotel, Rex. Newspaper, telegraph, 
W. U., and express. 

ROSEBUD— Falls County; pop., 1,516; alt., 391 
ft. 2 2 miles southwest of Marlin, the county seat, 
and 3 7 miles south of Waco, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry. 
Banks, First Nat'l., Planters Nat'l,, Rosebud State. 
Weekly Newspaper, The News. Hotels, Clark, Waze 
Is the center of a fine farmers' country; cotton ana 
corn are the principal crops but livestock and poul- 
try raising, dairying, fruit and truck farming are 
carried on to a considerable extent. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

ROSENBERG— Ft. Bend County; pop., 1,279; alt., 
108 ft. 3 miles southwest of Richmond, the county 
seat, and 30 miles southwest of Houston, on the 
G. H. & S. A. and the G. C. & S. F. Rys., V2 mile 
from the Brazos River. Banks, Rosenberg State, 
J. H. P. Davis & Co. Hotels, Benson, Plaza. Week- 
ly newspaper, The News-Herald, telegraph, W. U., 
and express. 

ROSEWOOD— Upshur County; pop., 225. 9 miles 
from Gilmer, the county seat of the M. & E. T. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Telegraph, W. U. Express. 

ROTAN— Fisher County; pop., 1,000; alt., 1,950 
ft. 23 5 miles west of Ft. Worth, 12 miles north of 
Robey, the county seat, and is the terminal of the 
T. a Ry. Banks, First Nat'l., Rotan State. Week- 
ly newspaper. The Advance. Cotton and cattle are 
the principal shipments. Hotels, Hamilton, Liming 
Tel., W. U. Express. 



154 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



ROUND ROCK— Williamson County; pop., 900; 
alt., 7 20 ft. 10 miles south of Georgetown, the 
county seat, on the I. & G. N. Ry., at the junction of 
the main line and the Georgetown branch. Bank 
John A Neison & Co. Newspaper, The Round Rock 
Leader. Cotton gins, broom factory and extensive 
lime works are the leading industries. Is the seat 
of Trinity College. Hotels, Euhl, Harrell. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

ROUND TOP— Fayette County; pop., 150. IGVa 
miles from La Grange, the county seat, and 6V> 
miles from Carmine, the nearest shipping point. 
Bank, Round Top State. Telephone connection. 

ROWENA — Runnels County; pop., 10.5. 8 miles 
from Ballinger, the county seat, on the G. C. & S. F. 
Ry. Bank, First State. Weekly newspaper. The 
Review. Tel., W. U. Express. 

ROWLETT— D alias County; pop., 108. 21 
miles from Dallas, the county seat, on the M. K. & 
T. Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

ROXTON— Lamar County; pop., l,r,O0; alt., 499 
ft. 14 miles south of Paris, the county seat, on 
the G. C. & S. F. Ry. Bank, Roxton State. Hotels, 
Roxton and Tugwell. Has weekly newspaper, tele- 
graph, W. U., and express. Industry, cotton. 

ROYSE CITY— Rockwall County; pop., 1,289; alt., 
547 ft. 10 miles northeast of Rockwall, on the M. 
K. & T. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l., First State. Ho- 
tel. Industry, cotton and grain. Has two news- 
papers, telegraph, W. U. Express. 

RULE— Haskell County; pop., 890; alt, 1,8 06 ft. 
10 miles west of Haskell, the county seat, and 61 
miles northwest of Sweetwater, on the K. C. M. & 
O. Ry. Banks, Farmers' State, First Nat'l. Ho- 
tels, Earnest, Rock, Willingham. Weekly newspa- 
per, telegraph, W. U., and express. 

RUNGE— Karnes County; pop., 1,070; alt., 30 8 ft. 
18 miles east of Karnes City, the county seat, 166 
miles southwest of Houston, and 71 miles southeast 
of San Antonio, on the S, O. & A. P. Ry. Banks, 
First State, Runge Nat'l. Hotels, Bailey, Lyons. 
Weekly newspaper. The Karnes County News. 
Shipment, cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

RUSK— Cherokee County seat; pop., 2,000; alt., 
494. 15 miles southeast of Jacksonville, 2 23 miles 
northeast of Austin, on the Lufkin branch of the 
St. L. S. W. Ry., and the Rusk branch of the T. & 
N. O. Ry. on and the Texas State Ry. Banks, Citi- 
zens' Guaranty State, Farmers & Merchants' Bank 
& Trust Co. Hotel, Claiborne. 2 foundries, ma- 
chine shops, iron furnace, box factory and several 
saw and gin mills comprise the industrial institu- 
tions. A Baptist Academy and the East Texas 
State Prison are located here. Iron ore is mined iii 
the vicinity. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SABINAL— Uvalde County; pop., 4,558: alt., 964 
ft. 21 miles east of Uvalde, the county seat, on the 
S. P. Ry. Bank, Sabinal Nat'l. Hotel, Mitchell. 
Weekly newspaper. The Sentinel. Sabinal Chris- 
tian College is located here. Tel., W. U. Express 

SACUL — Nacogdoches County; pop., 250. 25 
miles from Nacogdoches, the county seat, on the 
T. & N. O. Ry. Bank, Sacul Guaranty State. Ex- 
press and telephone connections. 

SADLER — Grayson county; pop., 400; IS miles 
from Sherman, the county seat, on the M. K. & T. 
Ry. Bank, First Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

S-A.GERTON— Haskell County; pop., 300. 16 



miles southwest of Haskell, the county seat, on the 
K. C. M. & O. and the S. & N. W. Rys. Bank, Con- 
tinental State Bank. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SAINT JO— Montague County; pop., 9 85; alt., 
1,146 ft. 13 miles northeast of Montague, the 
county seat, on the M. K. & T. Ry. Banks, Citizens' 
Nat'l., First Nat'l. Hotel, Clonts. Has newspaper, 
tel., W. U. and express. 

S.A.LADO— Bell Counts'; pop., 471; 9 miles from 
Belton, the county seat and nearest shipping point. 
Bank, First State. Mail daily. 

SATILLO— Hopkins County; pop., 250. 16 miles 
from Sulphur Springs, the county seat, on the St. 
L. S. W. Ry. Bank, First State. Newspaper, tele- 
graph, W. U. and express. 

SAN ANGELO — Tom Green County; population, 
9, 392; alt., 1.847 ft. 243 miles southwest of Ft. 
Worth, 451 miles northeast of El Paso, near the con- 
fluence of the North, South, and Middle Concho 
Rivers, on the K. C. M. & O. of T. and the G. C. & 
S. F. Rys. The city was founded in 1882, when it 
succeeded the town of Ben Flicken as county seat 
of Tom Green County. Banks, Central Nat'l., First 
Nat'l., Guaranty State, San Angelo Nat'l., Concho 
Valley Loan and Trust Co. Hotels, Central, Good- 
win, Herrman, Hickman, London, Model, Myers, 
Newton Nimitz, St. Angelus, Sealy. San Angelo is 
the natural metropolis of southwest Texas. In 
1868, the Federal Government established Ft. Con- 
cho near the forks of the Concho Rivers, which site 
is now near the heart of the present day city. The 
city is the center of a vast sheep and cattlo pro- 
ducing country. Raising of Angora goats is de- 
veloping. San Angelo is one of the largest wool 
centers in the United States. This section of the 
state is a health resort to those afflicted with tu- 
bercular, asthmatic or catarrhal troubles. The at- 
mosphere is dry and invigorating. Has newspaper. 
The Standard, (daily and weekly), wholesale .gro- 
ceries, dry goods, two ice plants, two steam laundries 
planing mills, foundry and machine shop, grain ele- 
vators, cotton gins, bottling works, two sanitariums, 
cotton seed oil mill, cotton compress, paved streets, 
and modern public utilities. Here are located the 
Fair Grounds for Southwest Texas. Established 
automobile passenger and mail lines operate between 
this city and towns far removed from railroads. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

SAN ANTONIO— Bexar County seat; pop., 
116, 379; alt., 654 ft. 79 miles southwest of Aus- 
tin on the G. H. & S. A., the I. & G. N., the M. K. & 
T., the S. A. & A. P. and the S. A. U. & G. Rys. 
This is a place of great historic interest, being the 
location of the famed Alamo where Travis, Crockett 
and Bowie and a handful of men withstood the as- 
sault of 3,000 Mexicans, leaving nearly a thousand 
of the enemy dead and dying before they perished in 
the cause of Texas Freedom. Shortly afterwards, 
the battle of San Jacinto, with the Texas Battle cry 
of "Remember the Alamo," won independence for 
Texas. The Alamo chapel has been purchased by 
the State as has also the barracks in which much 
of the fighting occurred. Banks, State Nat'l., Ala- 
mo Nat'l., American Savings Bank, Army Bank of 
Ft. Sam Houston, Central Trust Company, City 
Nat'l., Commercial Loan & Tr. Co., Commercial 
State, Commonwealth Bank & Tr. Co., First State 
Bank, Frost Nat'l., Gross Nat'l., Guaranty State, 
International Bank & Tr. Co., Lockwood Nat'l., Mer- 
chants and Mechanics', National Bank of Commerce, 



155 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



San Antonio Joint Stock Land Bank, San Antonio 
Loan & Tr. Co., Standard Trust Co., State Nat'l., 
Texas State Bank & Tr. Co., Union Securities Co. 
H. P. Crosby Investment Co., Elliott & Hayes, In- 
vestment bankers, J. E. Jarrett & Co., Investment 
bonds, T. G. Leighton, stocks and bonds, D. A. Op- 
penheimer, bankers, D. Sullivan & Co., bankers, and 
the San Antonio Clearing House Association. Ho- 
tels, Alamo, Angelus, Arthur, Bowie, Crockett, Fair- 
mont, Garden, Gunter, Hutchins, Imperial, La Barre, 
Lanier, Losoya, Majestic, Maverick, Menger, Nueces. 
RandoU, St. Anthony, Savoy, Southern and Travel- 
ers. 

San Antonio is the busiest, richest and at the 
same time cleanest city of its size in the Union, 
with no phase of modern conveniences lacking. A 
perfectly equipped street railway service, public 
buildings not surpassed in beauty or efficiency by 
any of the larger cities, the most perfect system of 
paving and draining, parks and squares that would 
be impossible in the rigorous climes of the North 
and East, social environment expressive of all that 
is best and most wholesome in American life tell 
the story of civilization and prosperity, and civic 
development. Institutions, Public Library, over SO 
public and private schools and colleges, 72 churches 
and missions, CJiamber of Commerce ranking among 
the livest in the country and the largest military 
post in the United States. — Fort Sam Houston, lo- 
cated in the suburbs of the city. IS.OOO acres of 
land was purchased by Congress for this post. As 
a health resort, San Antonio enjoys a nation-wide 
fame, particularly for lung and throat troubles. 
There are a number of large, fully equipped hos- 
pitals in the city besides many private hospitals and 
sanitariums for treatment of special cases. 

To-day San Antonio is the center of a thriving 
set of manufacturing institutions. 

No city of its size in the world has a greater acre- 
age of beautiful and public parks than San Antonio, 
which gardens are scattered throughout the city, 
due to the old Spanish love for fountains, rare fo- 
liage and flowers. — gems of landscape gardening. 
These are due to the native richness of the soil and 
the fructifying balminess of the climate and the al- 
most periennial Spring-time. The waters of San 
Antonio River and San Pedro creek flow through 
the city in every direction so that 2.000 bridges are 
required for the city traffic and which streams lend 
to the picturesqueness of the environs. 

San Antonio is the recognized headquarters and 
distributing point for the cattle business of central 
and southwestern Texas. Yet this phase of San An- 
tonio's activity is surpassed in volume and values by 
other branches. Shipments, cotton, wool, hides, raw 
materials of various types and manufactured pro- 
ducts. Tel., Mackay, Tel. & Cable Co., Postal and 
W. U. Express. 

SAN AUGUSTINE— San Augustine County seat; 
pop., 1,268; alt., 300 ft. ISO miles northeast of 
Houston, on the G. C. & S. F. Ry. Banks, Commer- 
cial Guaranty State, First Nat'l. Hotel, Mars. 
Grist mills, cotton gins, two weekly newspapers, tele- 
graph. W. U. and express. 

SAN BENITO— Cameron County; pop., 5,080; 
alt., 3 7 ft. 18 miles northwest of Brownsville, the 
county seat, on the St. L. B. & M. Ry. Banks, 
Farmers State Guaranty, San Benito Bank & Tr. Co. 
Hotels, Central and San Benito. Cotton gins, can- 
ning factory, box factory, ice plant, weekly news- 



paper. The Light, are factors in the industrial and 
civic life of the city. Is located in the famed irrigat- 
ed district of the Rio Grande Valley, adapted to the 
growing t)f cotton, corn, citrous fruit, sugar cane, 
vegetables and forage crops. Livestock and dairy- 
ing do well here. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SANDERSON— Terrel County seat; pop., 500- 
alt., 2,7S1 ft. 72 miles southeast of Ft. Stockton, on 
the G. H. & S. A. Ry. Bank, Sanderson State. Ho- 
tels, Kerr, Terrell. Has a weekly newspaper, tele- 
graph, W. U. Express. 

SANDIA— Jim Wells County; pop., 200. 21 miles 
northeast of Alice, the county seat, on the S. A. & 

A. P. Ry. Banks, Sandia State, W. T. Mumme, 
Banker. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SAN DIEGO— Duval County seat; pop., 1,971; alt. 
312 ft. 108 miles east of Laredo, and 52 miles west 
of Corpus Christi, on the Texas-Mexican Ry. Banks 
San Diego State, Crof & Co. Hotels, Martinet, Mi- 
rets. Is surrounded by a good grazing and farming 
country. Weekly newspaper, La Voz de Duval. 
Shipments, cattle and cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SAND LAKE— pop., 3,000. Southeast of Dallas. 

SAN ELIARION— El Paso County; pop., 8 43 
21 miles from El Paso, the county seat, and 3 miles 
from Clint, the nearest banking and shipping point. 
Telephone connection. 

SANGER— Denton County; pop., 1,500; alt., 664 
ft. 14 miles northwest of Denton, the county seat, 
and 4 7 miles north of Ft. Worth, on the G. C. & S. 
P. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l., First State, Sanger 
Nat'l. Hotels, Harris, White. Industry, cotton. 
Weekly newspaper, The Courier, telegraph, W. U., 
and express. 

SAN JUAN— Hidalgo County; pop., 1,2^031 10 
miles from Edinburg, the county seat, on the St. L. 

B. & M. Ry. Bank, San Juan Bank & Tr. Co. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

SAN MARCOS— Hays County seat; pop., 4,527. 
30 miles south of Austin and 5 miles north of San 
Antonio, on the M. K. & T. and the I. & G. N. Rys., 
and on the San Marcos and Blanco Rivers, in a rich 
farming territory. Banks, First Nat'l., State Bank 
& Tr. Co. Hotels, Armstrong, Hofheinz, Williamson 
A number of large mercantile establishments; a 
large U. S. Fish Hatchery is located here. A daily 
The Times-Herald, and two weekly newspapers, The 
Times-Leader and the Record-Herald, and a Mexi- 
can paper. The Pierrott, and several college papers 
represent the press. Here is located the Southwest 
Texas State Normal School,' as also San Marcos 
Baptist Academy, the Coronal Institute, Lone Star 
schoolsBusiness College and excellent high and ward 
schools. Shipments, cotton, cotton seed products, 
livestock, grain and farm products. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

SAN SABA— San Saba County seat; pop., 2,011; 
alt., 1,712 ft. 6 7 miles northwest of Temple, on 
the G. C. & S. F. Ry. Banks, City Nat'l., First 
Nat'l., San Saba Nat'l. Hotels, San Saba, Urqu- 
hart. Two weekly newspapers. The News and The 
Star. Shipments, cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SANTA ANNA— Coleman County; pop., 1,407; 
alt., 1,74 4 ft. 9 miles east of Coleman, the county 
seat, on the G. C. & S. F. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l., 
First State. Hotel, Shields. Principal industries of 
this section are agricultural and stock raising. Has 
a weekly newspajjer, The Santa Anna News, tele- 
graph, W. U., and express. 

SANTO— Palo Pinto County; pop., 328. 15 miles 



1S6 



CITIES AND TOWTVS 



south of Palo Pinto, the county seat, on the T. & P. 
Ry. Banks, First Nat'L, Farmers & Merchants 
State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SARATOGA— Hardin County; pop., 1,000. 29% 
miles from Pecos, the county seat, on the P. V. S. 
Ry. Bank, Saratoga State. Express. 

SARTARITA— Ft. Bend County; pop., 500. 6% 
miles northeast of Richmond, the county seat, and 
1 % miles from Sugarland, on the G. H. & S. A. Ry. 
Bank, Sartartia State. 

SAVOY— Fannin County; pop., 37 S; alt, 671 ft. 
12 miles from Bonham, the county seat, on the T. 
& P. Ry.. Bank. First State. Hotel, Savoy. Has 
newspaper. The Savoy Star, telegraph and express. 

SCHERTZ— Guadlaupe County; pop., 3.S0. 20% 
miles west of Seguin. the county seat, on the G. H. 
& S. A. Ry. Bank, Schertz State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

SCHULENBERG— Fayette County; pop., 1,24 6; 
alt., 270 ft. 18 miles south of La Grange, the coun- 
ty seat, and 105 miles west of Houston, on the S. 
P. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l., Ignaz Russek State. 
Hotel, Schaeffer. Industry, cotton. Two newspap- 
ers. The steel furnace plant and wire hasket fac- 
tory ship their manufactured products to all parts 
of the country in addition to which large quantities 
of cotton, cotton seed products, farm produce, pota- 
toes, onions and livestock are shipped. Tel., W. U 
Express. 

SCHWERTNER— "Williamson County; pop., 300. 
20 miles from Georgetown, the county seat, on the 
Bartlett Western Ry. Bank, First Nat'l. Weekly 
newspaper, The News. Telephone connection. 

SCOTLAND— Archer County; pop., 300. 10 
miles from Archer City, the county seat, on the 
Southwestern Ry. Bank, Bank of Scotland. Express 
SCURRY— Kaufman County; pop., 400. GV2 
miles from Kaufman, the county seat, on the T. M. 
Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SEADRIFT— Calhoun County; pop., 321; alt., 190 
ft. 15 miles from Port La Vaca, the county seat, 
on the St. L. B. & M. Ry, and on the Intercoastal 
Canal. Bank, Seadrift State. Hotels, Bridges, La- 
fille. Weekly newspaper, The Seadrift Success. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

SEAGOVILLE— Dallas County; pop., 600. 2iy2 
miles southeast of Dallas, the county seat, on the 
T. & N. 0. Ry Bank, First State. Weekly news- 
paper, Tel., W. U. Express. 

SEAGRAVES— Gaines County; Blythe is the Post 
office; pop., 500. Bank, First State. 

SEALY — Austin County; pop., 2,000; alt., 201 
ft. 13 miles south of Belleville, the county seat, and 
50 miles west of Houston, on the G. C. & S. F. and 
the M. K. & T. Rys. Banks, Citizens' State, Farm- 
ers Nat'l., Sealy Nat'l. Hotels, Exchange, Fairfield. 
Has a weekly newspaper. The News. Industry, cot- 
ton. Mercantile establishments. Shipments, cotton, 
corn, truck, dairying produce and livestock. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

SEGUIN — Guadalupe County seat; pop., 3,63 2; 
alt. 5 53 ft. 3 3 miles east of San Antonio, on the 
S. P. Ry. and the Guadalupe River which furnishes 
an abundant water power. Banks, Citizens State, 
Farmers' State, First Nat'l., Guaranty Loan & Tr. 
Co., Seguin State Bank & Tr. Co., E Nolte & Sons. 
Hotels, Aumont, Mission, Park. The Seguin Lu- 
theran College and the Guadalupe College, for the 
colored race, are located here. Industries, cotton 
gins, large flour mill, cotton oil mill, cotton com- 



press, brick plant, creamery, ice factory and laundry, 
electric lig'ht and power house. Ships cotton seed 
products, farm produce, melons, pecans, brick and 
livestock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SEMINOLE— Gaines County seat; pop., 300. 42 
miles west of Lamesa, the nearest shipping point, 
and 7 2 miles above Midland. Bank, First State. 
Weekly newspaper. The Sentinel. Telephone con- 
nection. 

SEYMOUR— Baylor County seat; pop., 2,121; alt., 
9 40 ft. 100 miles north of Abilene, on the W. V. 
and the G. T. & W. Rys. Banks, Farmers Nat'l., 
First Guaranty State, First Nat'l. Hotels, McClain, 
Washington. Has electric lights, flour mill, cotton 
oil mill, cotton compress, cotton gins, ice plant, a 
weekly newspaper. The Baylor County Banner. Tel. 
W. U. Epress. 

SHAMROCK— Wheeler County; pop., 1,227; alt., 
2,416 ft. 18 miles south of Wheeler, the county 
seat, on the C. R. L & G. Ry. Banks, Farmers & 
Merchants' State, First Nat'l. Hotels, Johnson, 
Shamrock. Newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SHEPARD— San Jacinto County; pop., 3.50. 11 
miles southeast of Cold Springs, the county seat, 
and 5 5 miles north of Houston, on the H. E. & W. T. 
Ry. Bank, Shepard State. Has cotton and .grist 
mills, telegraph, W. U. Express. 

SHERMAN — Grayson County seat; pop., 15,031; 
alt., 7 28 ft. 68 miles north of Dallas, 13 miles 
south of the Red River which separates Texas and 
Oklahoma, on the H. & T. C, the M. K. & T., the 
M. 0. & G., the St. L. S. W., the T. & P. Rys. and the 
Frisco Lines. Banks, American Bank & Tr. Co., 
Central State, Commercial Nat'l., Guaranty Tr. Co., 
Merchants & Planters' Bank, and the Sherman Clear- 
ing House Association. Hotels. Arcade. Brinkley. 
Smith, Wheat, Williams. 

Sherman is also connected with Denison, 10 miles 
distant and Dallas, by an interurban electric line. 
This city leads those of its size in matters of 
public convenience. Institutions, North Texas Fe- 
male College, Austin College, Carr-Burdette College, 
St. Joseph's Academy, and the Business College; also 
15 modern church edifices, a Y. M. C. A. building 
costing: $75,000 and a sanitarium costing $25,000. 
Has a daily newspaper, two weeklies, and a month- 
ly. Has two wholesale grocery houses, a wholesale 
hardware house, a wholesale mill supply house, two 
candy factories, an overall factory, cotton seed oil 
mill, two cotton seed oil refineries, a cotton duck 
factory, four flour mills, etc. 

The principal crops of the surrounding territory 
are cotton, alfalfa, oats, corn, wheat, fruits and 
vegetables. Over 40,000 bales of cotton are com- 
pressed in Sherman for shipment during a normal 
cotton season. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SHERWOOD — Irion County seat; pop., 100. 2% 
miles northeast of Mertzon, the nearest shipping 
point. Bank, First State Bank of Sherwood. Tele- 
phone connection. 

SHINER — Lavaca County; pop., 1,300; alt, 35.3 
ft. IS miles west of Halletsville, the county seat. 
120 miles west of Houston, and 130 miles southeast 
of San Antonio, on the S. A. &' A. P. Ry., at the 
junction of the Lockhart branch. Banks, First Nat'l. 
Walters Bros. Bank. Hotels, City, Commercial 
Two weekly newspapers, The Gazette and The Enter- 
prise. Industry, cotton. Has a hospital. Is the 
center of a rich farming country. Cotton, livestock, 
produce, are the chief shipments. Tel., W.U. Express! 



157 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OP TEXAS 



SHIRO— Grimes County; pop., 500. 20 miles 
northeast of Anderson, the county seat, on the T. & 
B. V. Ry. Bank, Farmers' State. Weekly newspa- 
per, telegraph and express. 

SIERRA BLANCA— Hudspeth County; pop., 150. 
9 5 miles southeast of El Paso, on the G. H. & S. A. 
and the T. & P. Rys. Bank, Sierra Blanca State. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

SILSBEE— Hardin County; pop., 3,500. S miles 
from Kountze, the county seat, on the G. C. & S. F. 
Ry. Bank, Silsbee State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SILVERTON— Brisco County seat; pop., 416. 30 
miles east of Tulia, the nearest railroad approach. 
Banks, Brisco County State, First Nat'l. Has a 
newspaper. Telephone connection. 

SINTON— San Patricio County seat; pop., 1,058; 
alt., 53 ft. 26 miles northwest of Corpus Christi, 
and 124 miles southeast of San Antonio, and 12 
miles from the Gulf Coast, on the S. A. & A. P. 
and the St. L. B. & M. Rys. Banks, Bank of Com- 
merce and Sinton State. Hotels, Commercial, Kin- 
namer, Sinton. Has cotton compress, cotton gin, ice 
and electric plant, handsome courthouse, artesian 
water, weekly newspaper. Produces cotton, citrus 
fruits and truck. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SIPE SPRINGS— Comanche County: pop., 400. 
2 2 miles from Comanche, the county seat. Banks, 
First Nat'l., Guaranty State. Newspaper, telephone 
and express connections. 

SKIDMORE— Bee County; pop., 600; alt., 163 ft. 
11 miles from Beeville, the county seat, 105 miles 
south of San Antonio, and 4 5 miles noith of Corpus 
Christi, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Bank, First 
State. Weekly Newspaper, the Signal. Staple 
crop, cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. Hotel, Com- 
mercial. 

SLATON— Lubbock County; pop., 1,525; alt., 2S0 
ft. 15V2 miles southeast of Lubbock, the county 
seat, on the P. & N. T. Ry. Bank, Slaton State. 
Hotels. Commercial. Singleton, Trammell. Newspa- 
per, telegraph, W. U., and express. 

SLIDELL— Wise County; pop., 300. 16 miles 
from Decatur, the county seat and shipping point. 
Bank, First State. Telephone connection. 

SMILEY— Gonzales County; pop., 600; alt., 290 
ft. 5 5% miles southeast of San Antonio, on the G. 
H. & S. A. Ry. Bank, Smiley State. Hotels, Mane, 
Smiley, Williams. Newspaper, telegraph, and ex- 
press. 

. SMITHFIELD— Tarrant County; pop., 137. 12 
miles from Ft. Worth, the county seat, and 6 miles 
from Keller, on the St. L. S. W. Ry. Bank, Smith- 
field State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SMITHVILLE— Bastrop County; pop., 3,204; alt., 
324 ft. 15 miles east of Bastrop, the county seat, 
on the Colorado River and the M. K. & T. Ry. Banks 
First Nat'l. First State. Hotels, City, Mcintosh. 
It is the division headquarters for the M. K. & T. Ry. 
and has machine shops and round house. Modern 
public utilities. Weekly newspaper, The Times 
Ships cotton, corn, farm produce, truck, sand and 
gravel. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SNYDER — Scurry County seat and principal 
town; pop., 2,179; alt., 2,000 ft. On the A. T. & S. 
F. and R. S. & P. Rys., about 7 miles northwest 
of Abilene, and about 100 miles southeast of Wichita 
Falls. Banks, First Nat'l., First State Bank & Tr. 
Co., Snyder Nafl. Hotels, Manhattan, Maxwell, 
Woodward. Two weekly newspapers, The Signal, 
and Free Press. Has modern conveniences, cotton 



seed oil mill, cotton gins, and is well located in, a 
beautiful prairie country. Industry, livestock, par- 
ticular attention to hogs; cotton is chief of agricultu- 
ral crops. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SOCORRO— EI Paso County; pop., 1,147. 15 
miles southeast of El Paso, the county seat, on the 
G. H. & S. A. Ry. Ship, via Belan. 

SOMERVILLE— Burleson County; pop., 1,879; 
alt., 251 ft. 16 miles southeast of Caldwell, the 
county seat, on the G. C. & S. F. Ry. Bank, Bank 
of Somerville; two newspapers; hotels. Commercial, 
Santa Fe, Somerville. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SONORA — Judicial seat of Sutton County; pop., 
1,109; lat., 1,851 ft. 7 5 miles south of San An- 
gelo, its nearest shipping point. Bank, First Nat'l. 
Hotel, Commercial. Two newspapers; daily stage 
to San Angelo: telephone connection. 

SOUR LAKE— Hardin County; pop., 3,032; alt., 
51 ft. 26 miles from Kountze, the county seat, on 
the B. S. L. & W. and the T. & N. O. Rys. Banks, 
Citizens' Nat'l., Sour Lake State. Hotels, Gregory, 
Lake, Plaza. Has a newspaper, telegraph, and ex- 
press. 

SOUTH GROVETON— Pop., 614. 

SOUTHLAND— Garza County; pop., 200. 17 
miles from Post, the County seat, and 7 miles from 
Slayton, on the P. & N. T. Ry. Bank, Southland. 

SOUTHMAYD— Grayson County; pop., 13 2. 10 
miles west of Sherman, the county seat, on the T. 
& P. Ry. Bank, First Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

SPEARMAN Hansford County. About 70 

miles east of Dalham. Banks, First Nat'l., Guaran- 
ty State. 

SPRING— Harris County; pop., 600. 23 miles 
above Houston, the county seat, on the I. & G. N. 
Ry. Bank, Spring State. " Tel., W. U. Express. 

SPRINGTOWN— Parker County; pop., 900; 18 
miles from Weatherford, the county seat and ship- 
ping point. Banks, First State Bank of Springtown, 
Guaranty State. Telephone connection. 

SPUR— Dickens County; pop., 1,100; alt, 1,900 
ft. 12 miles south of Dickens, the county seat, on 
the W. V. Ry. Banks, City Nat'l., Spur Nat'l., Ho- 
tels, Spur, Western. Newspaper, telegraph, and ex- 
press. 

SPURGER— Tyler County; pop., 500. 17 miles 
from Texas, the county seat, and 17 miles from 
Woodville, the usual banking and shipping point. 

STAMFORD — Jones County; pop., 3,07 4; alt., 
1,6 3 ft. 14 miles north of Aanson, the county 
seat, on the T. C, the W. V. and the S. & N. W. Rys. 
Banks, First Nat'l., First State, Guaranty State. 
Hotels, Bettis, Brown, Cooper, Stamford. Stam- 
ford College is located here. Two weekly news- 
papers. Stamford is a leader in paved streets and 
side walks for its age. It is the jobbing center of 
west Texas, and has more wholesale and jobbing 
houses for its population than has any city in the 
state. Cotton gin, oil mill, flour mill, ice plant, 
cotton compress, broom factory, round house and 
repair shops, etc. Industry, livestock and farm- 
ing. Tel., W. U. Express. 

STANTON— Martin County seat; pop., 6 00; alt., 
8 89 ft. 127 miles west of Abilene, on the T. & P. 
Ry. Banks, First Nat'l., Home Nat'l. Hotels, City, 
Stanton. Our Lady of Academy Convent is located 
here. Newspaper, The Reporter. Shipments, grain 
and livestock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

STAR— Mills County; pop., 300. 18 miles from. 



158 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



Goldthvvaite, the county seat and shipping point. 
Bank, Star State. Telephone connection. 

STEPHENVILLE— Erath County seat; pop.. 
3,SP1; alt., 1,2S3 ft. 76 miles sout'iiwest of Ft. 
Worth, on the Ft. W. & R. G., and the S. N. & 
S, T. Rys. Banks, Farmers' Nat'l., First Nat'l., 
First State, Cage & Crow, Bankers. Hotels, Cum- 
berland, Hall, Mother Shed. Has cotton oil mill, 
four cotton gins, two weekly newspapers, The Em- 
pire and The Tribune. Tel., W. U. Express. 

STERLING CITY— Sterling County seat; pop., 
53."?. 4 3 miles northwest of San Angelo, on the 
G. C. & S. F. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l., First State. 
Has a newspaper, telegraph and express. 

STOCKDALE— Wilson County; pop., 1,000. 17 
miles northeast of Floresville, the county seat, and 
3 8 miles southeast of San Antonio, on the S. P. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Industry, cotton. Weekly news- 
paper, The Times. Shipments, cotton and cotton 
seed products. Tel., W. U. Express. 

STRATFORD— Sherman County seat; pop., .';20; 
alt.. 3,920 ft. 31 miles northeast of Dalhart, 500 
miles southwest of Kansas City, Mo., and 500 miles 
northeast of El Paso, on the C. R. I. & G. Ry. 
Banks, First State, Sherman County Nat'l. Hotel, 
Powell. Weekly newspaper. The Star. Is the cen- 
ter of an extensive cattle raising country. Wheat 
is extensively grown, also oats, kaffir corn and 
maize; dairying is successful. Ships cattle, hogs, 
wheat, kaffir corn and maize and produce. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

STRAWN— Palo Pinto County; pop., 2,457; alt, 
991 feet. 26 miles northeast of Palo Pinto, the 
county seat, and 80 miles west of Ft. Worth, on the 
T. & P. Ry. Banks, First Nat'l., First State, Citi- 
zens Nat'l. Hotels, Commercial, Harvey. Weekly 
newspaper. Coal is extensively mined and ship- 
ped. Oil is the great industry of the surrounding 
territory. Tel., W. U. Express. 

STREETM AN— Freestone County; pop., 4 7S. 16 
miles from Fairfield, the county seat, on the T. & B. 
V. Ry. Bank, First State. Newspaper, express and 
telephone. 

SUGARLAND— Ft. Bend County; pop., 1,000. SVz 
miles northeast of Richmond, the county seat, on 
the G. H. & S. A. and the Sugar Land Rys. Bank, 
Imperial Bank & Tr Co. Has sugar, mattress and 
paper manufactories. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SULPHUR BLUFF— Hopkins County; pop., 300. 
24 miles from Sulphur Springs, the county seat and 
shipping point. Bank, First State. Telephone 
connection. 

SULPHUR SPRINGS— Judicial seat of Hopkins 
County; pop., 5,558; alt, 503 ft. 86 miles north- 
east of Dallas, on the M. K. & T. and the St. L. S. 
W. Rys. Banks, City Nat'l., First Nat'l., First State 
Guaranty State Bank & Tr. Co. Hotels, Garrison, 
McClimans, Woodall. Two weekly newspapers, one 
daily. Cotton gins, cotton compresses, cotton oil 
mills, and ice plant are leading industrial institu- 
tions. Tel., W. U. Express. 

SUNSET— Montague County; pop., 900; alt., 982 
ft. 18 miles south of Montague, the county seat, 
and 59 miles from Ft. Worth, on the Ft. W. & D. 
C. Ry. Banks, Guaranty State, Sunset State. Hotel 
Sunset. Newspapers, telegraph and express. 

SUTHERLAND SPRINGS— Wilson County; pop., 
400. 12 miles from Floresville, the county seat, 
on the G. H. & S. A. Ry. Bank, First State. Tel , 
W. U. Express. 



SWEARINGEN— Cottle County; pop., 200. 14 
miles from Paducah, the county seat, on the G. A. 
& P. Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Express and 
telephone connection. 

SWEENY— Brazoria County; pop., 500. 2OV2 
miles south of Angleton, the county seat, on the St. 
L. B. & M. Ry. Bank, First State. Express and 
telephone connections. 

SWEET HOME— Lavaca County; pop., 300. 12 
miles southwest of Halletsville, the county seat, on 
the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Bank, Valenta Brothers Bank. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

SWEETWATER— Nolan County seat; pop., 4,307; 
alt., 2,164 ft. 202 miles west of Ft. Worth, and 
413 miles northeast of El Paso, on the T. & P., K. 
C. M. & O., C. & S. F. Rys. Banks, City Nat'l., 
Texas Bank & Tr. Co. Hotels, Alamo, Commercial, 
Mart, Pullman, Revel, Santa Fe, Wright. Here 
are the Santa Fe machine shops and round house 
for this district, and is an important railway center. 
Cotton compress, oil mill, gins, ice factory, electric 
lights water works, sewer systems, an abundant sup- 
ply of good water, paved streets, steam laundry, 
four wholesale houses. Is also a health resort, with 
an ideal climate, and being the location of the cele- 
brated Grogan Mineral Wells and Boone Institute 
of Scientific Message, where hundreds from all over 
the country are successfully treated for all manner 
of diseases. Two weekly newspapers, The Record 
and The Reporter. Industries, farming and stock 
raising. Shipments, livestock, cotton, cotton seed 
products and farm products. As a stock raising 
country it is second to none. Tel., W. U. Express. 
SWENSON— Stonewall County; pop., 250. 7 
miles from Aspermont, the c(5unty seat, on the S. 
& N. W. Ry. Bank, First Bank of Swenson. Tele- 
phone connection. 

SYLVESTER— Fisher County; pop., 200. 8 miles 
from Roby, the county seat, on the K. C. M. & 0. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

TAFT — San Patricio County; pop., 500. 8 miles 
southeast of Sinton, the county seat, on the S. A. & 
A. P. Ry. Bank, Taft Bank, Tel., W. U. Express. 

TAHOKA — Lynn County seat; pop., 500; alt, 
2, 864 ft. 150 miles southwest of Amarillo, on the 
Lamesa branch of the A. T. & S. F. Ry. Banks, 
First Nat'l., Guaranty State. Hotels, Larkin, Leedy 
St. Clair. Level country surrounding with good 
water supply at depth of eighty feet; livestock is the 
chief industry but diversified farming and fruit 
growing are increasing. Crops, kaffir corn, milo 
maize, wheat, oats, sorghum, and alfalfa. Weekly 
newspaper, The News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

TALCO— Titus County; pop., 300. 17 miles from 
Mt. Pleasant, the county seat, on the P. & Mt. P. Ry. 
Bank, Talco State. Express and telephone connec- 
tion. 

TALPA— Coleman County; pop., 250; alt., 1,948 
ft. 25 miles southwest of Coleman, the county seat. 
Bank, First State. Newspaper, telegraph and ex- 
press. 

TATUM— Rusk County; pop., 428. 20 miles 
southeast of Longview, on the G. C. & S. F. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Has Newspaper, express and 
telephone connection. 

TAYLOR — Williamson County; pop., 5,9 65; alt., 
583 ft. 174 miles south of Dallas, 116 miles east 
of San Antonio and 144 miles west of Palestine, and 
165 miles north of Houston, at the junction of the 
I. & G. N. and' the M. K. & T. Rys. Banks, City 



159 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



Nat'l., First Nat'l., First State Bank & Tr. Co., Tay- 
lor Nat'l. Hotels, Blazilmar, Grace, Hyde, Marquet- 
te. 

Taylor is located on a rolling prairie of very rich 
land; some fields have been producing for eighty 
years without any fertilizer and present day crops 
are larger than any of the past. Crops, cotton, corn 
oats, wheat, sorghum, garden growths. Industries, 
cotton oil mills, ice factories, mattress factory, 
broom factory, marble works, seven cotton gins, 
light and power plant, ice cream factory, creamery, 
machine shops, wholesale groeei-y houses, wholesale 
cigar and tobacco house, etc. Two newspapers. The 
Democrat and the Journal, daily; three weeklies. 
The Texan, The Journal, and the Herald (German). 
Has a fair association, Tel., Mackay, Postal, W. U. 
Express. 

TEAGUE— Freestone County; pop.. 3,306; alt., 
69 8 ft. 10 miles east of Fairfield, the county seat, 
98 miles south of Dallas, on the T. & B. V. Ry. 
Banks, First Nat'l., First State. Hotels, Harvey, 
Martin, Stegall. Industry, cotton. Daily and two 
weekly newspapers; telegraph, W. U. Express. 

TEHUACANA — Limestone County; pop., 614. 
16 miles from Groesbeck, the county seat, and 6 
miles from Mexia. Bank, First State. Express and 
telephone connections. 

TELEPHONE— Fannin County; pop., 09. 20 
miles northeast of Bonham, the county seat and ship- 
ping point. Bank, First State. Mail daily. 

TELL — Childress County; pop., 50. 15 miles 
Bank, First State. Telephone connection. 

TEMPLE— Bell County; pop., 11,033. Eight miles 
east of Belton, the county seat, 35 miles south of 
Waco, 213 miles northwest of Houston, on the G. C. 
& S. F. and the M. K. & T. Rys. Banks, City Natl., 
Farmers' State, First Natl., Temple State, Temple 
Trust Company. 

Temple is one of the principal cities of Central 
Texas, in the waxy land belt, noted for its produc- 
tiveness. Staple crops, cotton leads, corn, oats, dairy 
products, live stock and produce. Splendid shipping 
facilities, twenty-six passenger trains daily, an im- 
portant point on the Santa Fe system as a dividing 
point of its two great lines, one extending to all 
northern points and the other to all points west to 
the Pacific coast. Santa Fe shops are here. Busi- 
ness college, military academy and three thoroughly 
equipped hospitals. One daily newspaper. The Tele- 
gram, one weekly. The Mirror. Is a wholesale center. 
Has modern business buildings and beautiful resi- 
dences, large opera house, all public utilities of the 
largest cities. Is connected with Belton by an elec- 
tric railway. Tel., Mackay, W. U. Express. 

TENAHA— Shelby County; pop., 577. 12 miles 
from Center, the county seat, and 177 miles north- 
east of Houston, on the H. E. & W. T. and T. & G. 
Rys. Banks, First State, State Bank of Tenaha. 
Weekly newspaper. The Messenger. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

TERRELI^Kaufman County; pop., 8,349; alt., 
530 ft. Ten miles north of Kaufman, the county 
seat, and 32 miles east of Dallas, on the T. M. and 
the T. & P. Rys. Banks, American Natl., First Natl., 
First State. Hotels, Artesia, Bonniville, Commer- 
cial. Cotton oil mill, compress, cotton gins, flour 
mill, ice plant, Texas Midland shops. Newspaper, 
The Transcript, daily and weekly. Site of the North 
Texas Hospital for the Insane. Tel., W. U. Express. 



TEXARKANA— Bowie County; pop., 19,737; alt., 
295 ft. 365 miles northeast of Austin, 490 miles 
southwest of St. Louis, Mo., situated on both sides 
of the boundary line between Texas and Arkansas, 
Bowie County, Texas, and Miller County, Arkansas, 
located on the K. C. S., the L. & A., the St. L. I. M. 
& S., the St. L. S. W., the T. & Ft. S., and the T. & 
P. Rys. Banks, Guaranty State, Texarkana Natl. 
Hotels, Benefield, Burkdale, Cosmopolitan, Holman, 
Hutchins, Marion. Has four sanitariums. Two daily 
newspapers. The more prominent industries include 
saw, shingle and planing mills, cotton oil mills, cot- 
ton compress, foundry and machine shops, boiler 
works, clay products works, oil and fertilizer works, 
cooperage, cotton gins, screen manufactory, mattress 
factoi-y, sheet metal product factory, casket factory, 
electric light and gas plants, brick works, ice factory, 
sewer pipe works, tile and window glass works and 
silo factory. Pine and white oak timber abound in 
the vicinity. Shipments, cotton, lumber, hides, cot- 
ton seed oil and the products of the various fac- 
tories. Tel., Mackay, Postal, W. U. Express. 

TEXAS CITY— Galveston County; pop., 2,506; 
alt., 12 ft. Eight miles by water and 16 miles by 
rail northwest of Galveston, the county seat, on the 
Texas City Terminal Co. Ry., which connects at 
Texas CityJunction with the S. P., I. & G. N., M. K. 
& T., G. H. & H., G. C. & S. F., T. B. V. and the 
C. H. E. Co. (interurban). Is located on Galveston 
Bay. Banks, First Natl., Texas City Natl. Hotels, 
Livingstone, Travelers, Southern. This city is pri- 
marily a port. Principal exports to foreign markets 
include cotton, lumber, logs, oil, iron, steel, packing 
house products, grain, flour, cooperage, cotton seed 
and its by-products. Leading commodities received, 
coffee, Mexican hats, rice, sugar, sisal and glycerin. 
Coastwise business covers an extensive range. 
Finest system of ocean terminals from standpoint of 
construction and arrangement south of New York. 
Served by steamship lines to American and foreign 
ports. Is recognized as a distributing point for 
products manufactured in the East. All public utili- 
ties are privately owned. Daily newspaper. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

TEXLINE— Dallam County; pop., 762. 37 miles 
from Dalhart, the county seat, on the C. S. and the 
Ft. W. & D. C. Rys. Banks, Dallam County, First 
State. Newspaper, Texline Enterprise. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

THE GROVE— Coryell County; pop., 105. 20 
miles from Gatesville, the county seat, 8 miles from 
Leon Junction, the nearest shipping point, and 14 
miles from Moody. Bank, Planters' State. Tele- 
phone connection. 

THORNDALE— Milam County; pop., 1,100; alt., 
400 ft. 30 miles southwest of Cameron, the county 
seat, on the I. & G. N. Ry. Banks, First Natl., 
Thorndale State. Hotels, Commercial, Exchange. 
Weekly newspaper. The Thorn. Ships cotton, live 
stock and produce. Tel., W. U. Express. 

THRALL— Williamson County; pop., 272. 27 
miles from Georgetown, the county seat, on the I. & 
G. N. Ry. Bank, Farmers' State. Express and tele- 
phone connections. 

THORNTON— Limestone County; pop., 773; alt., 
499 ft. Eight miles south of Groesbeck, the county 
seat, 96 miles south of Dallas, on the H. & T. C. Ry. 
Banks, First Natl., Guaranty State. Hotel, Com- 
mercial. Weekly newspaper, The Hustler. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 



160 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



THREE RIVERS— Live Oak County; pop., 500; 
alt., 220 ft. Bank, Live Oak County State Bank. 

THROCKMORTON— Throckmorton County seat; 
pop., 680. 38 miles north of Albany, the nearest 
shipping point. Bank, First Natl. Weekly news- 
paper, The Times. Telephone connection. 

THURBER— Erath County; pop., 4,000. 21-2 miles 
from Mingus, the nearest banking point, on a spur 
of the T. & P. Ry. Coal is mined and shipped. Ex- 
press and telephone connections. 

TIMPSON— Shelby County; pop., 1,526; alt., 392 
ft. 15 miles northwest of Center, the county seat, 
on the H. E. & W. T., the H. G. and the T. & H. Rys. 
Banks, Cotton Belt State, Guaranty State. Hotel, 
Knight. Daily newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

TIOGA — Grayson County; pop., 777. 32 miles 
southwest of Sherman, the county seat, on the T. 
& P. and the M. K. & T. Rys. Bank, First Guaranty 
State. Weekly newspaper, The Herald, and a 
monthly publication. Youth's Guardian Friend. 
Tioga has several mineral wells famed for the medi- 
cinal virtues. Tel., W. U. Express. 

TIVOLI— Refugio County; pop., 350. About 20 
miles northeast of Refugio, the county seat, or 150 
miles southwest of Houston, on the St. L. B. & M. 
Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Tel., \V. U. Express. 

TOLAR— Hood County; pop., 416; alt., 1,013 ft. 
Eight miles southwest of Granbury, the county seat, 
and 51 miles from Ft. Worth, on the Ft. W. & R. G. 
Ry. Bank, Continental State. Hotel, Landers. 
Weekly newspaper. The Standard. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

TOM BALL — Harris County; pop., 300. 32 miles 
from Houston, the county seat, on the T. & B. V. Ry. 
Bank, First State. Express and telephone. 

TOM BEAN— Grayson County; pop., 367. 11 Va 
miles southwest of Sherman, the county seat, on the 
St. L. S. W. and the G. C. & S. Fe Rys. Bank, First 
Natl. Tel., W. U. Express. 

TOYAH— Reeves County; pop., 947; alt., 2,911 ft. 
P. Ry. Bank, Citizens' State. Hotel, Youngblood. 
18 miles west of Pecos, the county seat, on the T. & 
Division point on the T. & P. Ry. Weekly news- 
paper. The Enterprise. Shipments, grain and live- 
stock. Tel., W. U. Express. 

TRAVIS— Falls County; pop., 300. 18 miles from 
Marlin, the county seat, on the S. A. & A. P. Ry. 
Bank, Travis State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

TRENT— Taylor County; pop., 500. 22 miles from 
Abilene, the county seat, on the T. & P. Ry. Bank, 
First State. Tel.,"w. U. Express. 

TRENTON— Fannin County; pop., 616. 13 miles 
southwest of Bonham, the county seat, and 27 miles 
southwest of Denison, on the M. K. & T. Ry. Banks, 
First Natl., Guaranty State. Shipments, cotton, 
grain and live stock. Two weekly newspapers, The 
Trenton News, and The Trenton Tribune. Tel., W. 
U. Express. 

TRINIDAD— Henderson County; pop., 100. 15 
miles from Athens, the county seat, and 9 miles 
from Malakoff, on the St. L. S. W. Ry. Bank, Guar- 
anty State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

TRINITY— Trinity County; pop., 1,363. 19 miles 
southwest of Groveton, the county seat, on the I. 
& G. N., the M. K. & T. and the B. & G. N. Rys. 
Banks, First State, Trinity Natl. Hotel, Gibson. 
Weekly newspapers. Industry, cotton, farming and 
lumber. Tel., W. U. Express. 

TROUP— Smith County; pop., 1,258; alt., 467 ft. 
23 miles southeast of Tyler, the county seat, on the 



1. & G. N. Ry. Banks, First Natl., Guaranty State. 
Weekly newspaper. Three cotton gins. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

TROY— Bell County; pop., 219. 26 miles south- 
west of Waco, on the M. K. & T. Ry. Bank, Citizens 
Exchange Bank. Newspaper, The Troy Enterprise. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

TRUMBULL— Ellis County; pop., 103. 23 miles 
northeast of Waxahachie, the county seat, 3^2 miles 
from Ferris, on the H. & T. C. Ry. Bank, Farmers' 
State. Express and telephone connection. 

TRUSCOTT— Knox County; pop., 300. 13 miles 
from Benjamin, the county seat, on the K. C. M. & 
O. Ry. Bank, First Bank of Truscott. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

TULIA — Swisher County seat ;pop., 1,189. 51 
miles southwest of Amarillo, on the Sweetwater 
branch of the A. T. & S. F. Ry. Alt., 3,200 ft. 
Banks, First Natl., Tulia Bank & Trust Co. Hotels, 
Jackson, Tulia, White. Tvvo weekly newspapers. The 
Herald and The Enterprise. Has an opera house. 
Ships cattle, hogs, forage stuffs, poultry and pro- 
duce. Tel., W .U. Express. 

TURKEY— Hall County; pop., 100; 35 miles from 
Estelline, the nearest shipping point. Banks, First 
Natl., Turkey State. Telephone connection. 

TURNERSVILLE— Coryell County; pop., 162, 
GV2 miles from Gatesville, the county seat and ship- 
ping point. Bank, First State. Telephone connec- 
tions. 

• TUSCOLA— Taylor County; pop., 300. 18 miles 
from Abilene, the county seat, on the G. C. & S. F. 
and the A. & S. Rys. Bank, First State. News- 
paper. Telegraph. Express. 

TYLER— Smith County seat; pop., 12,085; alt., 
521 ft. 128 miles southwest of Texarkana, 100 miles 
southwest of Dallas and 245 miles northeast of 
Austin, on the St. L. S. W. and I. & G. N. Rys. 
Banks, Citizens Natl., People's Guaranty State. 
Hotel, Tyler. It is an important railway center of 
East Texas and also center of the great fruit and 
truck belt of the state. It has the largest freight 
tonnage of any city its size in Texas. General of- 
fices and machine shops of the St. L. S. W. Ry are 
here and employ more than 1,000 men. Has ex- 
cellent public and private schools, churches and 
homes. Twelve wholesale and jobbing houses here. 
Carnegie Library, a Federal Court building, a Union 
Depot. One daily and two weekly newspapers. Can- 
ning factories, ice plant, large compress, gins, cotton 
seed oil mill, fruit package factory, iron foundry 
and machine shops, overall and shirt factories, mat- 
tress factory, brick plant, bottling works, cigar fac- 
tory, etc., and all modern public utilities. Ship- 
ments, strawberries, peaches, truck garden, produce 
and cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

UTLEY — Bastrop County; pop , 500. Nine miles 
from Bastrop, the county seat, banking and ship- 
ping point. Mail daily. 

UTOPIA— Uvalde County; pop., 250. 40 miles 
from Uvalde, the county seat and 22 miles from 
Sabinal, the nearest shipping point. Bank, First 
State. Telephone connections. 

UVALDE — County seat of Uvalde County; pop., 
3,885; alt., 910 ft. 92 miles west of San Antonio, 
80 miles north of the Rio Grande River, on the S. P. 
and S. A. U. & G. Rys. Banks, Commercial Natl., 
First State. Hotels, Roundtree, Schwartz, Steven- 
son, Wilson. Has a library, a weekly newspaper 



161 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



The Leader-News. Shipments, cotton, mohair, honey, 
pecans and grain. Tel., W. U. Express. 

VALERA— Coleman County; pop., 300. 12 miles 
from Coleman, the county seat, on the G. C. & S. Fe 
Ry. Bank, First State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

VALLEY MILLS— Bosque County; pop., 885; alt., 
712 ft. 22 miles south of Meridian, the county seat, 
and 110 miles from Dallas, on the G. C. & S. F. Ry. 
Banks, Citizens State. First Natl. Cotton gins, 
cotton oil mills, weekly newspaper. The Tribune. 
Hotel, Crow. Tel., W. U. Express. 

VALLEY VIEW— Cooke County; pop., 600; alt., 
712 ft. Ten miles south of Gainesville, the county 
seat and 55 miles north of Ft. Worth, on the G. C. 
& S. F. Ry. Banks, First Guaranty State, First 
Natl. Hotel, Lowe. Weekly newspaper. The Sun. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

VAN ALSTYNE— Grayson County; pop., 1,588; 
alt., 803 ft. 15 miles south of Sherman, the county 
seat, and 47 miles north of Dallas, on the H. & T. C. 
Ry. Banks, Continental State, First Natl. Roller 
mills, cotton oil mill, electric lights, weekly news- 
paper. The Leader. Tel., W. U. Express. 

VAN HORN— Culberson County seat; pop., 129; 
alt., 7,572 ft. 110 miles southeast of El Paso, on 
the T. & P. Ry. Bank, Van Horn State. Two news- 
papers. Hotels, Central, Clarke, Commercial. Tele- 
phone connection. 

VEGA— Oldham County; pop., 200. 28 miles from 
Tascoca, the county seat. Bank, First State. Week- 
ly newspaper. The Vega Sentinel. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

VELASCO— Brazoria County; pop., 600. 16 miles 
south of Angleton, the county seat and 60 miles 
southwest of Houston, on the H. & B. V. Ry., and on 
the Brazos River. Bank, Velasco State. Shipments, 
sulphur, cotton, cotton seed products, fish and 
oysters, cattle, sugar cane, syrup. Has cotton gin, 
fish and oyster plant, mercantile establishments. 
Weekly newspaper. The World. Express and tele- 
phone connection. 

VENUS — Johnson County; pop., 842. 20 miles 
east of Cleburne, the county seat, 33 miles southwest 
of Dallas, on the G. C. & S. F. and the I.& G. N. Rys. 
Banks, Farmers & Merchants Natl., First Natl. Two 
weekly newspapers. Industry, cotton. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

VERA — Knox County; pop., 100; 14% miles from 
Benjamin, the county seat, 19 miles from Seymour, 
its shipping point. Bank, First State. Telephone 
connection. 

VERNON— Wilbarger County seat; pop., 5,142; 
alt., 1,205 ft. 49 miles west of Wichita Falls, on 
the Ft. W. & D. C. and the St. L. & S. F. Rys. 
Banks, Farmers' State, First Guaranty State, Her- 
ring Natl., Waggoner Natl., Vernon Natl. Hotels, 
Bailey, Vernon. Shipments, cotton, grain and live 
stock. Has cotton gins, a compress, a theatre, two 
weekly newspapers. The Call and The Record. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

VICTORIA— Victoria County seat; pop., 5,957; 
alt., 187 ft. 115 miles southeast of San Antonio, 
127 west of Houston, on the Guadelupe River and 
the G. H. & S. A. and St. L. & S. F. Rys. Banks, 
Levi Bank & Trust Co., People's Natl., Victoria Natl. 
Hotels, Delaware, Denver. It is the market place, 
shipping and trading center for one of the most pro- 
ductive sections of the state. Has safe factory, 
large cotton oil mill, ice factory, electric light plant, 
cotton compress, cotton gins, planing mills, broom 



factory, two cigar factories, three bottling works, 
laundry, creameries, jobbing houses, etc. A large 
denominational school, private school and unsur- 
passed public school. Two parks. Some of the finest 
homes in South Texas. Daily newspaper, The Ad- 
vocate, four weekly newspapers, The Advocate, 
The Fact, The Deutsche Zeitung (German) and The 
Guard (colored)). Shipments, corn, cotton, manu- 
factured products, merchandise to surrounding 
points for which it is a distributing center. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

VOTH — Jefferson County; pop., 500. Nine miles 
from Beaumont, the county seat and banking point, 
on the T. & N. 0. and the G. C. & S. F. Ry., and 
on the Pine Island Bayou. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WACO— McLennan County seat; pop., 38,500; alt., 
424 ft. Waco is the geographical center of Texas, 
as well as the center of population, on the M. K. & 
T., the I. & G. N., the H. & T. C, the St. L. & S. W., 
the G. C. & S. Pe, the S. A. & A. P., and the T. C. 
Rys., and also an interurban line between Waco 
and Dallas, on the Brazos River. Banks, Central 
Natl., Citizens Natl., Farmers Improvement Bank, 
First Natl., First State Bank & Trust Co., Liberty 
Natl., Natl City Bank, Provident Natl., Waco Sav- 
ings, Waco State, National Exchange Insurance & 
Trust Co., Robert O. Silvers & Co (investment and 
securities), and the Waco Clearing House Associa- 
tion. Hotels, Brazos, Densmore, Exchange, Katy, 
Metropole, Natatorium, Raleigh, St. Charles, Savoy, 
State, Terminal, Tietz, Waco, Waverly. 

As Waco is the center of population for the state 
of Texas, she can reach more people at a lower 
freight rate than any other city in the state as a 
jobbing point. The environment is famed as one of 
the most productively agricultural section in the 
world, cotton is the chief product. Waco is the 
center for wholesale dealers of all kinds. The city 
is noted for its many ward parks maintained by the 
city; one of the leading universities in the South, 
known as Baylor University, is located here, as are 
also St. Basil's College for Boys, Academy of the 
Sacred Heart, Hill's Practical College, Toby's Prac- 
tical Business College as well as a score of smaller 
private schools. Here are two colleges for negroes, 
Paul Quinn College, supported by the Methodists, 
and Central Texas College, supported by the Bap- 
tists. Has a public library, Y. M. C. A. Manufac- 
turers are extensive and numerous, including cotton 
seed oil, sash and doors, bank and store fixtures, 
mattresses, clothing, welding machinery, structural 
iron, boilers, brick, cement, stone, wood and metal 
preserver, iceless refrigerators, gas lighting plants. 
Waco is in the forefront in municipal activities. Tel., 
Mackay, Postal, W. U. Express. 

WAELDER— Gonzales County; pop., 894; alt., 372 
ft. 17 miles north of Gonzales, the county seat, 
and 78 miles east of San Antonio, on the G. H. & 
S. A. Ry. Bank, Farmers' State. Hotels, Commer- 
cial, Waelder. Weekly newspaper. The New Era. 
Industry, cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WALBURG— Williamson County; pop., 200. 11 
miles from Georgetown, the county seat, and ship- 
ping point. Bank, Walburg State. Telephone con- 
nections. 

WALLER — Waller County; pop., 450. Nine miles 
southeast of Hempstead, the county seat, on the H. 
& T. C. Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

WALLIS — Austin County; pop., 675. 45 miles 



162 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



west of Houston, aL the junction of the S. A. & A. P. 
and the D. C. & S. F. Rys. Bank, Guaranty State. 
Is center of a rich farming section. Shipments, live 
stock, cotton and produce. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WALNUT SPRINGS— Bosque County; pop., 
1,449; alt., 790 ft. 68 miles west of Ft. Worth and 
92 miles southwest of Dallas, 18 miles northwest 
of Meridian, the county seat, on the T. C. Ry. Banks, 
Farmers & Merchants State, First Guaranty State. 
Hotels, Aycock, Commercial. Texas Central Ry 
shops are located here. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WASKOM— Harrison County; pop., 204. 20 miles 
from Marshall, the county seat, on the T. & P. and 
the M. K. & T. Rys. Bank, Guaranty State. Ex- 
press and telephone connections. 

WAX AH ACHIE— Ellis County seat; pop., 7,958; 
alt., 515 ft. 31 miles south of Dallas, 41 miles south- 
east of Ft. Worth, on the H. & T. C, M. K. & T., 
and the T. & B. V. Rys., and on the Southern Trac- 
tion Co.'s Interurban. Banks, Citizens Natl., Guar- 
anty State Bank & Trust Co., Waxahachie Natl., 
Texas Title & Loan Co. Hotel, Rogers. Trinity 
University is located here. Has a Carnegie Library. 
Cotton oil mills, cotton gins, cotton compress, cotton 
mill, flour mill, creamery, etc. Two daily news- 
papers. The Life and The Enterprise, and two week- 
lies. The Enterprise and The Herald. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

WAYLAND— Stephens County; pop., 250. 13 
miles from Breckenridge, the county seat, and 18 
miles from Eastland, the usual shipping point. 
Banks, First Guaranty State. First Natl. Tele- 
phone connections. 

WEATHERFORD— Judicial seat of Parker Coun- 
ty; pop., 6,203; alt, 864 ft. 31 miles west of Ft. 
Worth on the T. & P., the G. C. & S. F., the G. T. 
& W. and the W. M. W. &N. W. Rys. Banks, Citi- 
zens' Natl., First Natl., First State, Merchants' & 
Farmers' State. Hotels, Burchard, Columbia, Eu- 
banks, Montfront, Parker, Terminal. Weatherford 
is the trading center of all Parker County and parts 
of Jack, Wise, Hood and Palo Pinto counties. Has 
a business college, a sanitarium, a daily and two 
weekly newspapers and a number of wholesale 
houses. Is the location of Fairmount Seminary for 
Girls and the K. of P. Widows' & Orphans' Home. 
Industries, cotton, manufacturing and live stock. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

WEIMAR— Colorado County; pop., 1,171; alt., 413 
ft. 16 miles west of Columbus, the county seat and 
95 miles from Houston on the G. H. & S. A. Ry. 
(S. P. System). Banks, First State, T. A. Hill State. 
Hotel, New Jackson. Industries, cotton and dairy 
products. Weekly newspaper. The Mercury. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

WEINERT— Haskell County; pop., 472. 15 miles 
from Haskell, the county seat, on the W. V. Ry. 
Bank, Weinert State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WEIR— Williamson County; pop., 300. 5Vz miles 
northeast of Georgetown, the county seat, on the 
M. K. & T. Ry. Bank, Weir State. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

WELCOME— Austin County; pop., 200; 18 miles 
northwest of Belville, the county seat, and 14 miles 
from New Ulm, the nearest shipping point. Bank, 
First State. Telephone connection. 

WELDON — Houston County; pop., 200. 24 miles 
from Crockett, the county seat. Bank, First Guar- 
anty State. Express and telephone connections. 

WELLINGTON— Collingsworth County seat; pop., 



1,968; 57 miles north of Altus on the W. F. & N. W. 
Ry. Banks, City State, First Natl., Wellington 
State. Newspaper, The Wellington Leader. Tel., 
W. U. Express. 

WELLS— Cherokee County; pop., 500. 28 miles 
from Rusk, the county seat, on the St. L. S. W. Ry. 
Bank, Guaranty State. Express and telephone con- 
nections. 

WESLASCO— Hidalgo County. Bank, Guaranty 
State. No. P. O. 

WEST— McLennan County; pop., 1,629; alt., 645 
ft. 18 miles north of Waco, the county seat, on the 
I. & G. N. Ry. Banks, First State, National Bank of 
West, West Bank. Hotel, West Hotel. Industry, 
cotton. Two weekly newspapers. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

WEST COLUMBIA— Brazoria County; pop., 1,000. 
Two miles from Columbia, the shipping point, 12 
miles from Angleton, the county seat. Banks, First 
Natl., Guaranty State. Mail daily. 

WESTHOFF— Dewitt County; "pop., 500. 14 miles 
from Cuero, the county seat, on the G. H. & S. A. 
Ry. Newspaper, express and telephone connections. 

WESTMINSTER— Collin County; pop., 631. 20 
miles northeast of McKinney, the county seat, 6 
miles from Anna, the nearest shipping point. Bank, 
First State. Telephone connection. 

WESTON— Collin County; pop., 316. 14 miles 
north of McKinney, the county seat and shipping 
point. Bank, Weston Guaranty State. Industry, 
cotton. Telephone connection. 

WESTOVER— Baylor County; pop., 300. 18 miles 
from Seymour, the county seat and 7 miles from 
Megargle, on the G. T. & W. Ry. Bank, Westover 
State. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WHARTON— Judicial seat of Wharton County; 
pop., 2,346; alt., 60 ft. 62 miles southwest of Hous- 
ton, on the G. H. & S. A., the G. C. & S. F. Rys. 
Banks, Security Bank & Trust Co., Wharton Bank 
& Trust Co. Hotels, Nation, Plaza, Wharton. Is in 
the center of Caney Valley, which is about ten miles 
and fifty miles long, with soil exceptionally adapted 
to growing of alfalfa, corn, sugar cane, etc. In- 
dustry, cotton, sugar and syrup manufacturing, feed- 
stuff, hogs. Has a hospital and weekly newspaper, 
The Spectator. Tel. and express. 

WHEELER-^udicial seat of Wheeler County; 
pop., 200. 18 miles north of Shamrock, the nearest 
shipping point. Banks, Citizens' State, Guaranty 
State. Newspaper. Telephone connections. 

WHITE DEER— Carson County; pop., 200. 14 
miles from Panhandle, the county seat, on the A. T. 
& S. F. Ry. Banks, First Natl., First State, Guar- 
anty State. Express and telephone connections. 

WHITEHOUSE— Smith County; pop., 150. Ten 
miles from Tyler, the county seat, on the I. & G. 
N. Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Industry, cotton. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

WHITESBORO— Grayson County; pop., 1,810; 
alt., 784 ft. 18 miles west of Sherman, the county 
seat, on the M. K. & T. and the T. & P. Rys. Banks, 
City Natl., Guaranty State, First Natl. Hotels, com- 
mercial, Elpaso, Imperial, White, Warmack. Weekly 
newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WHITEWRIGHT— Grayson County; pop., 1,666; 
alt., 651 ft. 21 miles southwest of Denison and 17 
miles from Sherman, the county seat, on the M. K. 
& T. and St. L. S. W. Rys. Banks, First Natl., 
Planters' Natl. Hotels, Brickleade, Payne. Ship- 



163 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



merits, grain, cotton, live stock and cotton seed 
products. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WHITNEY— Hill County; pop., 1,011; alt., 630 
ft. 12 miles southwest of Hillsboro, the county seat, 
on the T. C. Ry. Banks, Citizens Natl. ,First Natl. 
Hotels, Faulkner, Walker. Newspaper. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

WHITT— Parker County; pop., 350. 20 miles 
from Weatherford, the county seat and 8 miles from 
Perrin, its shipping point. Bank, Citizens Bank. 
Telephone connection. 

WICHITA FALLS— Judicial seat of Wichita 
County; pop., 40,079; alt., 946 ft. 114 miles north- 
west of Ft. Worth and 158 miles southwest of Okla- 
homa City on the main line of the Ft. W. & D C 
the W. v., the W. F. & N. W., the W. F. & S., the' 
W. F. & O. and the M. K. & T. Rys. Banks, Ameri- 
can Natl., City Natl Bank of Commerce, Empire 
Mortgage Co., Exchange Natl., First Natl., Securitv 
Natl., State Trust Co., Wichita State Bank & Trust 
Co. Hotels, American, Argonne, Eldora, Hearn, 
Kemp, Marion, St. James, Westland, William Mary, 
Wood. The freight rates here from different points 
of the north and east apply here on an equal footing 
with Dallas and Ft. Worth, hence its jobbing value. 
Wichita Falls has what is believed to be the largest 
natural gas field in the United States, right at its 
doors. There are many wells in the field producing 
thirty to forty million cubic feet daily, with a rock 
pressure of from 500 to 700 pounds to the square 
inch. This gas is furnished manufacturers at a rate 
not surpassed by any city on the continent, and as 
the city is the distributing center for all northwest 
Texas, it affords unusual advantages to manufac- 
turers. The oil wells of Wichita County are among' 
the most productive in the United States. The yield 
in this respect classes her with the famed oil centers 
of Mexico and Russia, the world's best. Fifteen 
miles south of the city, on direct railway connection, 
is a vast deposit of coal which is being extensively 
mined and furnished for manufacturing purposes 
at an extremely low rate a ton. 

Wichita Falls has every modern municipal and 
public service convenience to be found in the largest 
cities of the nation, and in addition merchandising 
facilities that satisfy the most exacting, and amuse- 
ment facilities of the first class, a $100,000 pavilion 
and amusement resort on the shores of Lake Wichita, 
five miles south of the city, where boating, fishing, 
bathing, duck shooting and outings may be had, 
together with a $50,000 theatre. Lake Wichita is 
one of the largest artificial lakes in the country and 
furnishes an inexhaustible water supply for manu- 
facturing, irrigation and domestic purposes. Lead- 
ing industries, oil, gas, window glass, glass bottles, 
pottery, fruit jars, furniture, broom, ice, corrugated 
culverts, brick and tile plants, the Northwestern Ry. 
shops, the largest mill and elevator in the world, 
cotton oil mill, cotton compresses, sash, door and 
blind factory, marble works, etc. Wichita Motor Co. 
was a pioneer in the business of manufacturing auto- 
mobiles whose output is being sold in every part of 
Texas, Oklahoma and western states. Has daily and 
weekly newspapers. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WILDORADO— Oldham County; pop., 75. 25 
miles from Atascosa, the county seat, on the C. R. I. 
& G. Ry. Bank, Wildorado State. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

WILLARD— Trinity County; pop., 700. About 8 
miles east of Groveton, on the M. K. & T. Ry. 



WILLIS — Montgomery County; pop., 900. Eight 
miles from Conroe, the county seat, on the I. & 
G. N. Ry. Bank, Guaranty State. Two cotton gins, 
planing mill and a newspaper. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

WILLS POINT— Van Zandt County; pop., 1,811; 
alt., 524 ft. 46 miles east of Dallas, on the M. K. 
& T. Ry. Banks, First Natl., First State, Van Zandt 
County Natl. Hotels, Peace, Wills Point. Industry, 
cotton. Newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WILMER— Dallas County; pop., 250. 15 miles 
southeast of Dallas, the county L,eat, on the H. & 
T. C. Ry. Banks, Guaranty State, White Banking 
Co. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WILSON— Lynn County; pop., 20. Ten miles 
from Tahoka, tlae county seat, on the P. & N. T. Ry. 
Bank, Wilson State. • Telephone connection. 

WINCHESTER— Fayette County; pop., 300. 18 
miles from La Grange, the county seat, on the S. A. 
& A. P. Ry. Bank, Winchester State. Industry, 
cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WINDOM— Fannin County; pop., 312. 11 miles 
from Bonham, the county seat, on the T. & P. Ry. 
Banks, First State, First Natl. Weekly newspaper. 
Tel., W. U. Express. 

WINDTHORST— Archer County; pop., 600. 12 
miles from Archer City, the county seat, and 7 miles 
from Scotland, the nearest banking and shipping 
point. Mail daily. 

WINFIELD— Titus County; pop., 629. Nine miles 
west of Mt. Pleasant, the county seat, on the St. 
L. S. W. Ry. Bank, First Natl. Industry, cotton. 
Has pottery and brick works and a weekly news- 
paper.. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WINGATE— Runnels County; pop., 150. 12 miles 
from Winters, the nearest shipping point. Bank, 
Security Bank. Mail daily. 

WINNIE— Chambers County; pop., 200. 20 miles 
from Anahuac, the county seat. Bank, Farmers' & 
Merchants' State. Newspaper. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

WINNSBORO— Wood County; pop., 2,184; alt., 
420 ft. 15 miles northeast of Quitman, the county 
seat and 108 miles east of Dallas, on the M. K. & 
T. and the M. & E. T. Rys. Banks, First Natl., Mer- 
chants' & Planters' State. Hotels, Moore, Palmer, 
Shock. Has free library, ice plant, three potteries, 
brick works, cotton gins and oil mill, planing mill, 
canning factory and two weekly newspapers. The 
Free Press and The News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WINONA— Smith County; pop., 400; alt., 321 ft. 
14 miles from Tyler, the county seat, on the St. L. S. 
W. Ry. Bank, Winona State. Hotel, Allen. News- 
paper. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WINTERS— Runnels County; pop., 1,509; alt., 
1,600 ft. 15 miles north of Ballinger, the county 
seat, on the Abilene and Southern Ry. Banks, First 
Natl., Winters State. Industry, cotton and live 
stock. Weekly newspaper. The Enterprise. Ship- 
ments, cotton, grain and live stock. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

WOLFE CITY— Hunt County; pop., 1,850. 18 
miles north of Greenville, the county seat and 60 
miles northeast of Dallas, on the G. C. & S. F. and 
the St. L. S. W. Rys. Banks, First State, Wolfe 
City Natl. Hotels, Davis, Sellers. Weekly news- 
paper. The Wolfe City Sun. Shipments, cotton, 
gi-ain, cotton oil products. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WOODSBORO— Refugio County; pop., 250. Six 
miles from Refugio, the county seat, on the St. L. 



164 



CITIES AND TOWNS 



B. & M. Ry. Bank, First Natl. Newspaper, The 
News. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WOODSON— Throckmorton County; pop., 150. 15 
miles from Throckmorton, the county seat, and 30 
miles from Albany, the nearest shipping point. Bank, 
Woodson State. Weekly newspaper. The Record. 
Express and telephone connections. 

WOODVTLLE— Judicial seat of Tyler County; 
pop., 785. 55 miles from Beaumont, on the T. & 
N. 0. Ry. Banks, Tyler County State, Woodville 
State. Has newspaper. Industry, lumber and cot- 
ton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

WORTH AM— Freestone County; pop., 1,100; alt., 
482 ft. 20 miles west of Fairfield, the county seat, 
and 89 miles south of Dallas, on the H. & T. C. Ry. 
Banks, P'irst Natl., First State. Industry, oil and 
cotton. Weekly newspaper, The Wortham Journal. 

In the summer of 1921 an extensive oil field was 
developed in the district of Wortham. The little 
town of Wortham has grown to be a prosperous and 
progressive oil city and the population has increased 
several-fold, and all other lines of industry have 
kept pace with the city's growth. Tel., W. U. Ex- 
press. 

WYLIE— Collin County; pop., 945; alt., 422 ft. 
15 miles south of McKinney, the county seat and 25 
miles northeast of Dallas, on the G. C. & S. F. and 
the St. L. & S. W. Rys. Banks, First Natl., First 
State. Hotels, Christensen, Neilay. Industry, cot- 
ton. Weekly newspaper, The Rustler. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

YANTIS— Wood County; pop., 400. 12 miles from 



Quitman, the county seat. Bank, Yantis State. 
Telephone connection. 

YOAKUM — Dewitt and Lavaca Counties; pop., 
G,184; alt., 322 ft. On the S. A. & A. P. Ry, about 
70 miles east of San Antonio, in an agricultural ter- 
ritory unsurpassed any^vhere in the state of Texas. 
Banks, Farmers & Merchants State, Yoakum Natl., 
Yoakum State. Hotel, St. Regis. Crops, cotton, 
corn, sorghum, milo maize, kaffir corn. Dairying 
is a leading industry. Has the largest turkey 
slaughtering plant in the state, and is considered the 
largest turkey market in the South. S. A. & A. P. 
Ry., shops are here. Is a trading and manufactur- 
ing center in the southwestern part of the state, 
for a large territory. Is the home of the South 
Texas Annual Fair; has two daily and one weekly 
newspapers. The Times and The Herald. Tel., W. U. 
Express. 

YORKTOWN— Dewitt County; pop., 1,723; alt., 
270 ft. 15 miles west of Cuero, the county seat, 
151 miles southwest of Houston, on the S. A. & A. 
P. Ry. Banks, First Natl., First State. Hotels, 
Cooper, Two Sisters. Weekly newspaper. The News. 
City conveniences. Is in a rich farming country. 
Shipment, cotton. Tel., W. U. Express. 

Zavala — Angelina County; pop., 150. 22 miles 
southeast of Lufkin, the county seat, on the T. & N. 
0. Ry. Bank, Zavala State. Telephone connection. 

ZEPHYR— Brown County; pop., 600; alt., 1,501 
ft. 14 miles from Brownwood, the county seat, on 
the G. C. &S. F. Ry. Bank, First State. Hotel, 
City. Weekly newspaper. Tel., W. U. Express. 



165 



COUNTIES 



ANDERSON COUNTY— Palestine, county seat; 
area, 1,060 square miles; situated southeast of 
Dallas in east Texas, between the Trinity and Nueces 
Rivers; created in 1846. Surface, hilly and rolling; 
soil, sandy and light loam. Industries, principally 
agricultural; still some lumber. Products: Cotton, 
corn, small grains, tobacco, peaches, plums, summer 
grapes and all kinds of small fruits and vegetables. 
Transportation, three railvi^ays, I. & G. N., T. & N. 0. 
and the Texas State. Mineral resources: Large de- 
posits of iron ore, lignite, salt, fire and brick clay, 
limestone and building stones. Public highways be- 
ing rapidly improved. Principal towns, Elkhart, 
Frankston, Neches, Salt City and Herring. 

ANDREWS COUNTY— Andrews, county seat; 
area, 1,591 square miles; situated at the foot of the 
Staked Plains and borders New Mexico on the west; 
created 1876. Surface, rolling prairies, broken oc- 
casionally by draws and canyons; soil, rich and high- 
ly productive of luxuriant grasses. Industries, prin- 
cipally live stock, but some farming. No railroad at 
present, but one under survey. Nearest railroad sta- 
tions are Midland, Midland County, and Lamesa, 
Dawson County. 

ANGELINA COUNTY— Lufkin, county seat; area, 
880 square miles; situated in the east Texas timber 
belt, on the Neches River which bounds it on the 
west; created in 1846. Surface, generally rolling, 
some level; soil, generally light sandy, gray sandy, 
and sandy loams, with much rich alluvial soil in the 
bottoms. Industries, lumber, agricultural and horti- 
cultural interests. Products, cotton and corn, 
ribbon cane, sweet potatoes, peanuts, Irish potatoes, 
all kinds of vegetables and many varieties of fruits. 
Excellent transportation provided by the Houston 
East & West Texas, St. Louis Southwestern, Grove- 
ton, Lufkin and Northern, Eastern Texas, T. & N. O., 
Texas Southeastern, Angelina & Neches Rivers and 
Shreveport, Houston and Gulf Rys. Natural re- 
sources, brick clay, oil. Principal towns, Hunting- 
ton, Burke, Zavalla, Diboll and Pollak. 

ARANSAS COUNTY— Rockport, county seat; 
area, 295 square miles; a Gulf coast county, lying 
midway between Galveston and Brownsville; created 
in 1871 from Refugio County. Surfaces, generally 
level; soil, very productive for general farming, 
truck and fruit growing. Industries, fish and oyster 
business, dairying and live stock growing, trucking. 
Products, early truck, fish and oysters, dairy prod- 
ucts. Transportation, the S. A. & A. P. Ry. Prin- 
cipal towns, Aransas City, prominent as a deep 
water port. 

ARCHER COUNTY— Archer City, county seat; 
area, 960 square miles; situated northwest of Ft. 
Worth one county removed from the Red River; 
created in 1858 from Clay County and organized in 
1880. Surface, mostly level; soils, include light 
sandy, red mesquite, dark loam and black waxy. 
Industries, diversified farming, stock raising, truck 
and fruit gi'owing. Products, cotton, corn, wheat, 
all kinds of feedstuffs, fruits, including apples, 
grapes, peaches, plums and beiTies, vegetables of 
every variety, live stock. Transportation, South- 
western, Wichita Valley, Wichita Falls and South- 
ern & Gulf, Texas & Western Rys. Mineral re- 
sources, copper nuggets and copperized clay, and 
brick clay. Principal towns, Megargle, Dundee, Hol- 
liday, Scotland and Windthorst. 



ARMSTRONG COUNTY— Claud, county seat; 
area, 870 square miles; situated in the Panhandle, 
east of Amarillo, created in 1876, organized in 1890. 
Surface, level with exception of the broken lands 
in the vicinity of the canyons. Soils, sandy loam 
variety. Industries, live stock — Herefords, Polled 
Angus and other breeds of beef cattle — and some 
farming. Products, wheat, flax and broom corn, all 
varieties of feedstuffs, apples, grapes, peaches, 
pears, plums and small fruits as well as many va- 
rieties of vegetables. Famed for the production 
of the "catalo," a successful cross between the 
buffalo and the Polled Angus cattle, a beef animal 
capable of withstanding severe climate and of exist- 
ing on short forage if necessary. Transportation, 
Ft. Worth & Denver Ry. Goodnight and Washburn 
are other important towns of the county. 

ATASCOSA COUNTY— Jourdonton, county seat; 
area, 1,132 square miles; situated in southwest Texas 
south of Bexar County; created in 1858. Soil, sandy 
loam. Industries, beekeeping, agricultural and horti- 
cultural interests, but live stock raising leads. 
Products, honey, fruits, vegetables. Transportation, 
Artesian Belt, I. & G. N., S. A. U. & G. Rys. 
Principal towns, Pleasanton, Imonge, Christine, 
Campbellton and Lytle. 

AUSTIN COUNTY— Bellville county seat; area, 
712 square miles; situated a little northwest of 
Houston, and two counties removed from the Gulf; 
created, 1836. Surface, central and western por- 
tions, rolling, southern portion almost level, watered 
by the Guadalupe, Colorado, San Benard and Brazos 
Rivers. Soil, dark, reddish-brown, very fertile, light 
and dark sandy loam, black loam and waxy soils. 
Agricultural, horticultral and live stock industries. 
Products, beef, cattle, hogs, mules, horses, dairy 
products, cotton and corn, truck and fruits, pecans. 
Railways, G. C. & S. F., M. K. & T., S. A. &. A. P. 
and the Cain Belt. Mineral resources, brick and 
tile clays. Excellent highways. Principal towns, 
Sealy, New Ulm, Wallace Station, Industry, Cat 
Springs and Kenney. 

BAILEY COUNTY— Aren, 1000 square miles; 
situated in the plains country of Texas, bordering 
New Mexico; created from Bexar county in 1876 but 
is still unorganized, hence no county seat. Surface, 
almost level plain, with wide shallow valleys; soil, 
dark sandy loam. Industries, live stock principally, 
though some agricultural interests; products, kaffir 
corn, sorghum and other feedstuffs, fruits and veg- 
etables. Transportation, the G. C. & S. Fe Ry., 
crosses the county. 

BANDERA COUNTY— Bandera county seat; area, 
822 square miles; situated in southwest Texas, crea- 
ted in 1856. Surface, mountainous; soil, upland 
portions hog wallow and loam; river valley, rich 
sandy loam. Industries, live stock leads, with agri- 
cultural interests second. Products, cotton, wheat, 
corn, oats, sugar cane and hay and fruits. Poultry 
interest beginning. No railroads. Medina is an- 
other town in this county. 

BASTROP COUNTY— County seat, Bastrop; area, 
881 Square miles; situated in southwest Texas; crea- 
ted in 1837. Surface, generally rolling; soil, rich 
alluvial, sandy loams, black clays. Industries, stock 
raising, farming, and poulti-y. Products, cotton, 
corn, small grains, fruits, vegetables, dairy pro- 



166 



COUNTIES 



ducts. Transportation, M. K. & T. and the H. & T. 
C. Rys. Mineral resources, coal, brick, pottery clay, 
oil and gas. Principal towns, Elgin, McDade, Paige, 
Redrock, Upton and Rosanky. 

BAYLOR COUNTY— Seymore, county seat; area, 
957 square miles; situated in northwest Texas, crea- 
ted in 1879. Surface, generally level, slightly un- 
dulating; soil, dark sandy loam. Industries, live 
stock raising, diversified farming and poultry. Pro- 
ducts, fine cattle, horses, sheep, hogs, cotton, oats, 
wheat, kaffir corn, com, milo maize. Mineral re- 
sources, building stone. Excellent highways. Prin- 
cipal town, Bonarton. Transportation, the Wichita 
Valley and the Gulf, Texas and Western Railroads. 

BEE COUNTY— Beeville, the county seat; area, 
875 square miles; situated in southwest Texas in the 
coastal plains, created 1857. Surface, level, with 
general slope to the coast. Industries, bee keeping, 
stock raising, fruit and truck industries increasing, 
especially the citrus fruits. Products, cotton, fruit, 
ti-uck, honey. Naturally good nighways. Trans- 
portation, S. A. & A. P. and the G H. & S. A. Rys. 
Principal towns, Skidmore, Papalote and Normania. 

BELL COUNTY— County seat, Belton; area, 
1,091 square miles; located in south central Texas, 
created in 1850. Surface, eastern portion level, cen- 
tral and western portions hilly, broken by many 
streams and valleys. Soils, black waxy, sandy loam. 
Industries, stockraising with emphasis on breeding 
of fine stock, diversified farming, apiculture. Pro- 
ducts, hogs, beef cattle, sheep and goats, dairy pro- 
ducts and honey. Transportation, G. C. & S. Fe, M. 
K. & T., Belton-Temple Electric, Temple & North- 
western and Gulf Rys. Mineral resources, white 
limestone in large quantities, oil and gas indications. 
Principal towns, Killeen, Bartlett, Rogers, Holland, 
Troy, Pendleton, Salado, Nolanville, Moffat, Seaton, 
Prairie Dell, Summer's Mill, Cyclone and Young- 
sport, with Temple as the leader. 

BEXAR COUNTY— County seat and chief city, 
San Antonio; area, 1,268 square miles; located in 
Southwest Texas, created in 1837 as one of the orig- 
inal counties of the state. Surface rolling, some sec- 
tions hilly and rough; soil, black waxy to chocolate 
loam with clay subsoil. Industries, diversified farm- 
ing supplemented with stock raising on farms as 
leading rural industry, dairying leads in vicinity of 
San Antonio, poultry and bee raising. Products, 
dairy products, live stock, poultry and honey. Trans- 
portation, S. A. & A. P., M. K. & T., G. H. & S. A., 
I. & G. N., Artesian Belt, and San Antonio, Uvalde 
and Gulf Rys. Mineral resources, brick clay, some 
oil. Abounds in most excellent highways. Prin- 
cipal towns, Adkins, Saunders, Martiniz, Kirby, Con- 
verse, Westmore, Fratt, Adams, Elmendorf, Bergs, 
Hellemans, Heafer, Withers, Macedonia, Kirk, Leon 
Springs, Viva, Robards, Onga and Grace. 

BLANCO COUNTY— County seat, Johnson City; 
area, 762 square miles; situated in the south center 
of the state, west of Austin, created in 1858. Sur- 
face, mountainous with wide fertile valleys; indus- 
tries, live stock raising, farming. Products, cattle, 
vegetables, melons, fruits, cotton, corn, oats, rye, 
barley. No railroads. Blanco is another town of 
the county. 

BORDEN COUNTY— Gale, County seat; area, 892 
square miles; situated in west Texas, created in 1876. 
Surface, generally rolling, broken along waterways. 
Industries, cattle raising, and production of feed- 
stuffs. Products, all kinds of feedstuffs, cattle. 



some fruits. No railroads. Principal towns, Dur- 
ham, Treadway. 

BOSQUE COUNTY— County seat. Meridian; area, 
972 square miles; situated in north central Texas, 
created in 1854. Surface, diversified; soil, alluvial 
in the valleys. Industries, farming and livestock 
raising; products, cotton, grains, feedstuffs. Trans- 
portation, G. C. & S. Fe, and the T. C. Rys. Prin- 
cipal towns. Walnut Springs, Clifton, Iredell, Mor- 
gan and Valley Mills. 

BOWIE COUNTY— County seat, Boston; area, 904 
square miles; situated in the northeast corner of the 
state, created in 1840. Surface, generally level, roll- 
ing in some parts, heavily timbered; soil, light on 
hills, along rivers, deep red or black loam. Indus- 
tries, lumber, diversified farming, fruit gri-owing and 
mining. Products, lumber, cotton, corn, peanuts, 
hay, peaches, apples, pears, strawberries, figs, live- 
stock, poultry products. Transportation, T. & P., S. 
L. S.W., K. C. So., and the North Texas Rys. Min- 
eral resources, valuable coal deposits; oil and gas 
indications. Good roads are beginning to be ap- 
preciated and are under construction. Principal 
towns, Texarkana, DeKalb, Redwater, Maude, Oak 
Grove, Dalby Springs, Leary, Park and Hooks. 

BRAZORIA COUNTY— County seat, Angleton; 
area, 1,438 square miles; situated on the Gulf coast, 
bordering Galveston county on the east; created in 
1836 as one of Texas original counties. Surface, 
level, very gradual slope to the Gulf; heavily tim- 
bered with hardwoods; rich black loam with some 
sand, bottom lands, rich alluvial. Industries, truck, 
livestock, oil, sugar. Products, cotton, sugar cane, 
corn, rice, syi-up, all kids of vegetables and fruits, 
sugar. Transportation, G. C. & S. Fe, St Louis, 
Brownsville & Mexico, I. & G. N., H. & B. V., and 
the State Farm Rys. Mineral resources, large sul- 
phur deposits, oil. Principal towns, Alvin, Brazoria, 
Columbia, Sandy Point, Quintana, Freeport, Dan- 
bury. 

BRAZOS COUNTY— County seat, Bryan; area, 
510 Square miles; located in south Texas, created in 
1841. Surface, generally level, slight elevation mid- 
way between the Brazos and Navasota Rivers; soil, 
deep reddish alluvial in the river bottoms, sandy 
loam in the upper lands. Industries, Agricultural, 
stock raising, poultry and beekeeping. Products, 
cotton, corn, grains and feedstuffs, hogs, cattle, 
poultry products and honey. Transportation, I. & 
G. N., H. & T. C, G. C. & S. Fe, and Hearne & Braz- 
os Valley Rys., with an interurban line. Principal 
towns. Wellborn, College Station, Steele's Store, 
Harvey, Kurten and Edge. 

BREWSTER COUNTY — County seat, Alpine; 
area, 5,006 square miles; located in southwest Texas, 
bordering the Rio Grande; created in 1887. Surface, 
mountainous; Soil, in the valleys, rich. Industries, 
mining, stockraising, some truck gardening under 
irrigation. Products, quicksilver (has one of the 
largest quicksilver mines in America), iron, lead, 
copper, marble, apples, peaches, plums, apricots, 
honey, alfalfa and truck products. Transportation, 
G. H. & S. A., Kansas City, Mexico & Orient Rys. 
Principal towns, Marathon and Herlingua. This 
county has one of the highest mountains in the state 
and a canyon whose walls in places attain perpen- 
dicular heights of 1700 feet, one of the wonders of 
America. 

BRISCOE COUNTY — County seat, Silverton; 



167 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



area, 850 square miles; situated in the Panhandle, 
created, 1876, organized 1892. Surface, slightly 
rolling, some broken and rough; soil from dark to 
chocolate loam, some sandy loams. Industries, 
stock raising, diversified farming, some fruit rais- 
ing. Products, cotton, wheat, alfalfa, kaffir corn, 
millet, etc. 

BROOKS COUNTY— County seat, Falfurrias; 
area, 912 square miles; located in southwest Texas, 
created in 1911. Surface, gently rolling; covered 
with mesquite growth; soil, sandy loam variety. 
Industries, live stock raising, dairying, trucking. 
Products, cattle, cotton, various kinds of feedstuffs. 
Transportation, S. A. «fe A. P. Ry. 

BROWN COUNTY — County seat, Brownwood; 
area, 911 square miles; situated in central west 
Texas; created in 1856, organized, 1857. Surface, 
rolling with many fertile valleys and level table- 
lands. Soil, diversified black, gray, and chocolate 
loam and a red clay and a black tenacious lime soil. 
Industries, stockraising, diversified farming, fruit 
raising, quarrying. Products, cotton, wheat, barley, 
milo maize, corn and kaffir corn, forage products, 
sweet pototoes, Irish potatoes, truck, peaches, grapes, 
figs, plums and apples, limestone for local use. 
Transportation ,G. C. & S. Fe, F. W. & R. G., and 
Brownwood North and South Rys. Mineral resour- 
ces, limestone for local use, brick clay. Good roads, 
improvements under construction. Principal towns, 
Blanket, Winchell, May, Zephyr, Brooksmith. 

BURLESON COUNTY— County seat, Caldwell; 
area, 677 square miles; situated in central Texas; 
created, 1846. Surface, level; soil, dark loam, red- 
dish brown alluvial. Industries farming, livestock 
raising, fruit growing. Products, cotton, corn, grain 
forage crops, potatoes, truck, peaches, pears, grapes 
for home use. Transportation, G. C. & F. Fe and 
the H. & T. C. Mineral resources, lignite, brick 
clay. Principal towns, Somerville, Lyons, Deanville 
and Chriesman. 

BURNET COUNTY— County seat, Burnet; area, 
1,010 square miles; situated near the geographical 
center of the state, northwest of Austin; created in 
1852, organized 1858. Surface, mountainous and 
rolling, except in eastern portion, level prairies; 
soil, black waxy, sandy and red. Industries, live- 
stock raising, farming, fruit raising, poultry raising, 
mining. Products, cattle, cotton, corn, oats, feed- 
stuffs, peaches, melons, figs, grapes, all kinds of 
vegetables. Transportation, H. & T. C. Ry. Min- 
eral resources, building stone, granite, marble, sil- 
ver, iron, traces of gold. Principal towns Marble 
Falls, Bertram, Lake Victor. 

CALDWELL COUNTY— County seat, Lockhart; 
area, 530 square miles, situated in south central 
Texas, one county south of Travis; created in 1848, 
organized in 1858. Surface, generally level; soils, 
rich black waxy prairie land on the north and west, 
sand loam on the east, alluvial soils on the bottoms. 
Well timbered; watered by the San Marcos River and 
tributary streams. Industries, stock raising, farm- 
ing. Products, cattle, cotton, corn, oats, barley, 
sorghum and hay, sweet and Irish potatoes, melons, 
all kinds of vegetables, grapes, peaches, and various 
other fruits. Transportation, M. K. & T., G. H. & 
S. A. and the S. A. & A. P. Rys. Natural resources, 
iron ore, building stone. Principal towns. Maxwell, 
Luling, Reedville, Mendoza, Dale and Pentress. 

CALHOUN COUNTY— County seat. Port Lavaca; 
area, 592 square miles; situated on the Gulf Coast 



soutneast of San Antonio; created and organized in 
1846. Surface, level, sloping gradually to the coast, 
drained by the Guadalupe River and numerous trib- 
utaries. Soil, deep black waxy, sandy and chocolate 
loam, some black sand. Industry, stock and poultry 
raising, farming, fish and oyster business. Pro- 
ducts, fine horses, jacks, swine, dairy products, fish 
and oysters. Considerable interest in improved 
ways. Transportation, G. H. & S. A. and the St. L. 
B. & M. Rys. Principal towns. Port Lavaca, Port 
O'Connor, Seadrift Olivia. 

CALLAHAN COUNTY — County seat, Baird; 
area, 882 square miles; situated in central west 
Texas, a little north of center; created, 1858, organ- 
ized, 1877. Surface, generally rolling; soils, light 
sandy to a dark loam, very fertile. Industries, live- 
stock leads, agricultural and horticultural beginning. 
Products, cattle, poultry, peaches, plum and grapes 
are shipped to outside markets. Transportation, 
T. & P., and the T. C. Rvs. Other leading towns. 
Cross Plains, Clyde, Putnam, Cottonwood, Eagle 
Cove and Eula. 

CAMERON COUNTY— County seat, Brownsville; 
area, 671 square miles; located in the extreme south- 
ern point of Texas, bounded by the Gulf of Mexico 
on the east and by the Rio Grande River on the south; 
created in 1848. Surface, nearly level illuvial prai- 
rie; soils, in the Rio Grande Valley, exceptionally 
deep and fertile, soils on the uplands or prairies, 
lighter but very productive when irrigated. Indus- 
tries, stock raising, and farming, especially truck 
growing. Products, cotton, onions, cabbage, every 
kind of truck product for the earliest markets, 
sugar cane, figs, citrus fruits, dates, — subti'opical 
fruits abound. Transportation, St L. B. & M., R. G. 
& S.B. and the Rio Grande Interurban Rys. Natural 
resources, brick clay. Leading towns besides 
Brownsville are San Benito, Harlingin, Raymond- 
ville. 

CAMP COUNTY— County seat, Pittsburg; area, 
217 square miles; located in northwest Texas; crea- 
ted and organized in 1874. Surface, hilly, with 
some level lands and valleys. Soil, mostly sandy 
loam. Industries, agricultural and live stock, poul- 
try, fruit growing. Products, cotton, corn, small 
grains, the Elberta peach, grapes, plums, straw- 
berries, cantaloupes, melons, coal. Transportation, 
M. K. & T. and the St. L. S. W. Rys. Mineral re- 
sources, lignite coal, iron ore, shale and potter's clay. 
Other leading towns, Leesburg, Newsome, Pine and 
Mattinburg. 

CARSON COUNTY — County seat. Panhandle; 
area, 860 square miles; situated in the central Pan- 
handle; created, 1876, organized, 1888. 'Surface, 
mostly level prairie; soil, largely dark heavy loam. 
Industries, live stock farming. Products, cattle, 
wheat, oats, barley, rye, corn, cane, kaffir corn, 
maize, peaches, grapes, plums and apples. Ti-ans- 
portation. Southern Kansas of Texas (Santa Fe) 
and the C. R. I. & G. Rys. Other leading towns. 
Groom, Conway, and White Deer. 

CASS COUNTY— County seat. Linden; area, 945 
square miles; situated in northeast Texas, bordering 
Louisiana and one county removed from the Red 
River; created and organized, 1846. Surface, level 
and undulating, in some places broken by low hills; 
soil, a productive gray loam intersperced with a 
small proportion of red sandy land. Industries, 
farming, livestock raising, bee and honey industry. 
Products, ribbon cane, fruits, truck, peanuts and for- 



168 



COUNTIES 



age crops, honey. Transportation, T. & P., M. K, & 
T., K. C. S., St L. S. W. and the Jefferson and Nor- 
thern Rys. Mineral resources, iron ore, gas and oil. 
Other leading towns, Atlanta, Hughes Springs, 
Queen City, Blumberg. 

CASTRO COUNTY— County seat, Dimmitt; area, 
870 square miles; situated in the plains country; 
created in 1876 from Bexar county, organized in 
1891. Surface, rolling, nearly level; soils, mostly 
sandy loam, some black land. Industries, livestock, 
small truck, dry farming. Products, cattle, some 
forage stuff, cherries, grapes, apples and plums. 
Transportation, Pecos & North Texas Ry., (Santa 
Fe.) 

CHAMBERS COUNTY— County seat, Ananuac; 
area, 648 square miles; located on the Gulf Coast, 
one county removed from Louisiana; created and 
organized in 1858. Surface, level with general slope 
towards Galveston Bay; Soil, dark sandy loam. 
Heavily indented with bays, traversed by the Trinity 
River; much timber. Industries, truck growing, 
rice industry. Products, rice, livestock, fruits, truck. 
Transportation, Gulf & Interstate Ry., (Santa Fe), 
and many regular lines of boats out of Galveston 
and Houston. Other important towns, Winnie, Sto- 
well, Wallaceville, Hankamer and Double Bayou. 

CHEROKEE COUNTY— County seat. Rusk; area, 
990 square mils; centrally located in east Texas; 
created in 1846. Surface, broken, in some places 
the hills approaching the dignity of mountains; 
Neches River forms the western boundary, the An- 
gelina River the eastern boundary for 30 miles. 
Soils, chocolate predominates, in upland, with stiff 
black and sandy land in valleys. Industries, fruit, 
truck, lumber, farming. Products, peaches, plums, 
apricots, tomatoes, pine, hardwood, cotton, corn, 
grains, dairy products. Transportation, St L. S. W., 
T. & N. O., I. & G. N., and the Texas State Rys. 
Mineral resources, iron, brawn sandstone, valuable 
Clays. Other important towns, Alto, Dialville, Mount 
Selman, Ponta, Maydelle, Gallatin. 

CHILDRESS COUNTY— County seat, Childress; 
area, 660 square miles; located in the southeast cor- 
ner of the Panhandle; created in 1876, organized, 
1887. Surface rolling, with broad valleys along the 
water courses; the Red River crosses the county, the 
Pease River borders on the south. Soil in the east- 
ern portion, dark sandy loam; remainder of the land 
is more or less sandy, varying from dark to chocolate 
in color. Industries, stock raising-, farming. Pro- 
ducts, cattle, horses, wheat, oats, corn, alfalfa, and 
other forage crops, peaches, apples, plums, berries, 
melons and vegetables. Transportation, Ft W. & 
D. C. Ry. Mineral resources, gypsum, brick clay. 
Other important towns, Kirkland and Carey. 

CLAY COUNTY— County seat, Henrietta; area, 
1,250 square miles; situated in north Texas, border- 
ing the Red River on the north; created in 1857, or- 
ganized in 187.3. Surface, generally rolling prairie 
with wide valleys along the Red River, Big and Little 
Wichita Rivers and other streams; the Red River 
bottom land is made up of dark sandy soil, while 
a dark and chocolate loam is found in the bottom 
land of the Wichita Rivers on the uplands, is a dark 
sandy loam with a clay subsoil. Industries, oil, gas, 
livestock farming. Products, gas to Ft Worth and 
Dallas and intermediate points, oil, cattle, cotton, 
corn, wheat and oats, fruits for local use. Trans- 
portation, Ft W & D. C, Ry. Mineral resources. 



gas, oil, shale and fire clay. Other principal towns, 
Bellevue, Byers, Petrolia and Halsell. 

COCHRAN COUNTY — Unorganized, hence no 
county seat; created, 1876; area 957 square miles, 
situated in the plains country with New Mexico on 
the western border. Surface, high and level. In- 
dustries, stock raising. Products, cattle only, 
though it has been demonstrated that west Texas 
crops and fruits will do well. No railroads. 

COKE COUNTY— County seat, Robert Lee; area, 
850 square miles; situated in west central Texas; 
created in 1889. Surface, generally rolling with 
many hills, Colorado River flowing diagonally across 
it; soil, red loam, on plateaus, black waxy. Indus- 
try, stock raising. Products, cattle, some cotton and 
staples, melons and truck. Transportation, Kansas 
City, Mexico & Orient Ry. Mineral resources, ex- 
cellent sand and lime stone deposits, and brick clay 
plentiful. Other towns, Bronte, Ft Chadboume, 
Edith, Sanco, and Tennyson. 

COLEMAN COUNTY— County seat, Coleman; 
area, 1,302 square miles; located in west central 
Texas, created in 1858. Surface, generally level, 
hills here and there rising abruptly; soil varies from 
a black waxy to a loose sandy loam. Industries, 
livestock, poultry, farming. Products, cattle, sheep, 
goats, cotton, corn, maize, kaffir com, various feed 
stuffs, dairy products. Mineral resources, coal, an 
abundance of lime and sandstone and brick shale. 
Transportation, G. C. & S. Fe Ry. Other towns, 
Santa Anna, Talpa, Valra, Silver Valley, Novice and 
Goldsboro. 

COLLIN COUNTY — County seat, McKinney; 
area, 828 square miles; situated in north Texas, cre- 
ated in 1846. Surface high and rolling with but few 
hills; soil, black waxy. Industries, farming, dairy- 
ing and poultry and stock raising. Products, cotton, 
wheat, oats, alfalfa, etc., fancy stock, blooded horses, 
some fruit. Transportation, G. C. & S. Fe, St L. S. 
W., St Louis, San Francisco & Texas, H. & T. C, 
Rys., and the Texas Traction Co., interurban. Other 
towns, Farmersville, Piano, Celina, Princeton, Allen, 
Melissa, Frisco, Prosper, Blue Ridge, Westington and 
Anna. 

COLLINSWORTH COUNTY— County seat, Well- 
ington; area, 900 square miles; situated in the Pan- 
handle, bordering the state of Oklahoma; created in 
1876. Surface, level with some rolling land along 
creeks and rivers; soil, varies from sandy loam 
along the streams to a dark loam in the flats. In- 
dustry, live stock raising, some farming. Products, 
cattle, corn, wheat, oats, alfalfa and hogs. Trans- 
portation, W. F. & N. W. Ry. 

COLORADO COUNTY— County seat, Columbus; 
area, 948 square miles ;located in the costal plains, 
two counties removed from the Gulf of Mexico; cre- 
ated, 1836, organized, 1837. Surface, mostly level, 
few hills along streams; soil varies from sandy loam 
to black waxy and alluvial. Industries, live stock, 
farming, truck growing. Products, rice, sugar cane, 
cotton, corn, potatoes, all kinds of vegetables and 
fruits. Transportation, S. A. & A. P., G. C. & S. Fe, 
and the G. H. & S. A. Rys. Mineral resources, 
brick clay. Other towns. Eagle Lake, Weimer, Rock 
Island, Alleyton, Oakland, Matthews, Eldridge, 
Mentz and Bernado. 

COMAL COUNTY— County seat. New Braunfels; 
area, 569 square miles; situated in southwest Texas, 
north of San Antonio; created in 1846.Surface, brok- 



169 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



en in northern and western portions; southern por- 
tion level. Comal and Guadalupe Rivers well water 
the county. Soil varies from a stiff soil to a mellow 
loam. Industries, live stock, diversified farming, 
fruit growing. Products, cattle, farm crops, pears, 
plums, peaches. Mineral resources, limestone and 
brick clay. Good interest in public highways. Im- 
portant towns. New Branufels, Bracken and Hunter. 
Transportation, I. & G. N., and the M. K. & T. Rys., 
and an interurban. 

COMANCHE COUNTY— County seat, Comanche; 
area, 821 square miles; situated in north central 
Texas, southwest of Ft Worth; created, 1856. Sur- 
face, generally rolling, North and South Leon Rivers 
cross the county. Soil, sandy loam, black waxy and 
a black sandy. Industries, livestock, dairying, 
farming. Products, fine cattle, horses and mules, 
cotton, dairy products. Mineral resources, coal, oil 
and gas. Transportation, Ft W. & R. G. (Frisco), 
Stephensville North & South Texas (Cotton Belt), 
and the Texas Central Rys. Leading towns, Com- 
anche, DeLeon, Proctor, Snipe Springs, Hasse, Gus- 
tine, Lampkin, Comyl and Sydney. 

CONCHO COUNTY— County seat. Paint Rock; 
area, 941 square miles; situated near the geographic- 
al center of Texas; created in 1858 and organized, 
1859. Surface, varies from rough country with very 
fertile valleys in the southern half to rolling prairie 
in the northwest portion; soil varies from white 
sandy to dark rich alluvial. Industries, farming 
and fruit growing, some live stock raising. Pro- 
ducts, cotton, grains, feedstuffs and fruits — grapes, 
peaches, plums, pears. Transportation, Ft W. &. 
R. G. (Frisco), and G. C. & S. Fe Rys. Other towns, 
Eden, Eola, Millers View, Concho, Pasche and Ruth. 

COOKE COUNTY — County seat, Gainsville; area, 
1,000 square miles; located in north Texas on the Red 
River; created, 1848, organized, 1849. Surface, 
rolling prairie; soil, red alluvial, black waxy, gray 
loam. Industries, agricultural and live stock. Pro- 
ducts, wheat, corn, oats, feedstuff, including alfalfa, 
cotton, home cattle fruit and truck growing. Trans- 
portation, G. C. & S. Fe and the M. K. & T. Rys. 
Mineral resources, lime and sandstone, brick clay. 
Is a leader in good roads. Towns, Gainsville, Valley 
View, Windsor, Fair plains, Marysville, Muenster. 
Myra, Lindsey, Woodbine and Dexter. 

CORYELL COUNTY— County seat, Gatesville; 
area, 1,115 square miles; situated near the center of 
the state; created, 1854. Surface, much prairie, 
high rolling; soil, rich black, black rich sandy 
loam. Industries, farming, livestock, dairying poul- 
try raising. Products, corn, oats, wheat, alfalfa, 
millet, cotton, and dairy products, blooded cattle, 
horses, sheep, honey. Mineral resources, limestone. 
Transportation, St L. S. W., Temple & N. W., 
Stephensville North and South, and the G. C .& S. Fe 
Rys. Towns, Gatesville, Copperas Cove, Oglesby, 
Jonesboro, Turnersville, Evant, Pearl, Mound, Leon 
Junction and Levita. 

COTTLE COUNTY — County seat, Paducah; area, 
956 square miles; located in the southeast part of 
the Panhandle; created, 1879, organized, 1892. 
Surface, generally level, broken by the breaks of 
the Pease River on the west. Soil, black waxy, 
sandy loam. Industries, farming, cattle raising; 
products, cattle, cotton, grains, feedstuffs, fruits. 
Transportation, Quanah, Acme & Pacific Ry. 

CRANE COUNTY — Unorganized, hence no county 
seat ;area, 850 square miles; situated in west Texas 



with the Pecos River as its southern boundary; cre- 
ated, 1887. Surface, generally high, rolling prairie; 
soil, varies from a light gravel or sandy to a black 
sandy or chocolate. Industry. Cattle. Pvoducts, 
live stock, farming hardly introduced. No railroads. 

CROCKETT COUNTY— County seat, Ozona; area, 
3,004 square miles; situated in southwest Texas; cre- 
ated, 1875. Surface in northern portion, slightly 
rolling, southern and western, very rough, high hills, 
narrow valleys, canyons. Industry, cattle. Pro- 
ducts, live stock; only a few acres devoted to farm- 
ing. No railroads. 

CROSBY COUNTY— County seat, Crosbyton; 
area, 984 square miles; situated in the eastern tier of 
the Plains counties; created, 1876, organized, 1886. 
Surface, almost level; soil, red to a dark sandy loam. 
Industry, cattle raising, farming. Products, live 
stock, cotton, corn, maize, kaffir corn, alfalfa and 
small grains, some fruit for local use. Transpor- 
tation, Crosbyton South Plains Ry. Other towns, 
Emma, Estacado, Cone and Lorenza. 

CULBERSON COUNTY— County seat, Van Horn; 
area, 3,780 square miles; situated in west Texas, bor- 
dering El Paso county on the west and New Mexico 
on the north; organized, 1911. Surface, mountain- 
ous. Industry, cattle grazing. Transportation, T. 
& P. and the G. C. & S. Fe Rys. Mineral resources, 
white marble, valuable stone and various minerals 
undeveloped. 

DALLAM COUNTY— County seat, Dalhart; area, 
1,463 square miles; located in extreme northwest 
corner of the Panhandle, bordering Oklahoma and 
New Mexico; created, 1876, organized, 1891. Sur- 
face, generally level, broken along the south line by 
the Rito Blanco Canyon; soil alternates from a rich 
brown sandy loam to a hard land known as "tight" 
or mesquite land. Industries, live stock, princi- 
pally, some farming and horticultural interests. 
Transportation, Ft W. &. D., C. R. I. & G., and the 
Enid, Ochiltree & Western Rys. Leading towns, 
Dalhart, Texline, Corlena, Terico, Ware, Matlock, 
Chamberlain, Conlin and Hovey. 

DALLAS COUNTY— County seat, Dallas; area, 
900 square miles; located in north Texas, east of 
central; created, 1846 and organized the same year. 
Surface, mostly level, with rolling prairies in the 
northwestern portion, some rough lands along the 
streams; Trinity River crosses the county. Soil, 
sandy, sandy loam and black waxy, very productive. 
Industries, agricultural, dairying, livestock raising 
on farms, manufacturing in the city of Dallas. 
Products, cotton, corn, oats, wheat, forage, crops, 
dariy products, poultry products. Transportation, 
G. C. & S. Fe., St L. S. W., C. R. I. & G., T. & B. V., 
M. K. & T., H. & T. C, T. & N. O., T. & P., I. & G. 
N., St L. & S.Fe., Texas Traction Co., Northern 
Texas Traction Co., Southern Traction Co. and East- 
ern Texas Traction Co., Rys. Dallas county is a 
leader in construction of good roads, concrete high- 
ways. Dallas is the second city in the state in pop- 
ulation but commercially ranks first, being the 
greatest jobbing, distributing and manufacturing 
center in the southwest. It leads as an educational 
center, being the home of many schools, colleges 
and universities. It is the site for the Texas State 
Fair, the greatest institution of its kind in the Unit- 
ed States. Other towns in the county are, Lancaster, 
Hutchins, Garland, Richardson, Carrollton, Farmers 
Branch, Wilmer, Cedar Hill, Duncanville, Kleberg 
Grand Prairie and Irving. 



170 



COUNTIES 



DAWSON COUNTY— County seat, Lamesa; area, 
900 squai'e miles; situated on the Plains; created, 
1858; organized, 1905. Surface, generally level; soil, 
largely chocolate and sandy loam with clay founda- 
tion. Industry, stockraising, some farming. Pro- 
ducts, cattle, staple Panhandle crops, including cot- 
ton and fruits for home use. Transportation, Pecos 
& Northern Texas Ry. 

DEAF SMITH COUNTY— County seat, Hereford; 
area, 1,477 square miles; located in the panhandle, 
bordering New Mexico; created, 1876, organized, 
1890. Surface, a level plateau between 3,000 and 
4,000 ft. altitude; soil, red and gray sandy loam, with 
black loam in the bottoms. Industries, stockrais- 
ing, farming, truck. Products, cattle, hogs, sheep, 
sugar beets, melons, truck, apples, cherries, grapes, 
wheat, milo maize, kaffir corn and millet. Trans- 
portation, Pecos & Northern Texas Ry. (Santa Fe). 
Other towns, Joel and Dawn. 

DEWITT COUNTY— County seat, Cuero; area, 
266 square miles; situated in northwest Texas; crea- 
ted, 1870. Surface is undulating, generally high; 
soil, black loam, some sandy and gray land. Indus- 
tries, diversified farming, dairying, poultry and bee 
interests, some livestock growing. Products, cotton, 
corn, oats, alfalfa and other staples, peaches, dairy 
products, honey. Transportation, Texas Midland 
and the G. C. & S. Fe Rys. Other towns, Enloe, 
Pecan Gap, Horton, Lake Creek and Charleston. 

DENTON COUNTY— County seat, Denton; area, 
865 square miles; situated in north Texas, one coun- 
ty removed from the Red River, bordering Dallas and 
Tarrant counties on the south; created, 1846. Sur- 
face, gently rolling, soil black waxy, and mixture of 
sand and clay, and in the timber belt dark sandy 
loam with red clay sub soil. Many streams. Indus- 
tries, farming, stock and poultry raising. Products, 
grains, especially, then cotton, fruits, vegetables, 
field crops, beef and dairy cattle, hogs, sheep horses, 
mules. Denton is the site of the College of Indus- 
trial Arts and the North Texas Normal School. 
Transportation, T. & P., M. K. & T., G. C. & S. Fe, 
and the St L. & S. F. Rys. Principal towns, Denton, 
Pilot Point, Lewisville, Sanger, Krum, Aubrey and 
Justin. 

DEWITT COUNTY— County Seat, Cuero; area, 
880 square miles; situated in southwest Texas in 
the costal plains; created and organized, 1846. Sur- 
face, rolling; soil, dark sandy loam. The Guadalupe 
River flows across the county. Industries, truck 
and fruit farming, diversified farming, dairying, 
livestock breeding, poultry, especially turkey, man- 
ufacturing. Products, sugar cane, cotton, corn, sor- 
ghum and other forage crops, fine stock, figs, 
peaches, turkeys and other fowl. Transportation, 
S. A. & A. P., and G. H. & S. A. Rys. Other towns, 
Yorktown, Nordheim, Thomaston, Hocheim and 
Meyersville. 

DICKENS COUNTY — County seat, Dickens; 
area, 918 square miles; situated partially in the 
plains country; created, 1876, organized, 1891. Sur- 
face, generally rolling; soils vary, red, dark and 
chocolate sandy loam predominating. Industries, 
stock raising, farming, some fruit growing. Pro- 
ducts, cattle, cotton, peaches, grapes, apricots, plums. 
Transportation, Wichita Valley Ry. Mineral re- 
sources, megnesia, red and gray sandstone. Spur is 
another leading town in the county. 

DIMMIT COUNTY — County Carrizo Springs; 



area, 1,164 square miles; situated in southwest Tex- 
as; created, 1858, organized, 1880. Surface, gen- 
erally level; soil, varies from red sandy loam to black 
waxy. Industries, livestock, some fruit and truck, 
poultry and bees. Products, cattle, bermuda onions, 
figs, grapes, berries, honey. Transportation, Crys- 
tal City & Uvalde Ry. Other towns, Asherton, 
Bermuda, Big Wells, Brundage, Detonio, Las Vargas 
and Catarina. 

DONLEY COUNTY— County ' seat, Clarendon; 
area, 878 square miles; situated in the panhandle; 
created, 1876, organized, 1882. Surface, elevated 
plain which breaks off into small hills with valleys 
therewith, soil ranges from black waxy, chocolate, 
black sandy and red clay sand, to a special soil 
known as the Donley County loam, a dark soil 
which is mellow, deep and always moist. Industries, 
livestock, dairying, some farming. Products, fine 
cattle, horses, mules, sheep, dairy products, cotton. 
Transportation, Ft W. & D. C. and the C. R. I. & 0. 
Rys. Other towns, Hedley and Jerico. 

DUNN COUNTY— County seat— not organized; 
created, 1913 from Duval county, situated in south- 
west Texas. Surface, rolling and hilly. Livestock, 
farming and apiculture. Products, cattle, cotton, 
honey. Served by the Mexican National Ry. 

DUVAL COUNTY— County seat, San Diago; area, 
888 square miles; located in southwest Texas; crea- 
ted, 1858, organized, 1876. Surface, southeastern 
portion, in the Gulf plain; remainder of territory is 
rolling and hilly. Industries, stock raising, farming, 
apiculture. Products, cattle, horses, cotton, honey, 
corn and onions. Transportation, Texas-Mexican 

Ry. 

EASTLAND COUNTY— County seat, Eastland; 
area, 947 square miles; situated north of the central 
part of the state; created, 1858, organized, 1873. 
Surface, varied, part being broken and mountainous, 
part is level and rolling; soil,principally black, rich 
loam and black sandy. Industries, oil, live stock, 
farming, mining. Products, oil, livestock, cotton, 
feedstuff, apples, pears, plums, grapes, coal. Min- 
eral resources, coal, brick clay. Transportation, T. 
& P. and the T. C. Rys. Other towns. Ranger, Cis- 
co, Rising Star, Carbon and Gorman. 

ECTOR COUNTY— County seat, Odessa; area, 976 
square miles; situated in west Texas; created, 1887, 
organized, 1891. Surface, level; soil, chiefly sandy 
loam. Industries, livestock principally, farming in 
a small way. Transportation, T. & P. Ry. 

EDW^ARDS COUNTY — County seat, Rock 
Springs; area, 1,387 square miles, situated in South- 
west Texas, one county removed from the Rio 
Grande River; created, 1858, organized, 1881. Sur- 
face, rolling in northwest portion, southern half 
broken. Soil, black sticky in places, rock ground in 
others. Industry, stock raising. Products, goats, 
sheep. Mineral resources, silver, iron, sulphur, coal, 
and kaolin. No railroads. 

ELLIS COUNTY— County seat, Waxahachie; area 
1,066 square miles; situated in north central Texas; 
created, 1849, organized, 1850. Surface, generally 
level to rolling; soil, black waxy and black loam. 
Industries, farming, livestock. Products, cotton, al- 
falfa, corn, oats and other grains, feedstuff, fine, 
horses, hogs and cattle, fruits and vegetables for 
home use. Transportation, H. & T. C, Texas Mid- 
land, T. & B. v., M. K. & T., G. C. & S. Fe., I. & 
G. N., and the Dallas Southern Traction Co., Rys. 



171 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



Public highways up-to-date. Principal towns, Wax- 
ahachie, Ennis, Italy, Midlothian, Ferris, Palmer and 
Mil ford. 

EL PASO COUNTY— County seat. El Paso; area, 
5,573 square miles before Hudspeth county was 
made; situated in the extreme western part of Texas, 
it is bounded on the south by Old Mexico and on 
the north and west by New Mexico; created, 1850, 
organized, 1871. Surface, mountainous, broken by 
many canyons and valleys, and yet much level land 
also. Industries, stockraising, dairying, mining. 
Products, cattle, dairy products, finest grapes in the 
United States, peaches, plums, pears and apricots. 
Transportation, G. H. & S. A., T. & P., El P. &. S. 
W., A. T. & S. P., and the Mexican Central Lines, 
and an interurban between El Paso and Ysleta. 
Mineral resources, marble granite, copper, silver, 
lead, zinc, iron, gold, coal. 

ERATH COUNTY— County seat, Stephensville; 
area, 1,110 square miles; situated in central Texas; 
created in 1865. Surface, partly level, prairie lands, 
northern portion broken by hills of considerable al- 
titude as on the eastern border also. Soil varies 
from sandy loam to black and "tight" land and gray 
land. Industries, livestock and diversified farming, 
mining. Products, fine horses, beef cattle, hogs, 
dairy animals. Transportation, Ft W. & R. G. 
(Frisco), T. C, and the Stephensville North and 
South (Cotton Belt), Rys. Mineral resources, coal, 
limestone, sandstone, brick clay. Public highways 
are gradually becoming improved. Principal towns, 
Stephensville, Dublin, Thurber, Bluffdale and Alex- 
ander. 

FALLS COUNTY— County seat, Marlin; area, 
844 square miles; situated in the central part of the 
state; created and organized, 1850. Surface, level, 
slightly undulating, few hills; soil, black waxy, gray 
sandy and deep alluvial. Industries, farming, stock- 
raising, fruit growing, apiculture. Products, cotton 
and alfalfa, swine, peaches, pears, apricots, figs and 
honey. Transportation, I. & G. N., H. & T. C, S. A. 
& A. P., and the M. K. & T. Rys. Excellent public 
highways. Marlin is famed for its mineral wells. 
Other towns, Rosebud, Lott, Chilton, Travis and 
Reagan. 

FANNIN COUNTY— County seat, Bonham; area, 
940 square miles; situated in north Texas, bordering 
the Red River; created, 1837, organized, 1838. Sur- 
face, high and rolling; soil, black waxy, reddish 
brown alluvial. Industries, farming, fruit growing, 
stock raising. Products, small gain, corn, cotton, 
alfalfa, and forage crops, fruits, vegetables, fine 
stock. Transportation, T. & P., M. K. & T., St L. 
S. W., and the G. C. & S. Fe Rys. Towns, Bonham, 
Honey Grove, Ladonia, Leonard, Trenton, Dodd City, 
Savoy and Ravenna. 

FAYETTE COUNTY— County seat, LaGrange; 
area, 992 square miles; situated in south central 
Texas; created in 183 7, organized in 1838. One 
half of the surface area is rolling prairie; soil, 
black loam, black lime, chocolate loam, sandy loam, 
stiff black waxy, gray sandy with some gravel. In 
dustries, stock-farming, diversified farming, dairy- 
ing, poultry interests. Products, fine stock, cotton, 
corn, all forms of truck, pears, plums, figs, berries, 
poultry. Transportation, M. K. & T., G. H. & S. A., 
S. A. & A. P., and the H. & T. C. Rys. Mineral re- 
sources, lignite and valuable clays. Towns, La 
Grange, Schulenberg, Flatonia, Fayetteville, Car- 
mine, Ledbetter, Winchester and Ellinger. 



FISHER COUNTY— County seat, Roby; area 83 6 
square miles; situated in central west Texas; di- 
rectly west of Dallas and Ft. Worth; created 1876, 
organized 1886. Surface, partly rolling, partly level 
with a fey mountains in northern portion, drained 
by the Brazos River. Soil, red candy, alluvial, and 
sandy loam. Industries, stock raising, farming. Pro- 
ducts, cattle, cotton, corn, peanuts, maize, sorghum, 
kaffir corn, vegetables and fruits. Transportation, 
K. C. M. & 0., Estacado & Gulf, T. C, T. & P. and 
the G. C. & S. F. Rys. Mineral resources, gypsum, 
sandstone. Other towns, Rotan, McCauley, Syl- 
vester, Royston, Bernecker and Gongsworth. 

FLOYD COUNTY— County seat, Floydada; area 
1,03 6 square miles; situated in the Texas Plains, 
created 187 6, organized 1890. Surface, slightly 
rolling; soil, sandy loam. Leading industries, stock- 
raising, farming. Products, cattle, wheat, feedstuff, 
cotton, grains, fruit for home use. Transportation, 
P. & N. T. Ry. Good roads. 

FOARD COUNTY— County seat, Crowell; area, 
63 6 square miles; situated in the lower Panhandle; 
created, 1891. Surface, level with some rolling and 
slightly broken; soil, one-third of the prairies, sandy, 
remainder, clay and loam, very productive. Indus- 
tries, livestock, farming, fruit growing. Products, 
cattle, cotton, wheat, grains of various kinds, fruits, 
peaches, plums, grapes. Transportation, K. C. M. & 
O. Ry. Mineral resources, copper and "silver in small 
quantities. Roads naturally good, well eared for. 
Towns, Foard City, Thalia, Rayland and Margarete. 

FORT BEND COUNTY— County seat, Richmond; 
area, 897 square miles; situated in the coast coun- 
try; created 1837, organized same year. Surface, 
level; soil, alluvial, black hog-wallow, and some 
sandy loam, all very fertile. Industries, livestock, 
farming, fruit growing, poultry and dairy interests. 
Products, livestock, rice, cotton, corn, sugar cane, 
figs, peaches, pears, citrus fruit. Transportation, 
G. H. & S. A., G. C. & S. F., S. A. & A. P., M. K. & 
T., I. & G. N., New York, Texas and Mexican & Su- 
garland Rys. Natural resources, gas, brick clay, 
pottery clay. Excellent public highways. Other 
towns, Rosenburg, Fulshear, Sugarland, Missouri 
City, Thompson, Needville, Beasley and Orchard. 

FRANKLIN COUNTY— County seat, Mt. Vernon; 
area, 3 25 square miles; situated in northeast Texas; 
created, 1875. Surface, mostly level; soil, varies 
from light sandy loam to black waxy. Industries, 
diversified farming, fruit and truck growing, some 
livestock. Products, all staple crops produce heav- 
ily, potatoes, tomatoes, melons, peaches, fine hor- 
ses, cattle and hogs. Transportation, St. L. S. W., 
M. K. & T. Other towns, Cookville, Wingfield, Mon- 
ticello and Bly. 

FREESTONE COUNTY— County seat, Fairfield; 
area, 947 square miles; situated in east central 
Texas; created 1850, organized 1851. Surface, 
eastern and southern portions, moderately rolling, 
remainder comparatively level. Soil, dark loam, 
some black waxy, sandy, chocolate and dark loam. 
Industries, agricultural, horticultural and stock 
raising. Products, oil, cotton, corn, peanuts, oats, 
general forage crops, peaches, plums, summer apples 
and berries, live stock. In 19 21 a great oil field 
was discovered in Freestone county which is be- 
ing rapidly developed and Wortham is the center 
of these activities. Transportation, T. & B. V., H. & 
T. C, and the I. & G. N. Natural resources, gray 
and blue granite, soft sandstone, brick and fire 



172 



COUNTIES 



clay. Good highways. Towns, Fairfield, Teagiie, 
Wortham and Kirvin. 

FRIO COUNTY— County Seat, Pearsall; area, 
1,0 C 4 square miles; located in southwest Texas; 
created 1S58, organized 1871. Surface, rolling; soil 
mostly sandy loam. Industries, livestock, truck and 
diversified farming. Products, cotton, melons, on- 
ions, honey, cattle. Transportation, I. & G. N. Ry. 
Other towns, Dilly and Moore. 

GAINES COUNTY— County Seat, Seminole; area 
1,590 square miles; situated in west Texas, south 
of the staked plains; created 1876, organized 1906. 
Surface, rolling; traversed by several draws; soil, 
mainly of upland sandy loam. Industry, livestock 
chiefly, some farming and fruit growing. Products, 
corn, milo maize, kaffir corn, sorghum, other staple 
Panhandle crops, home fruits. Transportation, no 
railroads. 

GALVESTON COUNTY— County seat, Galveston; 
area 438 square miles; situated on the Gulf Coast, 
80 miles southwest of the Louisiana border; cre- 
ated 1838, organized 1839, Surface, level; slight 
slope toward Galveston Bay and Gulf of Mexico; 
soil, deep sandy loam. Industries, truck farming, 
livestock raising, fruit growing, dairy and poultry 
business, dredging of road shell from Galveston Bay. 
Products, citrus fruit, figs, strawberries, melons, 
cantaloupes, dairy products, shell from Galveston 
Bay for road making. Transportation, G. H. & S. A. 
G. H. & H., G. C. & S. F., I. & G. N., M. K. & T., T. 
& B. v., St. L. B. & M., Gulf & Interstate, (Santa Fe) 
G. & W., Galveston-Houston Interurban and the 
Frisco system Rys. Its chief city and county seat, 
Galveston, is one of the great deep waterports of 
the U. S., ranking next to New York in importance 
of its commerce. It is the first exporting cotton 
market in the world and has high rank in the fish 
and oyster industry. Great strides in highway con- 
struction. Other towns of the county, Texas City, 
Port Bolivar, Dickenson, League City, Lamarque, 
Algoa, Arcadia, Hitchcock and Friendswood. 

GARZA COUNTY— County seat. Post City; area, 
821 square miles; situated in the foothills of the 
Plains; created 1876, organized 1907. Surface, 
50per cent level, 40 per cent rolling, 10 per cent 
hilly; soils vary from a tight dark chocolate with a 
clay foundation to red catclaw sandy loam. Indus- 
tries, stock rais.ing, farming. Products, cattle, cot- 
ton, forage stuffs, peaches, plums, grapes, berries. 
Transportation, G. C. & S. F. Ry. 

GILLESPIE COUNTY— County seat, Fredricks- 
burg; area, 1,140 square miles; lies in southwest 
Texas, west of Austin; created and organized, 1848. 
Surface, equally divided between hilly, rolling and 
level land; soil on level land, principally black waxy, 
on uplands, gray sandy loam, in valleys, black 
sandy loam. Industries, live stock raising leads, 
dairying following with farming ranking last. Pro- 
ducts, cattle, cotton, wheat, oats, corn, sorg-hum, 
milo maize, Irish potatoes, dairy products, peaches, 
pears, plums, grapes. Transportation, Fredericks- 
burg & Waring Ry. Mineral resources, iron, zinc, 
copper, asbestos, lead and graphite, limestone, gran- 
ite, sandstone and soapstone. Considerable interest 
in good roads. 

GLASSCOCK COUNTY — County seat. Garden 
City; area, 952 square miles; situated at the foot of 
the plains; created, 1887, organized, 1893. Surface, 
mostly level, slightly broken in eastern section; soil. 



sandy loam, dark, chocolate colored loam. Indus- 
tries, grazing of cattle, some farming and fruit grow- 
ing. Products, cattle, home fruit and vegetables. 
No railroads. 

GOLIAD COUNTY— County seat, Goliad; area, 
817 square miles; located in southwest Texas, one 
county removed from the Gulf; an original county 
of Texas, organized in 1837. Surface, slightly un- 
dulating; soil, black sandy loam, alluvial, light san- 
dy. Industries, live stock, farming, swine breeding. 
Transportation, G. H. & S. A. Ry. Products, fine 
live stock, cotton and corn, grapes, figs, peaches 
and pairs. Important towns other than Goliad, Ber- 
clair, Charco, Fannin, Weser and Weesatche. 

GONZALES COUNTY— County seat, Gonzales; 
area, 1,079 square miles; a southwest Texas coast 
county; organized, 1837. Surface, generally rolling; 
soil, dark, gray sandy loam, rich black land. In- 
dustries, diversified farming, livestock raising. Pro- 
ducts, cotton, corn, cane, oats, potatoes, onions, 
melons, peaches, pears, plums, small fruit. Trans- 
portation, S. A. & A. P., and the G. H. & S. A. Rys. 
Natural resources, sandstone and Kaolin, gas was 
discovered and is being developed. Lively interest 
in good roads. Other towns, Waelder, Harwood, 
Slayden, Nixon, Smiley, Pierson and Cranz. 

GRAY COUNTY— County seat, Lefors; area, 860 
square miles; located in the northwestern part of the 
Panhandle, created, 1876, organized, 1902. Surface, 
in the north and west, level, with hills and fertile 
valleys in the south and east; soil, varies from dark 
chocolate and sandy to dark and light sandy. Indus- 
tries, diversified farming, livestock raising. Pro- 
ducts, alfalfa, cotton, wheat, melons, apples, peaches, 
berries, cattle. Transportation, Southern Kansas of 
Texas (Santa Fe), C. R. I. & G. Rys. Other towns, 
McLean, Pamper, Alanreed. 

GRAYSON COUNTY — County seat, Sherman; 
area, 1,012 square miles; situated in north Texas, 
bordering the Red River, created and organized, 
1846. Surface, level, soil, black waxy, black and 
gray sandy loam. Industries, diversified farming, 
farm crops, fine horses, cattle, hogs, dairy products, 
cattle breeding, dairying, poultry. Products, staple 
Transportation, Texas Traction Co., M. K. & T., St L. 
S. W., St L. S. F., Denison & Pacific Suburban, 
Denison, Bonham, New Orleans, G. C. & S. F., H. & 
T. C, M. 0. & G. and the T. & P. Rys Natural re- 
sources, gas, with indications of oil. Lively interest 
in public highways. Other cities of the county, 
Denison, Whitewright, Van Alstyne, Whitesboro, 
Colmesneil, Howe, Bells, Pottsboro and Tioga. 

GREGG COUNTY— County seat, Longview; area, 
287 square miles; located in northwest Texas; crea- 
ted and organized, 1873. Surface, mostly undulat- 
ing, some broken and hilly sections; soil varies in 
forms of light gray, mulatto soils, chocolate and 
stiff black soils, while the upland soil is impregnated 
with iron. Industries, farming, fruit growing, lum- 
bering, poultry and mining interests. Products, 
all kinds of east Texas fruits and truck for outside 
markets, hardwood and pine. Transportation, I. & 
G. N., T. & P., G. C. & S. F., Port Boliver Iron Ore, 
and Brown's Lumber Rys. Mineral resources, lig- 
nite and iron, brick and potter clay, indications of oil 
and gas. Good roads. Other towns, Gladwater, 
Kingore. 

GRIMES COUNTY — County seat, Anderson; 
area, 770 square miles; located in south central 



173 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



Texas, created and organized, 1846. Surface, hilly 
in the western and central parts, rolling in the re- 
mainder with much level land; soil varies from black 
sandy to gray sandy. Industries, lumbering, gen- 
eral farming, truck and fruit growing, livestock 
raising, dairying, poultry interests. Products, oak 
and gum wood, hardwood, cotton and corn, potatoes, 
all kinds of truck, fine cattle. Transportation, I. & 
G. N., G. C. & S. F., H. & T. C, and T. & B. V. Rys. 
Other towns, Navasota, Bedias, Shaird,Stoneham, 
Roans prairie, Dobbin. 

GUADALUPE COUNTY— County seat, Seguin; 
area, 717 square miles; located in south central part 
of Texas, created and organized, 1846. Surface, 
level in the southern portion, hilly in the northern 
part; soil, black loam, sandy loam and white sand. 
Industries, diversied farming, live stock raising, 
truck growing. Products, cotton, oats, corn, water- 
melons, pecans, early truck, small fruit. Transpor- 
tation, G. H. & S. A. Ry. Natural resources, brick 
clay, coal, traces of oil and gas. Interest in good 
roads. Other towns, Marion and Kingsbury. 

HALE COUNTY— County seat, Plainview; area, 
1,036 square miles; situated in the Plains, created, 
1876, organized, 1888. Surface, generally level, soil, 
chocolate and sandy loam. Industries, live stock, 
farming, horticulture. Products, maize, kaffir corn, 
millet, cotton, corn, wheat, oats, sorghum, fruits, 
vegetables, apples. Transportation, P. & N. T. Ry. 
Naturally good roads. Other towns. Hale Center, 
Abernathy, Petersburg, Running Water, Ellen and 
Norfleet. 

HALL COUNTY— County seat, Memphis; area, 
868 square miles; situated in the northwestern part 
of the Panhandle, created, 1876, organized, 1890. 
Surface rolling, with hills occasionally; soils vary 
from black sandy to red sandy loam. Industries, 
diversified farming, fruit growing, livestock indus- 
try. Products, Panhandle staples, alfalfa, cotton, 
sorghum, cow peas, peanuts, melons and truck, 
peaches, apples, other fruit. Transportation, Ft W. 
& D. C, Altus, Roswell & El Paso Rys. Mineral 
resources, brick clay. Other towns, Newlin and 
Estelling. 

HAMILTON COUNTY— County seat, Hamilton; 
area, 858 square miles; situated in north central 
Texas, west of Waco; created and organized 1858. 
Surface, rolling; soil, black waxy and chocolate va- 
rieties mixed with sand. Industries. diversified 
farming, fruit growing, live stock. Products, cotton, 
corn, wheat, oats, other field crops, peaches, plums, 
pears, apricots, forage crops, cattle, horses, sheep. 
Transportation, St. L. S. W., Stephensville North 
& South Texas, T. C. Rys. Other towns, Hico, Carl- 
ton, Pottsville and Fairy. 

HANSFORD COUNTY— County seat, Hansford; 
area, S60 square miles; situated in the north tier 
of counties of the Panhandle; created 187 6, organ- 
ized 1S89. Surface, level except along streams; 
soil, black sandy loam. Industry, cattle raising, 
general farming, fruit growing, poultry industry. 
Products, Panhandle staples, wheat, peaches, apples, 
plums, grapes, cherries. No railroads. 

HARDEMAN COUNTY— County seat, Quanah; 
area, 53 2 square miles; situated in northwest Texas 
bordering the Panhandle proper with Oklahoma on 
the north; created 1858, organized 1894. Surface 
level except the extreme south line, mountainous; 
soil, sandy loam underlaid with gypsum, with con- 
siderable black land in the valleys. Industries, 



agriculture and stock raising. Products, wheat, 
corn, cotton, honey, cattle, horses, hogs. Trans- 
portation, Ft. W. & D. C, St. L. & S. F., K. C. M, 
& 0. and Quanah Acme & Pacific Rys. Mineral re- 
sources, gypsum rock. Other towns, Chillicothe, 
Evans, Hazel, Acme and Goodlet. 

HARDIN COUNTY— County seat, Kuntz; area, 
844 square miles; located in southeast Texas; one 
county removed from the Gulf; created and or- 
ganized 1868. Surface, generally level, some hills 
in the eastern portion. Soil, light sandy loam, black 
waxy. Industries, lumbering, livestock raising, 
truck farming', oil. Products, lumber, hardwood and 
pine, cattle, oil, various early truck. Transporta- 
tion, G. C. & S. F., T. & N. O., Beaumont, Soui 
Lake & Western Rys. Good roads. Other towns, 
Silsbee, Saratoga, Batson, Honey Island, Village. 

HARRIS COUNTY— County seat, Houston; area, 
1,7 61 square miles; situated in the coastal plains, 
bordering Galveston Bay on the south, one of the 
original counties of the gtate, organized, 1837 
Surface, level, gently rolling, traversed by numer- 
ous creeks and bayous. Industries, lumber, rice, 
farming, livestock, oil. Products, pine, and various 
timbers, rice, dairy products, all kind of south 
Texas early truck and fruit, oil. Transportation, G. 
H. & S. A., T. & N. O., H. & T. C, H. E. & W. T., 
G. H. & H., M. K. & T., I. & G. N., T. & B. V., St. L. 
B. & M., S. L. & W., S. A. & A. P. and the Galveston- 
Houston Interurban Rys. Natural resources, one of 
Texas' leading oil fields, brick clay. This county 
is a leader in paved public highways. Houston is 
the third city in size in Texas, is a leader in com- 
mercial activity and as an educational center, 
being the Home of the Rice Institute, one of the 
highest type universities on the American Conti- 
nent. Other cities and towns of this county, Hock- 
ley, Westfield, Lynchburg, Harrisburg, Houston 
Heights, Katy, Webster and Genoa. 

HARRISON COUNTY County seat, Marshall; 

area, 8 7.3 square miles; situated in northeast Texas, 
bordering Louisiana; created 1839, organized 1842. 
Surface, eastern portion, rolling, well drained, west- 
ern section somewhat broken. Industries, diversi- 
fied farming, fruit growing. Products, peaches, 
plums, apples, pears, berries, pecans, native hickory 
nuts, cotton, potatoes, truck, fine cattle along with 
the farming. Transportation, T. & P., M. K. & T., 
M. & E. T. Rys. Iron, lignite, deposits; sandstone, 
brick clay and glass sand and natural gas for home 
use among natural resources. Good roads. Other 
towns, Hallsville, Harleton, Waskom. 

HARTLEY COUNTY— County seat, Channing, 
area, 1,460 square miles; situated in northwest 
Panhandle, bordering New Mexico; created 1876, 
organized 1891. Surface, level plain, breaking off 
into abrupt canyons; soil varies from loose and 
sandy to dark and chocolate loam. Industries, stock 
raising, swine industry, diversified farming. Pro- 
ducts, cattle, forage crops, apples, cherries, pears. 
Transportation, Ft. W. & D. C, C. R. I. & G., and the 
Enid Ochiltree & Western Rys. Other towns. Hart- 
ley, Romero, Middlewater. 

HASKELL COUNTY— County seat, Haskell; area, 
843 square miles; situated in northwest Texas; cre- 
ated 1858, organized 1886. Surface, level, small 
part rocky; soil varies from a gray to black and 
chocolate loam. Industries, livestock, diversified 
farming. Products, cattle, forage crops, melons, 
sweet potatoes, truck, cotton, peaches, plums. 



174 



COUNTIES 



grapes. Transportation, Wichita Valley, K. C. M. 
& O., and the Stamford & Northwestern Rys. Min- 
eral resources, limestone. Other towns, Rule, Sag- 
erton, Rochester, Weinert. 

HAYS COUNTY— County seat, San Marcos; area, 
6 47 square miles; situated in south central Texas, 
between San Antonio and Austin. Created and 
organized, 1S48. Surface, hilly and broken in nor- 
thern section, rolling prairie in southern and east- 
ern portions; soil, black waxy, chocolate-colored loam 
predominating, alluvial soil in creek bottoms. In- 
dustries, farming, fruit growing, livestock. Pro- 
ducts, alfalfa, forage crops, cotton, cattle. Trans- 
portation, I. & G. N., M. K. & T. Rys. Excellent 
roads. Other towns, Buda Kvle, Dripping Springs. 

HEMPHILL COUNTY— County seat, Canadian; 
area, 8 60 square miles; situated in the Panhandle; 
created 1878, organized 1887. Surface, generally 
rolling, some plains; soil, deep black, reddish sandy 
loam. Industry, stockraising, general farming. 
Products, cattle, broom corn, wheat, maize, alfalfa, 
fruits. Transportation, Southern Kansas of Texas 
Ry. (Santa Fe). Other towns, Isaacs, Mendota, Gla- 
cier. 

HENDERSON COUNTY— County seat. Athens; 
area, 9 49 square miles; situated in East Texas, be- 
tween the Trinity and Neches Rivers, about fifty 
miles southeast of Dallas; created and organized, 
184 6. Surface, generally level, slightly broken; 
soil, generally sandy. Industries, lumbering, fruit 
growing, farming, livestock raising. Products, lum- 
ber, corn, cotton, potatoes, melons, truck, peaches, 
fine horses, jacks and mules. Transportation, St. 
L. S. W., and the T. & N. O. Rys. Mineral re- 
sources, iron ore and lignite, brick clay. Other 
towns. Chandler, Malakoff, Eustace, LaRue, Browns- 
boro, Murchison, Trinidad. 

HIDALGO COUNTY— County seat, Edinburg; 
area, 1,58 3 square miles; situated in southwest 
Texas, bordering the Rio Grande, one county re- 
moved from the Gulf of Mexico; created and or- 
ganized, 1852. Surface, generally level; soil, deep 
black sandy loam, to a lighter loam. Industries, 
irrigated farming near the river, truck, poultry, 
stock grazing, fruit growing. Products, sugar cane, 
cotton, corn, alfalfa, sorghum, Egyptian wheat, on- 
ions, cabbage, figs, oranges, lemons, honey. Trans- 
portation, St. L. B. & M., S. A. & R. G. V. Rys. 
Other towns, Mercedes, McAllen, Mission, and Gar- 
ner. 

HILL COUNTY— County seat, Hillsboro; area, 
106 square miles; situated in north central Texas; 
created 1853, organized, 18 54. Surface, undulating, 
with some rugged hills skirting the Brazos River 
on the West; considerable level land; soil, black 
waxy, dark and gray sandy. Industries, farming, 
live stock, fruit, poultry. Products, cotton, corn, 
oats, peaches, pears, grapes, every breed of fine 
poultry. Transportation, M. K. & T., St. L. S. W., 
T. & B. v., G. C. S. & S. F., T. C, I. & G. N. Rys. 
and the Southern Traction Ry. Improving roads 
lately. Other towns, Hubbard City, Blum, Whitney 
Itasca, Malone, Bynum. 

HOCKLEY COUNTY— County seat, unorganized; 
area, 9 77 square miles; situated in the plains, cre- 
ated 1876. Surface, level; industry, cattle. Trans- 
portation, Pecos & Northern Texas Ry., across the 
northern section. 

HOOD COUNTY— County seat, Granbury; area, 
436 square miles; situated in north central Texas; 



created and organized 1886. Surface, broken by 
gently rolling hills and valleys; soil, black loam in 
river bottoms, in timber land, light sandy soil. In- 
dustries, livestock, poultry, dairying. Products, cat- 
tle, wheat, cotton, oats, hay, corn, dairy products, 
some fruits for home use. Transportation, Ft. W. 
& R. G. (Frisco), G. C. & S. F. Rys. Other towns, 
Thorp Springs, Tolar, Waples and Creeson. 

HOPKINS COUNTY— County seat. Sulphur 
Springs; area, 666 square miles; situated in north- 
east Texas, created and organized, 1S46. Surface, 
level; soil, sandy to black waxy with a good deal of 
black loam. Industries, agriculture, horticulture, 
fruit growing, breeding of fine stock, poultry in- 
terests. Products, cotton, grain crops, hay, peas, 
sorghum. Alberta peaches, plums, apples, honey. 
Transportation, M. K. & T. and St. L. S. W. Rys. 
Mineral resources, lignite, traces of oil Fine roads. 
Other towns, Cumby, Como, Sulphur Bluff, Birth- 
right, Brashear, Picton, Reily Springs and Ridge- 
way. 

HOUSTON COUNTY— County seat, Crockett; 
area, 1,19 2 square miles; situated in east central 
Texas, created and organized, 1837. Surface, un- 
dulating, with large stretches of level prairie. 
Soils vary from black waxy to black sandy, light 
sandy and Orangeburg loams. Industries, lumber- 
ing, farming, fruit growing, poultry. Products, lum- 
ber, tobacco, pears, figs, peaches, plums, apples. 
Breeding of fancy fowls. Ti'ansportation, I. & G. 
N., B. & G. N. and Eastern Texas Rys. Mineral 
resources, iron ore, lignite coal, red sandstone, lime- 
rock and granite, shale clay, green marie, gray plas- 
tic clays. Other towns, Lovelady, Kennard City, 
Grapeland, Ratcliff, Augusta, Weldon and Hally. 

HOWARD COUNTY— County seat, Big Springs; 
area, 888 square miles; located in west Texas, cre- 
ated, 1876, organized 1882. Surface rolling in 
southern portion, level in northern section, central 
and western hilly. Industries, stock raising, dairy- 
ing, farming. Products, west Texas staples, peaches 
plums, melons, cattle. Transportation, T. & P. Ry. 
Mineral resources, white stone. Towns, Coahoma, 
Morita, Bisco, Soash and Vincent. 

HUNT COUNTY— County seat, Greenville; area, 
888 square miles; located in north Texas; created 
and organized 1846. Surface, high and rolling, 
much prairie land in southern and middle sections. 
Soil, black waxy, black sandy, light loams. Indus- 
tries, diversified farming, fine stock, apiculture, 
poultry. Products, cotton, corn, sugar cane, alfalfa, 
oats, berries, melons, grapes, peaches, pears, apples, 
and honey, fine poultry. Transportation, St. L. S. 
W., M. K. & T., Texas Midland, G. C. & S. F. and 
East Texas Traction Co. Rys. Other towns. Com- 
merce, Celeste, Wolfe City and Lone Oak. 

HUDSPETH COUNTY— Created 1917, from El 
Paso County; still unorganized; located in extreme 
west Texas, bounded by New Mexico on the north 
and the Rio Grande on the south. Surface, moun- 
tainous in the southern part, rolling in the north; 
industry, chiefly cattle grazing. Transportation, 
T. & P. and the G. H. & S. A. Rrys. Chief towns, 
Sierra Blanca, Taza, Clayton, Eagle Flat, Torcer, 
Harris, Ft. Hancock, Iser. 

HUTCHINSON COUNTY— County seat, Plemons; 
area, 850 square miles; situated in northern part of 
Panhandle, created, 1876, organized, 1901. Sur- 
face rolling in southern part, northen portion, 
smooth, level plain; soils vary from light sandy to 



175 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



a dark sandy loam, and on the plains, rich darK 
sandy from three to fifteen feet deep, black waxy 
variety near the creeks. Industry, livestock raising, 
diversified farming limited. Products, usual Pan- 
handle staples. No railroads. Mineral resources, 
limestone. 

IRION COUNTY— County seat, Sherwood; area, 
800 square miles, situated in west central Texas; 
created and organized 1889. Surface, broken by 
low ranges of mountains and hills, many rich val- 
leys; soils, various, with sandy loam predominating. 
Industry, live stock, slight farming. Products, for- 
age crops and cattle. Transportation, K. C. M. & O. 
Ry. Other towns, Mertzon, Barnhart. 

JACK COUNTY— County seat, Jacksboro; area, 
858 square miles; located in North Texas, northwest 
of Ft. Worth, one county removed from the Red 
River. Created, 18 5 6, organized 1857. Surface, 
about one-half level, one-fourth rolling, remainder 
hilly; soils, deep sandy loams, black, red, and some 
black mesquite land; sub-soil is red and yellow clay. 
Industry, cattle raising, dairying, agriculture, horti- 
culture, some mining, poultry raising. Products, 
cotton, peaches, plums, apples, grapes, apricots and 
various berries, coal, beside cattle, the chief product. 
Transportation, C. R. I. & G., and the G. T. & W. 
Rys. Mineral resources, coal oil, iron, building 
stone, marble, granite, brick clay. Other towns, 
Bryson, Vineyard, Gibtown and Antelope. 

JACKSON COUNTY— County seat, Edna; area, 
888 square miles; located in south Texas, bordering 
Matagorda Bay; organized, 183 7. Surface, level, 
with gentle slope toward the Gulf; soil, light sandy, 
dark loam, some black waxy. Industries, truck 
farming, general farming, livestock, fruit growing. 
Products, cotton, corn, sorghum, staples, immense 
herds of cattle, figs, melons, vegetables. Trans- 
portation, G. H. & S. A. and the St. L. B. & M. 
Rys. Other towns, Ganado, Navidad, El Toro and 
Lolita. 

JASPER COUNTY— County seat, Jasper; area, 
977 square miles; located in east Texas; organized 
1837. Surface, level in southern part, slightly roll- 
ing in the center; soil, sandy loam, black waxy and 
a special soil known as Orangeburg soil. Industrie? 
fruit growing, truck farming, diversified farming, 
livestock. Products, peaches, figs, berries, tobacco. 
Transportation, G. C. & S. F., Jasper & East Texas, 
T. & N. 0. and the O. & N. W. (Frisco) Rys. Towns 
Kirbyville, Bessmay, Roganville, Bunna, Browndell, 
Rimlig and Evandale. 

JEFF DAVIS COUNTY— County seat. Ft. Davis; 
area, 1,922 square miles; located in west Texas, 
touching the Rio Grande at its extreme western 
point. Created and organized, 1887. Surface mostly 
hilly and mountainous, some level and valley land. 
Industry, cattle, some forage crops. Products, live 
stock, alfalfa, home fruits. Transportation, G. H. 
& S. A. Ry. IVJineral resources, indications of cin- 
nabar from which quicksilver is made, copper, silver 
and other deposits but little developed. Other towns 
Valentine. 

JEFFERSON COUNTY— County seat, Beaumont; 
area, 1,109 square miles; situated in southeast Texas 
bordering on Gulf of Mexico on the south and on 
Louisiana on the east. Organized, 183 7. Surface 
generally level; soil, largely black clay loam, black 
sandy loam, chocolate and pine sand land. Indus- 
tries, livestock, rice, fruit and truck growing, farm- 
ing, oil. Products, cotton, rice, fig, plum and pear 



orchards, strawberries, oil. This county and terri- 
tory is one of Texas' chief oil fields, being brought 
in in 1901. Transportation, B. S. L. & W. (Frisco), 
T. & N. O., K. C. S., G. C. & S. F .Rys., An 
electric line between Beaumont and Port Arthur. 
Good roads. Towns, Port Arthur, one of the deep 
water ports of Texas, Sabine Pass, Port Neches and 
Sabine. 

JIM HOGG COUNTY— County seat, Hebbronville; 
area, 1,099 square miles; located in southwestern 
Texas; created and organized, 1913. A description 
of resources, climate, etc., is included in the sketches 
of Brooks and Duval counties, of which it was for- 
merly a part. 

JIM WELLS COUNTY— County seat, Alice; area, 
868 square miles; located in the west Gulf coast 
country; created, 1910, organized, 1911. Surface, 
almost level, well drained; industry, livestock, some 
farming with fruit growing. Products, cattle, for- 
age crops, a little cotton and corn, fruit and vege- 
tables, honey. Transportation, Texas-Mexican and 
the S. A. & A. P. ys. Towns, Sandia, Tremont, Al- 
fred, Orange Grove and Magnolia. 

JOHNSON COUNTY— County seat,, Cleburne; 
area, 7 44 square miles; situated in north central 
Texas; created and organized 1874. Surface, high 
and rolling in western part, middle area timber belt, 
remainder level black land. Soils, rich and black, 
some sandy land. Industry, diversified farming, 
fruit growing, ranching, poultry interests. Products 
cotton, corn, oats, hay, peanuts, potatoes, melons, 
peaches, plums, pears, grapes, persimmons, cherries, 
figs, various berries, live stock, dairy products, poul- 
try. Transportation, G. C. & S. F., M. K. & T., T. 
& B. v., I. & G. N. and the Southern Traction Co. 
of Ft. Worth, Rys., Other towns, Alvarado, Grand- 
view, Rio Vista, Venus, Burleson, Godley, Joshua, 
Lillian, Keen and Cresson. 

JONES COUNTY— County seat, Anson; area, 900 
square miles; located northwest of the geographical 
center of the state, five counties west of Tarrant 
county; created 1858, organized 1881. Surface, 
rolling; soil, black and chocolate, sandy, varied. In- 
dustry, stock raising, some farming with small or- 
chards, poultry slight. Products, cattle, cotton, for- 
age crops mostly, fruits for home use. Transporta- 
tion, W. v., T. C. and the Abilene & Southern Rys. 
Mineral deposits, limestone. Other towns, Stamford 
Hamlin, Avoca, Lueders, Halley and Tuxedo. 

KARNES COUNTY— County seat, Karnes City; 
area, 7 40 square miles; located in southwest Texas; 
created and organized 1S54. Surface, largely roll- 
ing, some level and some hilly territory; soils vary 
from a black waxy to a sandy loam. Industries, 
cattle raising, diversified farming, apiculture. Pro- 
ducts, cattle, forage crops, some truck, honey. 
Transportation, S. A. & A. P. Ry. Mineral resour- 
ces, copper, phosphate and gold, discovered but not 
developed, sand stone, pottery and brick clay m 
abundance, natural gas in the southern part. Other 
towns, Runge, Kennedy, Falls City, Green, Helena 
and Panamario. 

KAUFMAN COUNTY— County seat, Kaufman; 
area, 932 square miles; situated in northeast Texas, 
east of Dallas; created and organized 1848. Sur- 
face, slightly rolling prairie; soil, black, tenacious 
limeland, a dark loam, red sandy and gray sandy. 
Industries, farming, poultry, truck and fruit grow- 
ing. Products, cotton, corn, fruits, vegetables. 
Transportation, T. & P., Texas Midland and the T. 



176 



COUNTIES 



6 N. O. Rys. Interurban under construction to 
Dallas from Terrell. Other towns, Terrell, Crandall 
Elmo, Forney, Kemp, Lawrence and Maybank. 

KENDALL COUNTY— County seat, Boerne; area 
613 square miles; located in southeast Texas to the 
north of San Antonio; created and organized, 1S62. 
Surface, broken by valleys and lofty hills alterna- 
ting; industry, live stock raising, dairying and 
slight farming following. Products, goats, sheep, 
cattle, horses, oats, cotton, corn, fruits for home 
use. Transportation, S. A. & A. P. Ry. Natural 
resources, limestone, traces of oil and gas. Other 
towns, Comfort, Waring, Kendalia, Sisterdale and 
Welfare. 

KENT COUNTY— County seat, Clairmont; area, 

7 77 square miles; located in west Texas, bordering 
the Plains; created 1876, organized, 1892. Surface 
level, hilly, rolling. Soil, mostly deep sandy loam 
underlaid with clay. Industries, livestock, agricul- 
ture. Products, cattle, hogs, mules, horses for- 
age crops, fruits for home use. Transportation, 
Wichita Valley Ry. Mineral resources, brick clay, 
material for cement plaster, oil discovered. Jayton 
is another town of this county. 

KERR COUNTY— County seat, Kerrville; area, 
1,210 square miles; situated in southwest Texas, 
created and organized 1856; surface, rolling, with 
many hills, drained by the Guadalupe River and its 
tributaries; soil, alluvial in bottom lands, upland 
land, sandy loam. Industries, live stock raising, farm- 
ing and dairying, some fruit growing. Products, 
Jersey cattle, some forage crops, dairy products. 
Transportation S. A. & A. P. Ry. Other towns. 
Center Point and Moores. 

KIMBLE COUNTY— County seat. Junction City; 
area, 1,.302 square miles; located in southwest Texas, 
northwest of San Antonio; created, 1858, organized 
1876. Surface, Mountainous; soil, mostly black 
sandy. Industry, livestock. Products, cattle, al- 
falfa, corn, wheat, sweet potatoes. Transportation 
no railroads. Other towns, London and Roosevelt. 

KING COUNTY— County seat, Guthrie; area, 928 
square miles; situated in northwest Texas; created 
187 6, organized 1891. Surface, rolling prairie, witn 
rich sandy loam soil. Industry, cattle raising, with 
some general farming. Products, cattle and for- 
age crops. No railroads. Mineral deposits, copper 
and limestone. Dumont is another town in the county. 

KINNEY COUNTY— County seat, Brackettsville; 
area, 1,269 square miles; located in southwest Texas; 
created, 1850, organized 1874. Surface, undulating; 
industry, livestock raising, with some farming. Pro- 
ducts, cattle, hay, corn, truck. Transportation, G. 
H. & S. A. Deposits of coal, traces of gold and sil- 
ver, limestone of excellent quality. Spofford is 
another town of the county. 

KLEBERG COUNTY— County seat, Kingsville, 
area, 1,112 square miles; created and organized, 
1913 from Nueces County under which title the 
general conditions of this territory are sketched. It 
is served by the St. L. B. & M. Ry. 

KNOX COUNTY— County seat, Benjamin; area, 
9 47 square miles; created 18 58, organized 1886; lo- 
cated northwest Texas. General surface, rolling; 
soil varies from a black to a chocolate and sandy 
loam. Industry, cattle business, some farming. Pro- 
ducts, cattle, cotton, corn, forage crops and grain. 
Transportation, K C. M. & O. and Wichita Valley 
Rys. Other towns, Munday, Goree, Knox City, Vera 
Rhineland and Truscott. 



LAMAR COUNTY— County seat, Paris; area, 903 
square miles; situated, northeast Texas, borders the 
Red River; created, 1840, organized, 1841. Surface 
gently rolling; soil, chocolate loam, black loam, gray 
sandy loam. Industries, livestock, dairying, horti- 
culture, poultry raising. Products, fine cattle, hor- 
ses, hogs, dairy products, pears, peaches, plums, 
'grapes, berries. Transportation, T. & P., St. L. & 
S. F., Texas Midland, G. C. & S. F., and the Pans 
and Mt. Pleasant Rys. Deposits of clay. Good 
roads. Other towns, Deport, Roxton, Blossom, Petty 
and Arthur City. 

LAMB COUNTY— County seat, Olton; area, 1,021 
square miles; situated in the Plains; created, 187b, 
organized, 1908. Surface, generally level; soil, dark 
clay loam with some sand. Industry, ranching, few 
farms. Products, cattle, forage crops, broom corn, 
fruits for home use. Transportation, G. C. & S. F. 

Ry. 

LAMPASAS COUNTY— County seat, Lampasas; 
area, 755 square miles; situated near the central 
part of the state; created and organized 1856. 
Surface, mostly high, rolling prairie; soil, black 
waxy, alluvial in valleys, rich loam on uplands 
Industries, diversified farming, livestock, pecan in- 
dustry. Products, cattle forage crops, potatoes, 
poultry, pecans, peaches, plums, apricots, grapes. 
Transportation, H. & T. C. and the G. C. & S. F. 
Rys. Is located in the mineral district of the state, 
strong salt veins abounding, but this industry as 
yet is undeveloped. Other towns of the county are 
Lometa and Kempner. 

LA SALLE COUNTY— County seat, Cotulla; area, 
1,7 7 7 square miles; located in southwest Texas, cre- 
ated in 1858, organized, 1880. Surface, slightly 
rolling, soil, mostly chocolate loam, some black 
sandy, rich and deep. Industries, diversified farm- 
ing, livestock raising, fruit and truck. Products, 
Bermuda onions, cotton, corn, figs, plums, grapes, 
cattle. Transportation, I. & G. N., Asherton & 
Gulf, and the S. A. U. & G. Rys. Other towns, Ai- 
tesia, Encinal, Millett. 

LAVACA COUNTY— County seat, Hallettsville; 
area, 992 square miles; located in the Coastal 
Plains, one county removed from the Gulf, and 101 
miles southwest of Houston; created and organized 
1846. Surface, gently rolling or undulating except 
in the extreme southern section which is level; soil, 
black loam, light gray sandy, on a subsoil of red 
chocolate. Industries, livestock, fruit growing di- 
versified farming, dairying, swine and poultry rais- 
ing. Products, cotton, corn, melons, potatoes, cu- 
cumbers and other truck, hogs, fancy livestock, 
large droves of turkeys, dressed poultry. Transpor- 
tation, S. A. & A. P. Ry. Other towns. Shiner, Moul- 
ton, Sweethome and Sublime. 

LEE COUNTY— County seat, Giddings; area, 666 
square miles; located in south central Texas; ci-eated 
1874, organized 1883. Surface, high rolling prai- 
rie for one-fourth territory, remainder, bottom lands; 
industries, farming, livestock, truck, dairying. Pro- 
ducts, cotton, peanuts, variety of fruits, cattle 
Transportation, H. & T. C. and the S. A. & A. P. 
Rys. Other important towns, Lexington, Lincoln, 
Tanglewood and Northrop. 

LEON COUNTY— County seat, Centerville; area, 
1,06 6 square miles; situated East central Texas; 
created and organized 1846. Surface, an alternation 
of hills and narrow valleys and extended plateaus of 
level table land, all traversed by many running 



177 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



streams. Soil, bright yellow and a deep yellow al- 
luvial, and stiff black waxy, chocolate, gray and red 
sandy loams. Industries, farming, truck, cattle. 
Products, cotton, corn, peas, peanuts, potatoes, mel- 
ons and hay, cattle, swine, peaches, berries, honey 
and poultry. Transportation, H. & T. C, T. & B. 
v., I. & G. N. Rys. Mineral resources, lignite^ 
Other towns, Oakwood, Jewett, Buffalo, Marquez, 
Normangee, Flynn and Leona. 

LIBERTY COUNTY— County seat, Liberty; area, 
1,100 square miles; located in southeast Texas; 
created and organized, 1836. General surface, level 
prairie land; soil, very light sandy and sandy loam 
to deep black loam and black waxy. Industries, 
lumber, livestock, diversified farming, truck, min- 
ing. Products, cotton, rice, Irish potatoes, fruit, 
truck, sulphur, lumber. Transportation, T. & N. O. 
G. C. & S. F., H. E. & W. T., B. S. L. & W., Trinity 
Valley & Northern Rys. Mineral resources, sulphur 
traces of oil. Over 100 miles of fine shell road. 
Other towns, Dayton, Cleveland, Hardin, Milvid, Fu- 
qua, Lamb, Devers, Graywood and Stilson. 

LIMESTONE COUNTY— County seat, Groesbeck; 
area, 987 square miles; situated east central Texas; 
created, 1846. Surface, often broken and uneven 
without being abrupt, fertile valleys, high rolling 
prairies; soil, mostly black waxy. Industries, oil 
diversified farming, cattle raising. Products, cotton 
fine cattle, horses, mules, hogs. The uncovering of 
the great high grade oil field in this county by 
Col. Humphreys in 1921 was the banner event of 
oil history for the year. Mexia has become the oil 
metropolis of the field. Transportation, H. & T. C 
T. & B. v., St. L. S. W. Mineral resources, lime- 
stone rock, coal, oil, gas. Other towns, Mexia, 
Kosses, Thornton, Coolidge, Personville, Tehuacana. 
LIPSCOMB COUNTY— County seat, Lipscomb; 
area, 850 square miles; situated in the northeast 
corner of the Panhandle, created, 187 6, organized, 
18 87. Surface, somewhat broken in southern part, 
.northern section, flat and level. Soil, sandy loam 
in southern half, northern half, black, rich and deep. 
Industries, live stock, diversified farming, horticul- 
ture, poultry raising. Products, wheat, corn, broom 
corn, Panhandle staples, apples, peaches, plums, ap- 
ricots, various grain. Transportation, So. K Ry. of 
Tex. (Santa Fe). Towns of the county, Lipscomb 
and Higgins. 

LIVE OAK COUNTY— County seat, George West; 
area, 1,123 square miles; situated in the west coastal 
plains; created, 1856. Surface, generally rolling, 
but much level land; soil, black loam to gray sandy 
and black waxy. Industries, livestock raising, slight 
farming. Products, cattle, staple crops, fruit for 
home use, honey. No railroads. Mineral deposits, 
coal, iron, lead, but undeveloped. 

LLANO COUNTY— County seat, Llano; area, 97 7 
square miles; situated near the geographical center 
of Texas; created and organized 1856. Surface, 
low mountain ranges between which are fertile val- 
leys Industries, stock raising, farming. Products, 
cattle, sheep, goats, forage crops. Transportation, 
H. & T. C. Ry. Is one of the rich mmeral districts 
of Texas, — iron, mica, talc, garnet, ochres and mag- 
nesia, granite and rare minerals abound. Other 
towns, Kingsland, Castell, Valley Spring and Graph- 
ite. 

LOVING COUNTY— Created 18 87 and is still un- 
organized, hence, no county seat; situated in west 
Texas, bordering New Mexico on the north; area, 



87 2 square miles. Industry, stock raising. No rail- 
roads. 

LUBBOCK COUNTY— County seat, Lubbock; 
area, 982 square miles; situated in the plains coun- 
try, created 1876, organized 1891. Surface, level 
plain with brakes along the Brazos River and its 
tributaries. Industries, farming, some fruit grow- 
ing and stock raising. Products, cotton, corn, wheat 
Panhandle staples, apples, plums, pears, peaches, 
grapes. Transportation, P. & N. T. Ry., Crossbyton 
& South Plains Ry. Other towns, Slayton, Posey 
and Idalou. 

LYNN COUNTY— County seat, Tahoka; area, 821 
square miles; located in the Plains; organized 1903, 
created 1876. Surface level; soil, gray and black 
sandy loam soil. Industries, ranching and diversi- 
fied farming. Products, cattle, milo maize, kaffir 
corn, wheat, oats, sorghum, alfalfa, apples, grapes, 
pears. Transportation, Pecos & Northern Texas Ry. 
MADISON COUNTY — County seat, Madisonville; 
area, 488 square miles; situated in east central 
Texas; created 185 3, organized 1854. Surface, lar- 
ger portion level, remainder, slightly rolling. Soil, 
river bottom rich alluvial, upland composed largely 
of various sandy loams. Industries, farming, live- 
stock, fruit, poultry raising. Products, cotton, sta- 
ples, figs, peaches, pears, all kinds of berries, pecans, 
honey. Transportation, T. & B. V., I. &. G. N. and 
the H. & T. C. Rys. Mineral deposits, lignite coal. 
Towns, North Gulch, Midway. 

MARION COUNTY— County seat, Jefferson; area 
3 84 square miles; situated in northeast Texas; cre- 
ated and organized, 1860; surface, rolling, much 
level land along rivers and creeks; soil, candy char- 
acter, with a clay foundation. Industries, diversi- 
fied farming, horticulture; products, cotton, corn, 
Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, peas and various truck 
peaches, pears, figs. Transportation, T. & P., M. K. 
& T. and the .lefferson & N. W. Rys. Minerals, iron 
ore and lignite, oil also is found. Towns, Lodi, Kel- 
lyville, Lasater and Smithland. 

MARTIN COUNTY— County seat, Stanton; .area, 
900 square miles; situated in west Texas, at the foot 
of the staked Plains; created 1876, organized 1888. 
Surface, generally rolling, traversed by several 
draws; soil, red sandy, very poi'ous, with an occa- 
sional spot of black waxy. Industry, tattle raising, 
agriculture, limited; products, cattle, fruit for home 
use. Transportation, T. & P., P. & N. T. Rys. 

MASON COUNTY — County seat. Mason; area, 
9 68 square miles; located in west central Texas, a 
little south of central; created and organized in 1S5S. 
Surface, diversified, varying from rolling prairie 
to mountains. Soils, red to sandy loam, dark loam. 
Industry, cattle, some farming and fruit growing. 
Products, live stock, cotton, corn, oats, wheat, cane, 
berries, peaches, grapes, apricots and plums. No 
railroads. Natural resources, deposits of iron, lead 
and silver, sandstone and limestone and various 
other minerals and building stones. Other towns, 
Fredonia, Pontotoc and Katemey. 

MATAGORDA COUNTY— County seat. Bay City; 
area, 1,135 square miles; situated on the Gulf coast, 
centrally located between the Sabine River and the 
Rio Grande. Organized, 1837. Surface, mostly 
level prairie with a slight slope toward the Gulf. 
Soil varies from sandy loam to black hog-wallow. 
Industries, stock raising, agriculture, rite, fish and 
oyster business. Products, rice, feedstuff, horses, 
cattle, mules, hogs, cotton, corn, truck and fruit, 



178 



COUNTIES 



oysters and fish, oil. Transportation, G. C. & S. F. 
St. L. B. & M. and the G. H. & S. A. Rys. Natural 
resources, oil, traces of gas Interest in good roads. 
Other cities, Palacious, Blessing, College Port, Mat- 
agorda and Markham. 

MAVERICK COUNTY— County seat. Eagle Pass; 
area, 1,3 3 2 square miles; located in southwest Texas, 
on the Mexican border, created, 1S56, and organized 
1871. Surface, generally rolling; soil ranges from 
sandy loam to black lands, alluvial soiis. muustries, 
live stock and farming. Products, cattle, onions, 
truck and cotton. Transportation, G. H. & S. A. Ry. 
Natural resources, bituminous coal, fire clay, indi- 
cations of gas and oil. 

MCCULLOCH COUNTY— County seat, Brady; 
area, 1,100 square miles; located, west central Texas 
created 1S56, organized 1S76. Surface, mainly roll- 
ing; soils, various — deep black along streams, dark 
chocolate in northern portion, sandy loam on up- 
lands, some light sandy soil, — all very fertile and 
productive. Industries, live stock raising, farming, 
truck. Products, cotton, feed crops, cantaloupes and 
melons. Transportation, Ft. W. & R. G. (Frisco), 
and the G. C. & S. F. Rys. Natural resources, coal. 
Good public highways. Other towns, Rochelle, Mer- 
cury, Voca. 

MC LENNAN COUNTY— County seat. Waco; area 
1,080 square miles; located in east central Texas; 
created and organized, 1850. Surface, about one-half 
is rolling while remainder is level prairie and tim- 
ber land. Soil, varies from black alluvial to black 
waxy and sandy loams. Industries, farming, truck 
fruit, cattle, dairying, poultry. Products, cotton, 
corn, oats, other staples, cattle, hogs, horses, honey, 
dairy products, truck and fruit products. Trans- 
portation, H. & T. C, M. K. & T., S. A. & A. P., St. 
L. S. W., T. C, I. & G. N., G. C. & S. F. Rys. Towns, 
McGregor, Moody, Mart, Eddy, West, Ci-awford Lo- 
rena, Riesel, Rose. Good roads. 

MCMULLEN COUNTY— County seat, Tilden; 
area, 1,180 square miles; situated in southwest Texas, 
south of San Antonio; created 1S.5S, organized 187 7. 
Surface, generally level, broken by a few abrupt ele- 
vations; soil, for the most part black sandy and very 
productive. Industry, livestock, some apiculture. 
Products, cattle, honey. Transportation, S. A. U. 
& G. Ry. Mineral deposits, lignite and clays; traces 
of oil and gas. Crowther is another important town 
of the county. 

MEDINA COUNTY — County seat, Hondo; area, 
1,284 square miles; situated in southwest Texas, ad- 
joining Bexar county on the west; created and or- 
ganized 184 8. Surface, rolling prairie, broken by 
many fertile valleys, northern part, mountainous; 
soil, varies from a sandy to a black waxy, latter pre- 
dominating. Occupations, farming, stock raising. 
Products, cotton, corn, oats, forage crops, pecans. 
Transportation, G. H. & S. A., I. & G. N. Rys. Nat- 
ural resources, lignite, limestone, sandstone, traces 
of oil and gas. Other towns, Devine, Castroville, 
D'Hannis. New Fountain, Lacoste, Dunlay, Rio Me- 
dina and Zigzag. 

MENARD COUNTY— County seat, Menard; area 
888 square miles; located in west central Texas, cre- 
ated 1858, organized 1871. Surface, rolling and 
hiily, broad and fertile valleys. Soil, sandy. Indus- 
tries, live stock, farming. Products, cotton, corn, 
alfalfa, wheat, oats, hay, onions, potatoes, various 



kinds of truck. Transportation, Ft. W. & R. G. 
(Frisco) Ry. Natural resources, limestone, building 
rock, good brick clay. 

MIDLAND— County seat, Midland; area, 9 72 
square miles; located in west Texas in the south 
Plains; created and organized, 1885. Surface, 
level, slightly rolling in some sections. Soil, red and 
dark loam nature with a clay foundation. Indus- 
try, live stock. Transportation, T. & P. Ry. 

MILAM COUNTY— County seat, Cameron; area, 
1,044 square miles. Situated in central Texas; or- 
ganized 1836. Surface, generally level, good drain- 
age;soil, black tenacious lime earth, river bottoms, 
dark stiff chocolate alluvial, while on uplands, gray 
shallow loam with clay foundation, or a deep white 
sandy land. Industries, agriculture, cotton, all sta- 
ple crops, Elberta peaches, plums, pears, pecans 
shipped by the carloads, honey. Transportation, G. 
C. & S. F., S. A. & A. P., I. & G. N. Rys. Good 
roads. Mineral resources, lignite coal. Towns, 
Rockdale, Thorndale, Buckholts, Burlington, Gause, 
Milano and Ben Arnold. 

MILLS COUNTY— County seat, Goldthwaite; area 
700 square miles; situated in central Texas, created 
1887, organized in the same year. Surface, rolling, 
soil, rich alluvial, black waxy. Industries, farming, 
stock raising, poultry raising. Products, cotton, 
corn, oats, alfalfa, fine cattle, sheep, goats, wool, mo- 
hair, turkeys. Transportation, G. C. & S. F. Ky. 
Natural resources, fine lime and sandstone. Towns, 
Mullin. 

MITCHELL COUNTY— County seat, Colorado; 
area, 807 square miles; west Texas county, created 
1876, organized 1881. Surface, slightly rolling, 
level land with few hills. Soil, close dark loam, 
sandy loam with clay subsoil. Industries, farming, 
livestock, horticulture. Products, usual west Texas 
staple crops, peaches, plums, apricots, berries. 
Transportation, T. & P. and the Roscoe, Snyder <fc 
Pacific Rys. Salt deposits. Other towns, Loraine, 
Westbrook. 

MONTAGUE COUNTY— County seat, Montague; 
area, 976 square miles; situated in north TexaS; 
bordering the Red River; created, 18 57, organized 
1S5S. Surface, undulating; soil, sandy loam, red 
clay, black sandy loam, deep clay soil. Industries, 
livestock, farming. Products, cotton, corn, oats, 
wheat, alfalfa, peaches, apples, pears. Transpoi-ta- 
tion. Ft. W. & D. C, C. R. I. & G., M. K. & T. Rys. 
Good highways. Towns, Stoneburg, Bowie, Sunset, 
Bonita, Nacona, St. Jo, Reivhei-ville and Hardy. 

MONTGOMERY COUNTY— County seat, Conroe; 
area, 1,06 6 square miles; situated in southeast 
Texas, created and organized 183 7. Surface, flat 
prairie and gently rolling plain; soil, alluvial, sanUy 
loam. Industries, live stock, agriculture, fruit; pro- 
ducts, cotton, corn, potatoes, peanuts, fruits, cattle, 
tobacco, cabbage, tomatoes, peaches, pears, plums. 
Transportation, I. & G. N., G. C. & S. F., T. & B. V., 
H. E. & W. T., Peach River & Gulf Rys. Mineral 
deposits, ircn ore, good quality of brick clay. Towns 
Willis, Montgomery, Fostoria, Magnolia, Dobbin. 

MOORE COUNTY — County seat, Dumas; area, 
88 5 square miles; located in the northern part of the 
Panhandle; created 1876, organized 1892. Indus- 
tries, live stock, agriculture; products, cattle, and 
all the staple Panhandle crops, including alfalfa, 
broom corn, sorghum. Transportation, Enid, Ochil- 
tree & Western Ry. 



179 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



MORRIS COUNTY— County seat, Daingerfield; 
area 27S square miles; located in northeast Texas, 
created 187 5, organized 187 6. Surface, generally 
level, excepting southern portion where it is rolling 
and hilly; soil, rich alluvial, sandy, chocolate-colored 
land. Industries, diversified farming, truck, stock 
raising, poultry. Products, cotton, corn, all the 
leading staple crops, potatoes, melons cantaloupes, 
cabbage and other truck, peaches, fine horses, mules, 
hogs. Transportation, M. K. & T., St. L. & S. W. 
Rys. Mineral deposits, coal, iron, brick clay. Other 
towns. Maples, Omaha, Cason. 

MOTLEY COUNTY— County seat, Matador; area 
984 square miles; partly on the plains and partly in 
the Panhandle; created 187 6, organized 1S91. Sur- 
face, broken and rolling, considerable level land be- 
tween the breaks; soil varies from a stiff black to a 
sandy, underlaid with clay and red clay soil. Indus- 
tries, live stock and farming. Products, cotton, al- 
falfa, usual Panhandle staples, peaches, apples, 
plums. Railroad, Quanah, Acme & Pacific. Mat- 
ador, the county seat, is reached by stage from 
Floydada of Floyd County, and fi-om Paducah in 
Cottle County, daily. 

NACOGDOCHES COUNTY— County seat, Nacog- 
doches; area, 962 square miles; located in east 
Texas, one county removed from Louisiana, organ- 
ized 1837. Surface, generally broken with hills and 
hollows; soil, rich, dark sandy alluvial with some red 
loam, gray sandy, red sandy and red stiff land in 
varieties of shades and quantities; Orangburg sand 
and clay, in quantities, also Lufkin clay and Nor- 
folk sandy loam. Industries, farming, lumber, fruit 
and truck, livestock. Products, cotton, peanuts, for- 
age crops, peaches, plums, lumber (pine and hard- 
wood). Transportation, H. E. & W. T., T. & N. O. 
N. & S. E., C. & N., A. & N. R. & D. Rys. Mineral 
resources, lignite, valuable clays. Towns, Garri- 
son, Gushing Sacul, Traweek, Mahl, Melrose, Chireno 
Swift, Martinville, Attoyac and Wodin. 

NAVARRO COUNTY— County seat, Corsicana, 
area, 1,13 6 square miles; situated northeast of cen 
tral Texas; created 184 6. Surface, generally level, 
broken only by valleys which lie between no hills; 
soil, black waxy, sandy loam. Industries, agricul- 
ture, horticulture, oil; products, cotton, grains, corn 
alfalfa, peanuts, other forage and feed crops, 
peaches, grapes, plums, melons, oil and oil pro- 
ducts, horses, mules, hogs. In 19 21 high grade oil 
was discovered in this county which has developed 
into further territory. Corsicana is right at the 
heart of this field which has become one of the 
most productive in the southwest. Transportation, 
T. & B. v., H. & T. C, St. L. S. W. Rys. Natur<il 
resources, lignite, limestone, brick clay and natural 
gas. Other towns, Kerens, Dawson, Blooming 
Grove, Rice and Powell. Excellent highways. 

NEWTON COUNTY— County seat, Newton; area 
903 square miles; located in east Texas, bordering 
on Louisiana; created and organized 184 6. Surface 
southern half level, northern half hilly and slightly 
broken. Industry, lumber, slight framing and live- 
stock. Products, hardwood and pine lumber, cotton, 
ribbon cane, potatoes, peanuts. Transportation, 
Orange & Northwestern, G. C. & S. F., Jasper & 
East Texas, K. C. So. Rys. Natural resources, iron 
ore, traces of oil. Towns of the county, Hartburg, 
Ruliff, Dewey, Call, Bleakwood, Adsul. 



NOLAN COUNTY— County seat, Sweetwater, 
area, 828 square miles; located in central west Texas 
created 1876, organized 1881. Surface, high, roll- 
ing uplands, depressed at intervals into broad level 
valleys. Soil, chiefly, reddish dark loam, with areas 
of deep waxy lime land interspersed. Industries, 
stock raising, diversified farming, anu manufactur- 
ing. Products, cotton, corn, kaffir corn, sorghum, 
maize, fine animals. Transportation, T. & P., P. & 
N. T., K. C. M. & O. and the Roscoe, Snyder & Pa- 
cific Rys. Natural resources, building stones. 
Towns of the county, Roscoe, and Hyltom. 

NUECES COUNTY— County seat. Corpus Christi; 
area 1,108 square miles; located on the southwest 
Gulf coast; created and organized 1846. Surface, 
generally level, slight slope toward the Gulf and 
Corpus Christi Bay; soils vary from dark sandy 
loam to a light sandy with occasional stretches of 
black waxy. Industries, farming, truck, live stock, 
apiculture. Products, cotton, corn, forage crops, 
cabbage, onions, blooded and graded cattle, figs, 
grapes and other fruits, honey, fish and oysters. 
Transportation, St. L. B. & M., Texas Mexican, and 
the S. A. & A. P. Rys. Corpus Christi has a na- 
tional fame as a health and pleasure resort. Other 
cities, Robstown, Bishop, Rabb and Driscoll. 

OCHILTREE COUNTY— County seat, Ochiltree; 
area, 864 square miles; situated in the Panhandle, 
in the northern tier of counties; created 187 6, or- 
ganized 1889. Surface, level plains; soil, black and 
gray loam. Industries, stock raising, agriculture, 
apiculture. Products, cattle, wheat, feedstuffs, ap- 
ples, plums, peaches, berries, honey. No railroad. 

OLDHAM COUNTY— County seat, Tascosa; area 
1,47 square miles; situated in the Panhandle, bor- 
dering New Mexico; created 1876, organized 1881. 
Surface, northern portion broken and hilly, southern 
level plains; soils, light sandy to a chocolate loam 
with a dark sandy loam in the valleys. Industries, 
stock raising and farming and fruit growing only 
in a limited way. Products, cattle. Transportation 
Ft. W. & D. C, C. R. I. & G. Rys. Natural re- 
sources, sandstone, oil and gas. Towns, Adrin, 
Vega, and Wildorado. 

ORANGE COUNTY— County seat. Orange; area, 
3 92 square miles; located in southeast Texas, bord- 
ering the state of Louisiana. Created and organ- 
ized, 1852. Surface, level and heavily timbered, 
soil, sandy loam, black and gray subsoil. Indus- 
tries, lumber, stock raising, farming, rice, fruit and 
truck growing. Products, lumber, livestock, rice, 
corn, potatoes, vegetables, fig and orange orchards, 
poultry. Transportation, T. & N. O., 0. & N. W., 
K. C, G. C. & S. F. Rys. Natural resources, oil 
gas. Towns, quite a number of small towns and 
saw mill camps along all railroads. 

PALO PINTO COUNTY— County seat, Palo Pinto 
area, 971 square miles; situated in north Texas, one 
county removed from Ft. Worth, created 1856, or- 
ganized 1857. Surface, mountainous, valleys oe- 
tween the ranges, some fertile prairie land; soil, 
sandy of red character, black. Industries, live stock 
raising, farming, fruit and poultry interests, min- 
ing. Products, fine stock, cotton all north and west 
Texas staples, pears, peaches, grapes and berries. 
Transportation, T. & P., W. M. & N. W., and the 
Gulf jTexas and Western Rys. Minerals, coal, sand- 
stone, limestone, brick and fire clay; natural gas has 
been discovered, as also mineral waters. Towns, 
Mineral Wells, Gordon and Strawn. 



180 



COUNTIES 



PANOLA COUNTY— County seat, Cartnage; area 
814 square miles; located east Texas; created and 
organized 1846. Surface, level to rolling with hills 
along streams; soil, largely sandy loam, bottom 
land soil dark and very productive. Industries, di- 
versified farming, horticulture, apiculture, poultry, 
stock raising. Products, cotton, peaches, fine 
horses, mules. Transportation, Santa Fe, Timp- 
son & Henderson Rys. Natural resources, brick 
clay, traces of oil. Towns, Beckville, Gary, Woods, 
Clayton and DeBerry. 

PARKER COUNTY— County seat, Weatherford; 
area, S88 square miles; located in north central 
Texas; created 1S55, organized 1S56. Surface, roll- 
ing prairie in southern portion, broken by the Brazos 
valley, in northern section, considerable level land, 
some hills; soil, nearly every character of soil. In- 
dustries, agriculture, horticulture, poultry, dairying. 
Products, cotton, all the staple crops, peaches, pears, 
plums, apples, honey. Transportation, T. & P., G. 
C. & S. F., W. & N. W., G. T. & W. Rys. Natural 
resources, coal, building stone, potter's clay and 
brick clay. Good roads. Towns, Springtown, Mill- 
sap, Poolville, Aledo, Peaster. 

PARMER COUNTY— County seat, Farwell; area, 
873 square miles; located in the Panhandle, bord- 
ering New Mexico; created 187 6, organized 1907. 
Surface, level plain; soil, rich, red loam, very pro- 
ductive. Industries, live stock, diversified farming 
on a small scale. Transportation, P. & N. T. Ry. 
Towns, Friona, Bovinia. 

PECOS COUNTY— County seat. Ft. Stockton; 
area 5,536 square miles; situated in west Texas, gen- 
erally known as southwest Texas, one county re- 
moved from the Rio Grande. Created 1871, organ 
ized 187 5. Surface smooth and level in the north 
and in the south, hills. Industry, stock raising. Pro- 
ducts, cattle, alfalfa, grains, home truits. Trans- 
portation, K. C. M. & O. Ry. Other towns, Buena 
Vista and Sheffield. 

POLK COUNTY — County seat Livingstone; area, 
1,100 square miles; located in southeast Texas; cre- 
ated and organized 1S46. General surface, undulat- 
ing, rising gradually toward the center; soils, di- 
vided bteween a deep black, lime land, stiff black 
lands, alluvial lands, dark sandy soil, light thin 
sandy soil. Industries, lumber, farming, live stock 
raising, dairying; products, cotton, corn, potatoes, 
sugar cane, peanuts, peaches, plums, figs, fine 
dairy animals. Transportation, H. E. & W. T., B. 
& G. N., M. K. & T., Moscow, Camden & San Augus- 
tine and the Livingstone & Southeastern Rys. Min- 
eral resources, sandstone and brick clay. Towns., 
Onalaska, New Willard, Camden, Corrigan, Moscow 
and Leggett. 

POTTER COUNTY— County seat, Amarillo; area 
8 74 square miles; situated in Panhandle; created 
1876, organized 1887. Surface, half is level, re- 
mainder is of breaks and valleys; soil, varies from 
chocolate loam to silt sand. Industries, live stock, 
farming; products, cattle, wheat, kaffir corn, milo 
maize, broom corn, poultry. Transportation, C. K. 
I. & G., S. K. of T. (Santa Fe), P. & N. T., Ft. W 
& D. C. Rys. Natural resources, brick and tile clay. 
Good roads Towns, Fields, Simmons, Cliffside, Fol- 
som, Pullman and St. Francis. 

PRESIDIO COUNTY— County seat, Marfa; area 
2,652 square miles; located in the Big Bend of the 
Rio Grande in west southwest Texas; created 1850, 
organized 187 5. Surface, mountainous in the west 



and southern parts, in eastern and northern, level. 
Industry, goat raising, wool, cattle. Products, sheep 
goats, cattle. Soil, rich, volcanic in origin, chocolate 
in color. Transportation, G. H. & S. A., K. C. M. 
& O. Rys. Natural resources, traces of silver, cop- 
per, lead, gold, marble limestone and granite, indi- 
cations of oil. Towns, Shafter, Presidio, Candela- 
ria, Rindora. 

RAINES COUNTY— County seat, Emory; area, 
25 2 square miles; situated in northeast Texas; cre- 
ated and organized 1870. Surface, slightly rolling; 
soils, vary from chocolate to black waxy in western 
portion, dark sandy in eastern. Industries, diver- 
sified farming, poultry, live stock, agriculture; 
products, all the staple crop, Irish potatoes, peaches, 
plums, berries, tomatoes, honey. Transportation, 
M. K. & T. and the Texas Short Line Rys. Natural 
resources, brick clay and lignite. Towns, Point, 
Golff, Dunbar and Ginger. 

RANDALL COUNTY— County seat. Canyon; area 
87 2 square miles; located in the Panhandle, created 
1876, organized 1889. Surface, generally level, 
broken by two canyons. Soil, dark chocolate loam. 
Industries, stock raising, farming, fruit and poul- 
try growing; products, cattle, kaffir corn, milo 
maize, wheat, oats, barley, sugar beets, plums, 
grapes, cherries, apples, poultry. Transportation, 
P. & N. T. Ry.( Santa Fe). 

REAGAN COUNTY— County seat, Stiles; area, 
1,190 square miles; located in west southwest Texas 
created and organized 1903. Surface, generally 
level; soil, dark chocolate to black, light chocolate 
to gray. Chief industry, live stock raising. Trans- 
portation, K. C. M. & O. Ry. 

REAL COUNTY— County seat. Leaky; area, 700.8 
square miles; created and organized, 1913, taken 
from Edwards, Bandera and Kerr Counties. General 
description is covered in the sketches of these coun- 
ties as conditions are the same. 

RED RIVER COUNTY— County seat, Clarksville; 
area, 1,061 square miles; situated in northeast Texas 
on the Red River; created 1836, organized 1837. 
Surface, gentle and rolling, prairie land; soil, one- 
fourth black waxy, in the river bottom, rich allu- 
vial, on the prairie land, gray loam. Industries, 
farming, livestock raising, dairying; products, sta- 
ple crops of north Texas, fine horses, mules, dairy 
animals. Transportation, T. & P. and Paris & Mt. 
Pleasant Rys. No paved highways, but split log 
drag keeps roads in good condition. Towns, Annona, 
Avery, Detroit, Woodland, Manchester, Fulbright, 
Rugby, Bogata and Halesboro. 

REEVES COUNTY— County seat, Pecos; area, 
2,610 square miles; located in southwest Texas, 
created, 1883, organized IS 8 4. Surface, generally 
level, soils, deep chocolate and sandy loam. Indus- 
tries, stock raising, farming, horticulture; products, 
cattle, alfalfa, grains, forage crops, fniits, vegetables 
melons, cantaloupes. Transportation, T. & P. Pecos 
River (Santa Fe), Pecos Valley Southern, Rys. 
Natural resources, oil, gold, discovered but not 
developed. Towns, Toyah, Balmorhea, Saragosa. 

REFUGIO COUNTY— County seat, Refugio; area, 
802 square miles; located in the west Gulf coast 
country, an original county, organized 1837. Sur- 
face rolling; soil, black, waxy, hog wallow, sandy 
loam. Industries, live stock, diversified farming, 
apiculture; products, cotton, figs, grapes, pears, 
cattle. Transportation, St. L. B. & M. Ry. Towns, 
Woodsboro, Bayside and Tigoli. 



181 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



ROBERTS COUNTY— County seat, Miami; area, 
860 square miles; situated in the northeast corner 
of the Panhandle; created, 1876; organized, 1889. 
Surface, one-half rolling, one-fourth level, remainder 
broken and hilly. Soil, black loam, alluvial, sandy 
loam. Industries, farming and live stock raising; 
products, corn, cotton, alfalfa, cattle. Transporta- 
tion, S. K. Ry. of T. (Santa Fe). 

ROBERTSON COUNTY— County seat, Franklin; 
area, 913 square miles; located in central east 
Texas; created, 1837; organized, 1838. Surface, 
eastern half, rolling, western half nearly level; soil, 
extremely fertile, soft sandy loam, deep alluvial, 
and a streak of red. Industries, diversified 
farming, live stock, fruit and poultry raising; 
products, cotton and corn, sugar cane, sorghum, 
various forms of truck, live stock, peaches, pears, 
strawberries, plums, figs and melons, honey, poultry, 
turkeys, eggs. Transportation, I. & G. N., H. & 
T. C. and the H. & B. V. Rys. Natural resources, 
coal and lignite. Towns, Calvert, Hearne and Bre- 
mond. 

ROCKWALL COUNTY— County seat, Rockwall; 
area, 171 square miles; located in north Texas, 
created and organized, 1873; is the smallest county 
in the state. Surface, high, rolling prairie; soil, 
black waxy, lime land. Industries, farming, horti- 
culture, stock raising, apiculture, poultry; products, 
cotton, corn, oats, wheat, forage crops, vegetables, 
peaches, plums, grapes, honey. Transportation, M. 
K. & T and E. T. Traction Co. Interurban. Natural 
resources, brick clay. Towns, Royse City, Fate, 
Chisholm, Heath, McLendons and Munson. 

RUNNELS COUNTY— County seat, Ballinger; 
area, 1,073 square miles; located central west Texas. 
Created, 1858; organized, 1880. Surface, generally 
waxy; soil, hog wallow, sandy, loam, little black 
waxy. Industries, general farming, fruit growing, 
poultry and pecan interests. Products, all the cen- 
tral west Texas staple crops, forage crops, broom 
corn, peaches, plums, grapes, apricots, pecans, fine 
chickens, eggs. Transportation, G. C. & S. F., A. 
& So., and the S. S. & L. V. Rys. Natural re- 
sources, limestone. Towns, Winter, Miles and 
Rowena. 

RUSK COUNTY — County seat, Henderson; area, 
915 square miles; located in east Texas; created and 
organized, 1843. Surface, rolling, high. Soil, gray, 
red and chocolate sandy loam, gray predominating. 
Industries, lumber, truck and fruit growing. Prod- 
ucts, lumber, Irish and sweet potatoes, cabbage, 
tomatoes, other foims of truck, peanuts, psas, other 
crops of like nature, peaches, apples, plums; is one 
of the most productive truck and fruit counties of 
Texas. Transportation, I. & G. N., G. C. & S. F. 
and the C. & N. Rys. .Natural resources, clay, iron 
ore, lignite and marble, traces of oil and gas. Towns, 
Overton, Tatum, Mt. Enterprise, Glenfawn, Minden, 
Laneville. 

SABINE COUNTY— County seat, Hemphill; area, 
577 square miles; lies in east Texas, bordering 
Louisiana; an original county, organized 1837. Sur- 
face, northern portion, rough, hilly, broken; south- 
ern, rolling and level. Industries, lumber, some 
farming, truck growing. Products, lumber, field 
crops, fruits and vegetables. Yellow pine and hard- 
wood constitute the lumber output. Transportation, 
G. C. & S. F. Ry. Naural resources, iron, lead, traces 
of copper, indications of oil. Towns, Bi'onson, Brook- 
land and Pineland. 



SAN AUGUSTINE COUNTY— County seat, San 
Augustine; area, 570 square miles; situated in east 
Texas in the timber belt; an original county. Sur- 
face, southern part practically level, northern section 
hilling and rolling; soil, black waxy, chocolate loam 
and gray sandy, considerable Orangeburg soil. In- 
dustries, lumber, tobacco, fruit and truck growing. 
Products, lumber (pine and hardwood), tobacco, all 
kinds of vegetables and fruits. Transportation, G. 
C. & S. F., St. L. S. W. Rys. Natural resources, iron 
ore, oil, gas. 

SAN JACINTO COUNTY— County seat. Cold 
Spring; area, 636 square miles; located in southeast 
TexaSj created and organized, 1870. Surface, mostly 
level; soil, rich black, sandy loam, some black waxy. 
Industries, lumber, live stock, farming, truck, api- 
culture; products, lumber, cotton, corn, cane, pota- 
toes and truck, honey. Transportation, H. E. & 
W. T. and the Trinity Valley Southern Rys. Natural 
resources, iron, silver, sulphur and mica, sandstone 
and brick clay. Towns, Shepherd, Oakhurst, Ever- 
green, Point Blank and Camilla. 

SAN PATRICIO COUNTY— County seat, Sinton; 
area, 685 square miles; located in the west coast 
country; one of the original counties, organized 1836. 
Surface, generally level; soils, mostly dark sandy 
loam, some black waxy and alluvial. Industries, 
diversified farming, live stock, fruit growing, truck. 
Products, cotton, grapes, figs, raspberries ,melons, 
various truck. Transportation, St. L. B. & M. and 
the S. A. & A. P. Rys. Natural resources, brick 
clay, lime and sandstone. Towns, Aransas Pass, one 
of the deep water harbors of Texas, Gregory, Mathis, 
Patricio, Taft, Engleside, Portland, St. Paul and 
Angelita. 

SAN SABA COUNTY— County seat, San Saba; 
area, 1,150; located in west central Texas; created 
and organized, 1856. Surface, broken; soil, some 
black waxy, red and gi'ay to black sandy loam. In- 
dustries, live stock, agriculture, horticulture, api- 
culture, poultry. Products, cotton, corn, onions, 
potatoes, vegetables, pecans, pears, peaches, plums, 
grapes, cattle. Transportation, G. C. & S. F. Ry. 
Natural resources, coal, iron, marble, sandstone and 
limestone, brick and fire clay. Towns, Richland 
Springs, Cherokee. 

SCHLEICHER COUNTY— County seat, Eldorado; 
area, 1,355 square miles; situated in southwest 
Texas; created, 1887; organized, 1901. Surface, roll- 
ing, much level land; soil, black loam. Industries, 
live stock, farming. Products, cattle, staple west- 
ern crops. No railroads. Natural resources, lime- 
stone, white brick clay. 

SCURRY COUNTY— County seat, Snyder; area, 
821 square miles; located in west Texas; created, 
1876; organized, 1884. Surface, mostly level prairie, 
with breaks and hills in northern part; soil, loose 
sandy, occasional ridges of gravel, red and black 
sandy loam. Industries, cattle raising, diversified 
farming, fruit growing; products, cattle, hogs, cot- 
ton, Panhandle staple crops, peaches, plums, apri- 
cots, small fruits. Transportation, R. S. & P., and 
the P. & N. T. Rys. Towns, Fluvana, Hermliegh, 
Ira, Dunn. 

SHACKELFORD COUNTY— County seat, Al- 
bany; area, 926 square miles; situated northwest of 
central Texas; created, 1858; organized, 1874. Sur- 
face, hilly and mountainous in western portion, hills 
in eastern section but much level land; soil, red 



182 



COUNTIES 



alluvial, chocolate loams, sandy land on uplands. 
Industry, stock raising, slight farming. Products, 
high grade beef cattle, sheep and hogs. Transporta- 
tion, T. C. Ry. Natural resources, limestone, natural 
gas, oil. Towns, Moran. 

SHELBY COUNTY— County seat, Center; area, 
814 square miles; located in east Texas, borders on 
the Sabine River; organized, 1837. Surface, rolling, 
partly hilly, much level land. Soil, sandy. Indus- 
tries, lumber, farming, fruit growing; products, 
lumber (pine and hardwood), cotton, sugar cane, 
syrup, potatoes, peanuts, ti'uck, fruits abundant. 
Transportation, G. C. & S. F., H. E. & W. T., 
T. N. W. and the T. & G. Rys. Natural resources, 
iron ore, coal, limestone. Traces of oil and gas. 
Good roads. Towns, Timpson, Tenaha, Joaquin, 
Shelbyville, Waterman, Patroon and Newville. 

SHERMAN COUNTY— County seat, Stratford; 
area, 900 square miles; located in northern part of 
Panhandle. Created, 1876; organized, 1889. Sur- 
face, generally level, cut by several deep creek 
valleys, lake Isasins; soil, dark loam, some sandy. 
Industries, diversified farming, stock raising, fruit 
growing; products, wheat, all Panhandle staples, 
cattle, cherries, plums, peaches, pears. Transporta- 
tion, C. R. I. & G. Ry. Towns, Texhoma. 

SMITH COUNTY— Tyler, county seat; area, 984 
square miles; located in east Texas, north of the 
center; created, 1846 and organized the same year. 
Surface, genera! succession hills, undulating; soil, 
alluvial, gray sandy and red lands. Industries, farm- 
ing, fruit growing, lumber. Products, cotton, lum- 
ber, corn, sugar cane, peaches, strawberries, sweet 
potatoes, tomatoes, garden truck, swine, dairy cattle. 
Transportation, St. L. S. W., I. & G. N. and the T. 
& P. Rys. Natural resources, iron ore, clay and im- 
mense salt deposits. Towns, Art, Troup, Bullard, 
Lindale, Winona, Mt. Sylvan, Swan, Omen, Flint and 
White house. 

SOMERVILLE COUNTY— Glenrose, county seat; 
area, 200 square miles; located, central Texas; 
created and organized, 1875. Surface, broken by 
rocky hills, rich fertile valleys between. Industries, 
farming, fruit growing, live stock. Products, cot- 
ton, corn, grains, forage crops, apples, peaches, 
pears, plums, berries, pure breeds of cattle. No 
railroads. Natural resources, brick clay, limestone, 
natural cement, coal and road material; traces 
of oil and gas. 

STEPHENS COUNTY— Breckenridge, county 
seat; area, 926 square miles; located in north central 
Texas; created, 1858; organized, 18(50. Surface, roll- 
ing, few hills; soil, black and gray loam and gray 
and red sandy loams. Industries, oil, live stock, 
farming; products, oil and oil products, cotton, 
grains, live stock. Transportation, T. & P. Ry. 
Natural resources, oil, gas, coal. Other towns, 
Caddo, Wayland and Gunsight. 

STERLING COUNTY— County seat, Sterling 
City; area, 975 square miles; located west Texas; 
organized and created, 1891. Surface, low range of 
hills on each side of Concho River, valleys; soil, dark 
chocolate loam, black waxy and some red sandy. In- 
dustry, stock raising. Products, cattle and sheep, 
horses, mules and hogs. Few farm crops, west 
Texas staples. Transportation, C. L. & S. S. V. Ry. 
Natural resources, iron, gypsum, limestone, traces 
of platinum, gold, gas. 

STONEWALL COUNTY— County seat, Asper- 
mont; area, 777 square miles; a northwest Texas 



county, created, 1876; organized, 1888. Surface, 
rough, broken and rolling with hills and canyons; 
soil varies from a sandy loam to a black waxy. 
Live stock and farming in a small way, fruit grow- 
ing, are the industries; products, staple crops, 
melons, cantaloupes, potatoes, peaches, plums, apri- 
cots, apples, grapes, berries. Transportation, W. V. 
Ry. Towns, Peacock. 

SUTTON COUNTY— County seat, Sonora; area, 
1,517 square miles, located in southwest Texas, one 
county removed from the Rio Grande; created, 1887; 
organized, 1890. Surface, generally broken, suc- 
cession of hills and valleys; soil, black loam, reddish 
soil. Industries, live stock, farming. Products, 
cattle, feedstuff, fruits, vegetables. Transportation, 
no railroads. 

SWISHER COUNTY— County seat, Tulia; area, 
850 square miles; located in the 'ower tier of Pan- 
handle counties; created, 1876; organized, 1890. Sur- 
face, level, five per cent broken; soils, black and 
red to gray sandy loam. Farming and fruit growing 
are the industries. Products, wheat, oats, kaffir 
corn, maize, sorghum, vegetables, apples, peaches, 
plums, live stock. Transportation, P. & N. T. Ry. 
Towns, Kress and Happy. 

TARRANT COUNTY— County seat, Ft. Worth; 
area, 900 square miles; located in north Texas; 
created, 1849; organized, 1850. Surface, level in 
some sections, largely rolling prairie, small portion 
hilly; soil, sandy loam and black soil. Industries, 
stock raising, diversified farming, manufacturing 
in Ft. Worth. Products, dairy and beef cattle, hogs, 
horses, mules, berries, peaches, plums. Transporta- 
tion, G. C. & S. F., Ft. W. & D. C, T. & B. V., 
T. & P., H. & T. C, M. K. & T., C. R. I. & 
G., I. & G.N., St. L. S. W., Ft. & R. G. (Frisco), 
Ft. Worth Belt, N. T. Traction Co. and the South- 
ern Traction Co. of Ft. Worth, Rys. Excellent high- 
ways. Towns, Arlington, Grapevine, Mansfield and 
Polytechnic. Ft. Worth is the fourth city in Texas 
as to size and is one of the leading packing house 
and stock markets of the southwest. 

TAYLOR COUNTY— County seat, Abilene; area, 
900 square miles; located in central west Texas; 
created, 1858; organized, 1887. Surface, generally 
level vrith small range of mountains, soil, black hog 
wallow, to dark and red loams. Industries, live 
stock, dairying, poultry raising, diversified farming. 
Products, grains, cotton, milo maize, kaffir corn, 
forage crops, peaches, grapes, cattle. Transporta- 
tion, W. v., A. & S., T. & P. and the P. & N. T. 
Rys. Natural resources, limestone. Naturally good 
roads. Towns, Merkle, Ovalo, Buffalo Gap. 

TERRELL COUNTY— County seat, Sanderson; 
area, 2,776 square miles; located in southwest Texas, 
bordering on the Rio Grande. Created and organ- 
ized, 1895. Surface, broken by large ranges of 
mountains and canyons; soil, rich and deep to rocky. 
Industries, cattle raising, manufacturing. Products, 
cattle, sheep, horses, goats, manufactured articles, 
as twine, rope and sacking, rubbe''. Transportation, 
G. H. & S. A. Ry. Natural resources, building stone. 

TERRY COUNTY— County seat, Brownfield; area, 
828 square miles; one of the Plains counties of 
Northwest Texas; created, 1876; organized, 1904. 
Surface, slightly rolling, broken by few draws and 
basins; soil, red sandy loam. Industry, stock raising, 
some farming and small orchards. Products, cattle, 
kaffir corn, corn, cotton, apples, peaches and grapes. 
Gomes is another town of the county. 



183 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



THROCKMORTON COUNTY— County seat, 
Throckmorton; area, 821 square miles; located in 
north Texas, west of central; created, 1858; organ- 
ized, 1879. Surface, slightly rolling; soil, deep rich 
sandy loam and gray sandy. Industries, diversified 
farming, fruit and truck growing. Products, various 
central Texas crops, tomatoes, peaches. Transporta- 
tion, St. L. S. W., M. K. & T. and the P. & M. P. Rys. 
Natural resources, lignite, brick and pottery clay. 
Towns, Winfield and Cookville. 

TOM GREEN COUNTY— County seat, San An- 
gelo; area, 1,363 square miles; created, 1874; organ- 
ized, 1875; located in west Texas. Surface, slightly 
broken, much prairie land; soil, rich brown chocolate 
loam, alluvial, black waxy. Industry, stock raising, 
some farming. Products, sheep, goats, horses, hogs, 
cattle, cotton, alfalfa, all west Texas staple crops; 
transportation, G. C. & S. F., K. C. M. & 0., C. L. & 
S. S. V. Rys. Natural resources, brick clay, traces 
of oil. Towns, Water Valley, Woodland, Knicker- 
bocker, Christoval. San Angelo is one of the im- 
portant west Texas cities, has large manufacturing 
industry and is wholesale and distributing point for 
a vast territory. 

TRAVIS COUNTY— County seat, Austin, also 
capital of the State of Texas; area, 1,036 square 
miles; situated in south central Texas; created and 
organized, 1840. Surface, rolling, mountainous in 
sections; soil, sandy loam, black waxy, very fertile. 
Industries, stock raising, farming. Products, live 
stock, usual staple products as cotton, corn, oats, 
feedstuffs, truck and fruit. Transportation, M. K. 
& T., I. & G. N., H. & T. C. Rys. Natural resources, 
brick clay, traces of oil and gas. Good roads. Towns, 
Manor, Littig and Manchaca. 

TRINITY COUNTY— County seat, Groveton; 
area, 704 square miles; situated in east Texas, 
created and organized, 1850. Surface, undulating, 
rising occasionally into low hills; soil, stiff black 
waxy, some light and red sandy soil. Industries, live 
stock, farming, horticulture, apiculture, poultry. 
Products, cattle, cotton, corn, potatoes, peas and 
peanuts, berries, melons, figs, honey; transportation, 
M. K. & T., B. & G. N., I. & G. N., E. T., the 
G. L. & N., and the T. S. E. Rys. Natural resources, 
lignite, asphalt, salt, chalk and sulphur, clay. Good 
highways. Towns, Trinity, Saron, Pennington, Hel- 
mic and Centralia. 

TYLER COUNTY— County seat, Woodville; area, 
925 square miles; located in east Texas; created and 
organized, 1846. Surface, high and rolling in north- 
ern part, level plain in the southern portion; soil, 
light sandy, rich black land. Industries, fruit and 
truck growing, farming. Products, all manner of 
east Texas fruits and vegetables, cotton, corn and 
other staples. Transportation, T. & O., M. K. & T. 
and the W. & C. P. Rys. Natural resources, sand- 
stone and brick clay, traces of oil. Towns, Warren, 
Rockland, Doucett. 

UPSHUR COUNTY— County seat, Gilmer; area, 
527 square miles; located in northeast Texas; 
created and organized, 1846. Surface, undulating, 
sloping from northwest to southeast; soil, dark 
sandy, red sandy and a light sandy with an oc- 
casional streak of stiff black waxy land. Indus- 
tries, lumber, fruit growing, farming, swine interest, 
live stock. Products, peaches, plums, pears, small 
fruits, cotton, corn, oats, sorghum, alfalfa, peanuts, 
hogs, dairy animals, horses and mules and lumber. 



Transportation, M. K. & T., T. & P., St. L. & 
S. W. Rys. Natural resources, iron, brick clay. 
Towns, Big Sandy, Bettie, Latch, Smith, Simpson- 
ville, Ida, Glenwood, Ewell and Koffeeville. 

UPTON COUNTY— County seat. Upland; area, 
1,190 square miles; located in west southwest Texas; 
created, 1887; organized, 1910. Surface, level in 
northern part, in the south, rolling and hilly. In- 
dustry, live stock. Transportation, K. C;, M. & O. 
Rys. Natural resources, salt. 

UVALDE COUNTY— County seat, Uvalde; area, 
1,759 square miles; located in southwest Texas; 
created, 1850; organized, 1856. Surface, southern 
portion level, northern mountainous, rich valleys 
between the rangers; soil, rich, black and sandy 
loam. Industries, live stock and apiculture, slight 
farming. Products, honey, goats (angora), cattle, 
staple products. Transportation, G. H. & S. A., 
C. C. & U., now known as the S. A. U. & G. Rys. 
Natural resources, asphalt, limestone, sandstone, 
traces of oil. Towns, Sabinal. 

VAL VERDE COUNTY— County seat, Del Rio; 
area, 3,034 square miles; located in southwest Texas 
on the Mexican border; created and organized, 1885. 
Surface, rough and broken, many valleys; soil, rich, 
very productive. Industry, live stock raising, some 
apiculture and fruit growing. Products, sheep and 
goats, mohair wool, honey, figs, grapes, pears, 
quinces, peaches, berries. Transportation, G. H. & 
S. A. Ry. 

VAN ZANDT COUNTY— County seat. Canton; 
area, 877 square miles; situated in northeast Texas, 
southeast of Dallas; created and organized, 1848. 
Surface, generally level; soil, black and gray sandy 
loam, also a dark sandy loam, and a rich red soil. 
Industries, diversified farming, live stock. Products, 
cotton, corn, oats, ribbon cane, sorghum, peanuts, 
peas, potatoes, many vegetables and a great variety 
of fruits, cattle. Transportation, T. & P. and the 
Texas Short Line Rys. Natural resources, salt, 
limestone, iron ore, brick and pottery clay. Towns, 
Grand Saline, Willspoint, Ben Wheeler, Edgewood. 

VICTORIA COUNTY— County seat, Victoria; 
area, 883 square miles; located in the west Gulf 
coast country, touching Lavaca Bay at the south- 
east corner; organized, 1837. Surface, gently un- 
dulating, sloping toward the coast, broken by 
valleys; soil, many varieties, mostly black waxy 
and black alluvial, very productive. Industry, di- 
versified farming. Products, cotton, corn, sugar 
cane, figs, small fruits, strawberries, many kinds 
of grapes, poultry. Transportation, St. L. B. & M., 
G. H. & S. A. and the S. A. & A. P. Rys. Towns, 
Nursery, Telfenner, Alloe, Bloomington and Placedo. 

WALKER COUNTY— County seat, Huntsville; 
area, 754 square miles; located southeast Texas; 
created and organized, 1846. Surface, rolling and 
hilly, some level prairies. Soil, from sandy to a 
stiff black with alluvial soil along the river. Indus- 
tries, lumber, farming, fruit growing. Products, 
cotton and corn, sweet and Irish potatoes, peas, oats, 
sugar cane, alfalfa, peaches, plums, grapes, poultry, 
lumber. Transportation, I. & G. N., T. V. S. & B. 
and the Great Northern Rys. Natural resources, 
lignite, sandstone, fire clay, red ochre, glass sand, 
building stone. Towns, Dodge, Riverside, El Mina 
and Phelps. 

WALLER COUNTY— County seat, Hempstead; 
area, 510 square miles; located in southwest Texas; 



184 



COUNTIES 



v.ieated and organized, 1873. Surface, rolling, much 
level land in southern part; soil, rich, dark alluvial, 
dark sandy loam with some black waxy. Industries, 
diversified farming, fruit growing, poultry and 
truck. Products, melons, cotton, corn, rice, figs, 
pears, peaches, dairy and poultry products. Trans- 
portation, H. & T. C. and the M. K. & T. Rys. Chief 
towns. Waller, Brookshire, Patterson. 

WARD COUNTY— County seat, Barstow; area, 
858 square miles; located in west Texas; created, 
1887; organized, 1892. Surface, generally level, 
some hills and rolling land. Industries, cattle, some 
farming. Products, live stock, alfalfa, grapes, 
peaches, pears, apricots, plums. Transportation, 
T. & P. Natural resources, borax, gypsum, sulphate, 
sulphide of soda, traces of oil and gas. 

WASHINGTON COUNTY— County seat, Bren- 
ham; area, 568 square miles; situated in southeast 
Texas, an original county; organized, 1837. Surface, 
rolling, much level land; soil, sandy loam and rich 
black land. Industries, diversified farming, cattle 
raising, horticulture, poultry. Products, fine cattle, 
horses, hogs, sheep, figs, peaches, plums, pears, 
berries, poultry, etc. Transportation, H. & T. C. 
and the G. C. & S. F. Rys. Natural resources, lig- 
nite, limestone and brick clay. Towns, Chapel Hill, 
Burton, Independence, Gay Hill, Greenonine, Wash- 
ington and William Penn. 

\VP:BB COUNTY— County seat, Laredo; area, 
3,421 square miles; located on the Rio Grande, four 
counties removed from its mouth; created and or- 
ganized, 1848. Surface level in eastern portion, re- 
mainder broken. Soil, alluvial, stiff black, sandy 
loam ranging in color from dark gray to almost 
red. Industries, stock raising and truck. Products, 
cattle, Bermuda onions, melons, cantaloupes, toma- 
toes, carloads of other ti-uck. Transportation, I. & 
G. N., R. G. & E. P. and the Texas Mexican Rys. 
Natural resources, coal, brick clay, sandstone, 
natural gas. Towns, Nye, Pescadito, Aguilares, 
Oiutalos and Minera. 

WHARTON COUNTY— County seat, Wharton; 
area, 1,137 square miles; located in the Gulf coast 
country, one county removed from the Gulf of 
Mexico; created and organized in 1840. Surface, 
level with gentle slope to the south and east, rolling 
along margins of streams; soil, black sandy to light 
sandy, red sandy and alluvial soils. Industries, 
faiming, fruit growing, live stock, poultry and sugar 
industries. Products, cotton, sugar cane, potatoes, 
fruits, rice, corn, pecans, turkeys, geese, ducks, 
poultry, sugar. Transportation, G. H. & S. A., G. C. 
& S. Fe, S. A. & A. P. Rys. Town, Elcampo. 

WHEELER COUNTY— County seat, Wheeler; 
area, 851 square miles, situated in the northwestern 
part of the Panhandle; created, 1876, organized, 1879. 
Surface, generally rolling; soil, black loam and sandy 
loam. Industries, livestock, agriculture, horticul- 
ture. Products, cattle, alfalfa, broom corn, apples, 
grapes, pears, plums. Transportation, C. R. I. & G. 
Ky. Natural resources red sandstone, brick clay, 
undeveloped. Towns, Shamrock, Benonine, Rams- 
dell and Mobite. 

WICHITA COUNTY— County .seat, Wichita Falls; 
area, 606 square miles; located in north Texas, crea- 
ted and organized, 1858. Surface, mostly undulat- 
ing prairie; small amount of broken country in river 
valleys; soil, vary from sandy loam to a stiff clay. 
Industries, oil, stock raising, farming. Products, 
one of Texas' biggest oil fields, wheat, corn, maize. 



oats, sorghum, fiuits, vegetables, best grades of 
beef, dairy animals, wool and mutton sheep. Trans- 
portation, Ft W. & D. C, W. v., W. F. & S., W. F. 
& O., and the M. K. & T. Rys. Natural resources, 
oil, brick and pottery clay, natural gas. Wichita, 
Falls is one of Texas' leading cities in activities and 
commerce in proportion to her size, is the distribut- 
ing center for a vast territory. Other towns, Burk- 
burnett, Electria, Iowa Park. 

WILBARGER COUNTY— County seat, Vernon; 
area, 923 square miles; located in the lower Panhan- 
dle, bordering the Red River on the north; created, 
1858, organized, 1881. Surface, slightly rolling, 
wide level stretches; no timber. Soil, dark loam soil 
predominates, some black waxy, some sandy land. 
Industries, farming and cattle raising, truck, fruit 
growing; products, live stock, sheep, cattle, horses, 
alfalfa, cotton, grain, kaffir, corn, milo maize, mel- 
ons, fruits, apples, peaches, plums, apricots. Trans- 
portation, Ft W. & D. C, St L. & S. F., K. C. M. & 
O. Rys. Towns, Odell, Harrold, Oklaunion, Colbert. 

WILLACY' COUNTY— County seat, Sarito; crea- 
ted, 1910, organized, 1911. Surface, level; soil, san- 
dy loam. Industries, farming and stock raising. 
Products, cattle and feedstuffs, fruits, vegetables. 
Transportation, St L. B. &. M. Ry. Towns, Maffin, 
Turcotte, Katherine, Rudolph. 

WILLIAMSON COUNTY— County seat, George- 
t'own; area, 1,169 square miles; created, 1848, organ- 
ized same year; situated, in south central Texas. 
Surface, equally divided between rolling prairie and 
hilly land; soil varies from a black waxy to a sandy 
loam. Industi'ies, farming, cattle raising, dairying. 
Products, cotton, corn, oats, peaches, truck, melons, 
berries, fruits. Tiansportation, M. K. & T., I. & 
G. N., T. C, and the B. & W. Rys. Other towns, 
Taylor, Hutto, Round Rock, Bartlett, Granger, Flor- 
ence, Liberty Hill, Leander. 

WILSON COUNTY— County seat, Floresville; 
area, 784 square miles; situated in southwest Texas; 
created, 1860, organized 1870. Surface generally 
rolling; soil, fine Norfolk sand to clay and sandy 
loam. Industries, farming, apiculture, fruit grow- 
ing, live stock, dairying. Products, cotton, corn, 
hay, onions, melons, peaches, pears, grapes, plums, 
honey, wax, cattle, especially Jersey herds. Trans- 
portation, G. H. & S. A. and the S. A. & A. P. Rys. 
Natural resources, traces of oil and gas; mineral 
springs. Good roads. Towns, Stockdale, Lavernia, 
Sutherland Springs, and Calavai'es. 

WINKLER COUNTY— Couty seat, Kermit; area, 
888 square miles, located in southwest Texas, north- 
west corner bordering New Mexico; created, 1887, 
organized, 1910. Surface, level; except chain of 
low sand hills in eastern part; soil, deep sandy loam. 
Industries, diversified farming and livestock; pro- 
ducts, cattle and feed stuffs. Transportation, T. & 
P. Ry. 

WISE COUNTY— County seat, Decatur; area, 843 
square miles; situated in north Texas; created, 1856, 
organized, 1858. Surface, undulating, considerably 
broken portions and hilly; soil, black waxy for most 
part, dark alluvial. Industries, livestock, farming, 
mining. Products, cattle, alfalfa, wheat, feedstuff, 
peaches, pears, plums, grapes, apples, vegetables. 
Transportation, Ft W. & D. C, C. R. I. & G. Rys. 
Natural resources, coal, fire and brick clay, lime 
rock, sandstone. Good highways. Other towns, 
Brdgeport, Chico, Alvord, Paradise, Rhome, Green- 
wood, Bovd and Slidell. 



185 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TEXAS 



WOOD COUNTY— County seat, Quitman; area, 
688 square miles; located in northwest Texas, crea- 
ted and organized, 1850. Surface, generally level, 
rough land along water courses; soil, varied but gen- 
erally a yellow loam, some white and some yellow 
sandy land. Industries, agriculture, livestock, fruit 
and truck growing; products, cotton, Elberta peach- 
es, grapes, grains, sugar cane, sweet and Irish pota- 
toes, livestock. Transportation, T. & P., M. K. & 
T., Texas Short Line, M. & E. T. and the I. & G. N., 
Rys. Natural resources, lignite. Towns, Mineola, 
Winnsboro, Golden, Alba, Hawkins. 

YOAKUM COUNTY— Plains is the county seat; 
area, 840 square miles; situated in west Texas, on 
the New Mexico border; created, 1876, organized, 
1907. Surface, undulating free from hills; soil, deep 
mellow loam. Industries, live stock, farming, small 
fruit industry; products, Indian corn, maize, kaffir 
corn, cotton, various forage crops, fruits, vineyards, 
cherries, apricots. Transportation, no railroads. 

YOUNG COUNTY— County seat, Graham; area, 
821 square miles; located northwest of Ft Worth, 
two counties removed from Red River; created, 1856 
and organized the same year, and re-organized in 
1874. Surface, gently rolling, higher elevations 



being known Twin and Gold Mountains; soil rich 
and varied. Industries, oil, live stock and truck. 
Products, oil, cattle, vegetables, peaches, pears, ap- 
ricots, grapes, coal. Transportation, C. R. I. & G., 
W. F. & S., and the G. T. & W. Rys. Natural re- 
sources, coal, oil, salt. Other towns, Olney, Orth, 
Jean, Loving, New Castle and Balkin. 

ZAPATA COUNTY— County seat, Zapata, area, 
1,269 square miles; situated in southwest Texas on 
the Rio Grande River; created, 1858, organized, 1858. 
Surface, rolling; soil, rich, black sandy loam to red 
chocolate clay. Industries, live stock and farming. 
Products, cattle, horses, mules, goats, feedstuff. No 
railroads. Natural resources, lime and sandstone. 
Traces of oil. San Ygnacio is another town of this 
county. 

ZA VALLA COUNTY — County seat, Batesville; 
area, 1,328 square miles; southwest Texas county, 
created, 1858, organized, 1884. Surface, generally 
rolling, considerably level land; soil, black sandy to 
dark loam, narrow strips of sand and gravel. In- 
dustries, cattle raising, truck farming, apiculture. 
Products, live stock, onions, various truck, honey. 
Transportation, S. A. U. & G. Ry. Other towns. 
Crystal City. 



186 



ABB 



INDEX OF TEXAS. 



BAR 



TEXAS 
COUNTIES. 

COUNTY. CO. 3KAr. iNuax. POP. 

Anderson, riile8tlne..L26 34,318 

AnUreWH, AudrewB . .K 11 350 

AnKflllia. Lulkla,...M 2S 22,Jtn 

Amusas, lUifkpurt. . .1' W 2,u64 

Arcl.tr, .\nlicr Clty.H 19 5,254 

ArmstrunK. Claiide.. .D U 2.816 

Al*>cu8a. Juunlanton.S^U 13,"u2 

Austlu, UfllvUle P2o 18,8"4 

Bailey, Muleshot F 11 517 

Bandera. Bandera. ...ti IS 4.0U1 

Basirup, Uasirup P 23 26.649 

liaylur, s.jmuur HIS ".U27 

Bee, Beevillf T 22 12.137 

Bell. Beltou N 22 46,412 

Bexar, Sau Antonio.. K2U 202.096 

Blanco. JoUusuu City. P 20 4,06« 

Borden, uall J 14 %5 

Bosque. .Meridian. ...L22 18.032 

Bowie. ISosti'U H29 39,472 

Brazoria, .\ngletou.. .K 27 20,614 

Brazos. Bryan N 25 21,975 

BrcwBter. Alidne P9 4.!i2a 

Briscoe, Slherton....E 14 2.94S 

Brooks. l'ulturrln8..W 2U 4,f.60 

Brown, Brow uwood. .L 19 21.682 

Burlt-son. < alilwell...U24 16,855 

Burnet, Burnet N 21 9.499 

Caldwell. lAickliart. . .0 22 25.160 

Callionn, I'oit Lavaca.f 24 4.700 

Callalian. Balrd K 18 11,844 

Cameron, Uruwn9VlUe,X22 36,662 

Camp, Pittsburg 127 11,103 

Carson. I'anlianiilc.C 14 3.078 

Cass. Linden 1 29 30.041 

Castro. Ulnimltt E 12 1.948 

Clcamlief. .\imliuac..y2S 4,162 

ClUTok.-.', Kusk L27 37,633 

Cnildn ss, I lillclrcss..K 16 10.933 

Clay. Iliiirlclta G 21 16.864 

Cocliran. ..Hll 67 

Coke. Uollcrt Lee L 16 4.557 

Coleman, Coleman. ..L 18 18,805 

ColUn, .Melilnuey....H24 49.609 
Colllngs«orUi. 

Wellington... D 6 8.154 

Colorado, CohiiMlHis.ti 24 19,013 

Comal, New Iirannfcls(i21 8.824 

Comitnelie. I uniauclu-L 20 25.748 

Conclio. I'aliit ICock.M 17 5.847 

Cooke. Gainesville. . .O 22 25.667 

Coryell, (i.itesvllle.. .M 21 20.601 

Cottle, PaducaU F16 6,901 

Crane, Mil 37 

Crockett, Ozoua 14 1,500 

Cro6hy.Crosl>ylou...H 14 6,084 

Cnlliers..n. Van Horn.LT 912 

Dallam, Dalhart All 4,528 

Dal.as. Hallas J 24 210.551 

Dawson. Lamesa J 13 4.309 

Deaf ^nilin.llereford.D 11 3,747 

Delta, CiHiper H 26 15.887 

Demon, llenton H 23 36.355 

De Witt.Cuero U 23 27,971 

Dickens. Dickens. ... H 15 5.876 
Dimmit. 

I'arrl/o Springs.. T 17 5.296 

Donley, t larendou...D 15 8.035 

Duval. san Diego V 20 s,251 

Eastland, b:astlaud...K 19 58,505 

Ector, lldessii Lll 760 

Ed«aiils.i:oeksprlng8.Q16 2.293 

Ellis. Wa.\aliaclile....K24 55.700 

El Paso. Kl Paso L6 '.01.877 

Eraili, s(eplienv»le..K21 2s.3S5 

Falls, Marllu M 23 36,217 

Fannin, Bonliam G 25 48,l»6 

F'ayelte, Lagrange.... tj 24 29.965 

Fisher. Hoby J 16 11.U09 

Flovd. Floydaila F 14 9.7.58 

Foard. Crowell F 17 4.747 

Fort Bend. l£Ulimond.y26 22.931 

Franklln.Mt. Vernon. 1127 9,304 

Frees^.ne, FalrUeld. .L 25 23.264 

Frio Pearsall S 19 9.296 

Gaines. Seminole J 11 1.018 

Galveston, Galveston. K27 53,150 

t.arza. Post 114 4,253 

Gl/lesple, 

Fcederlcksburg. . O 19 10,015 

GJasseock, Garden CltyL14 555 

Goliad, Goliad T 22 9,348 

Gonzales. Gou,!ales...R 22 28.1.18 

Gray. Le For- c 15 4.663 

Grayson. Sherman. . .G 24 74.165 

Gregg. Longview J 28 16.767 

Grimes. Anderson. ...025 23.101 

Guadalupe. Segum...Q 21 27,719 

Ha.e, Plalnvlew F 13 10,104 

Hall, Memphis E 15 11,137 

Hamilton. HamllUrn..L21 14.676 

Hansford. Hansford .. A 14 1 .354 

Hardeman. QuanalL.F 17 12.487 

Hardin, Kouutze O 28 15,983 

Harris. Houston P 26 186.667 

Harrison. Marshall... J 29 43.565 

Hartley. Cliannlng....B 11 1,109 

Haskell, Haskell 117 14.193 

Hays. S«n Marcos. ...P 21 15.920 

Hemjihlll. Canadian. .B 16 4,280 

Henderson. Athens. .K 26 28.327 

Hidalgo, Kdinhurg...Y21 38,110 

Hill, Hlllsl.oro K23 43,332 

Hockley, ..H12 137 

Hood. Gran liury J 21 8,759 

Hopkins, 

Sulphur Springs. .1 26 34.791 

Houston. Crockett... M 26 28.601 

Howard, Big Spring.. K. 14 6,962 



Hudspeth. Slarra 

Blauea M5 962 

Hunt, Greenville 125 50,350 

Hutchinson, Plemons.B 14 721 

Irion, Sherwood M 15 1,610 

Jack. ,lacksl)oro H 20 9.863 

Jackson. Edna S 24 11.244 

Jasper. Jasper N 30 15,.569 

Jeff DaMs.Fort Davls.N 8 1.445 

JelTerBon, Beaumont.. P 29 73.120 
Jim Hogg. 

Hebbronvllle....W 20 1.914 

Jim Wells, Alice V 21 6,587 

Johnson, Cleburne . . . J 29 37.286 

Jones. Anson J 17 22.323 

Karnes. Karnes City. .S 21 19.019 

Kaufman. Kaufman.. J 25 41.276 

Kendall, lioerne t)2o 4.799 

Kenedv. Santa W 22 1.03:1 

Kent.Olalremont I 15 3.335 

Kerr, Kerrvllle P 18 5.812 

Kimble, Junction O 18 3,,5S1 

King, Guthrie H 16 655 

Kinney. Urackettvllle.U 16 3.716 

Kleberg. Klngsvllle .V 21 7.837 

Knox, Benjamin HIT 9.240 

Lamar. Paris G 26 55,742 

Lamb. (Illon F 12 1.175 

Lampasas, l.ampasas.M 20 8.800 

La Sjlle. ( ,,tulla T 19 4,821 

Lavaia, llalbttsvllle.H 24 28,964 

Lee. tilililiugs 2:! 14.014 

Leon. CentcrvUle. . . .M 25 18,236 

Liberty, Liberty P 28 14,637 

LImest.ine. Groe8beek.L24 33,283 

Lipscomb. Lipscomb. A 16 3.684 

Live Oak.GeorgeWeatT 21 4,171 

Llano, Llano O 20 5,360 

Loving, L9 82 

Lubbock, Lubbock.. .H 13 11,096 

Lvnn, 'I'ahoka 113 4,751 

Mcculloch, Brady.. ..M 18 11.020 

MeL.-nnau, Waeo....M 23 82.921 

MeMiillen. Tllden. .. ,T 20 951 

.Vacll9"U.Maill3onvlUe.N25 11,956 

Marion, JelTersou I 29 10,88t 

Martin, Stanton K 13 1,146 

.Mason. Mason () 18 4,824 

Matag<ir(bi, Hay City.. S 25 16.589 

Maverick. Kagle PasB.sl6 7.418 

Medina. Il.mdo K 19 11.679 

Menard. Meiianl N 17 3,162 

Midland. Midland. ...L 12 2.44B 

Milam. Cameron N 23 38.104 

Mills. Goldthwalte....L20 9.019 

Mitchell, ( ..lorado...K 15 7.527 

Montague. Montague.G 21 22,200 

Montgomery. Conroe.O 26 17.334 

Moore. Dumas B 13 571 

Morris. Daliigerfleld..! 28 10.289 

Motley, Matador f 16 4,107 

Nacogdoches, 

Nacogdoche8..L28 28.457 

Navarro. Corslcana.. . K 24 50,624 

Newton. Newton N 30 12,196 

N<dan, Sw-,t Water.. K 16 10,868 

Nueces. (iirpns ChrlBtlV20 22,807 

(K-hiHree. I'erryton. A 15 .2.331 

Dhlham. Vega C 11 709 

(irang-. orange P 30 15,179 

Palo P.nto.l'alo Plnto.J2U 23.431 

Panola. Carthage K 29 2I.75S 

Parker, w,-atnerford.I 21 23.382 

Parmer. Farwell Ell 1.699 

Pecos. K..rt Stockton. Oil 8.857 

Polk, LIvlngsum N 27 '6,784 

Potter, Amiirlllo CIS 16,7;0 

Presidio, Marfa r^ 12,202 

lUin-. Kmorv 126 8,099 

Uauilall, l'aii\on D13 3,675 

Keagan, Stiles M 13 377 

Real, Leakey Ijl7 1,161 

Red i:iver,ClarkBTllleH27 35.829 

Reeves, Pecos M9 4.457 

Uefugio, Ilefuglo T23 4,050 

liohens, Miami B 15 1,469 

Kobertson. Kranklln.N24 27,933 

Rockwall. i;oekwall..l 24 8.591 

Runnels. Halllnger.. .L 17 17.074 

Rusk. Henderson K 28 31 .6>-9 

Sabine. Hemphill. ...M 30 12,299 
.San ,\ugu8tine, 

.San Augustine. .M 29 13.737 

San .Iaeliito.toUlsprlng027 9.867 

San p.itriei". siuton..U 22 11.386 

San Saba. San Saba. . . N 19 10.045 

Schlelelier. Kldorado.N 16 1.851 

Scurry. Snyder J !5 9.003 

Shackelford. Albany..! 18 4.960 

Shelby. Center L 29 27.464 

Sherman. Stratford.. .4 14 1.473 

Smith. Tvler I 27 46.769 

Somervell. Glen Rose.K 21 3,563 

Starr, Klogrande X20 11,089 

Stephens, BreckenridgeJ 19 1 5.403 

Slcrllng.SterlingClty.L15 1.053 

Stonewall. .\spermont. 1 16 4,086 

Sutton. Sonora O 15 1,598 

Sw-lsher, Tulla E 13 4,388 

Tarrant, Fort Worth.. J 22 152.800 

Taylor. Abilene K 17 24.081 

Terrell. Sanderson.... O 12 1.595 

Terry. BrownOeld I 12 2,236 

Throckmorton, Throck- 
morton I 18 3,589 

Titus,MountPlea8ant.H27 18,128 
Tom Green, 

San Angelo..L 15 15.110 

Travis. Austin ()22 57.616 

Trinity. Groveton... .N 27 13.623 

Tyler. Woodvllle N 29 10.415 

Dpshur. Gilmer I 28 22.472 

Upton, Upland M 12 253 

Uvalde, Uvalde RIT 10,769 

ValVerde, DelRlo...Q 14 12,706 

Van Zandt, Canton. . .J 26 30.784 

Vlctorta, Victoria. ...S 23 18,271 



Walker, lluntsvllle...O 26 18.556 

Waller. Hemp8tead..P25 10.292 

Ward, Barstow M9 2,615 

Washlngton,Brcnham.P25 26,624 

Webb, Laredo V 18 29,152 

Wharton, Wharton. . .R 25 21.288 

Wheeler. Wheeler. ...C 16 7.397 

Wichita, Wichita Fall8.G19 72.911 

Wilbarger. Vernon. . F 18 15,112 

Willacy, RuymooaTllle S2J X 
Williamson, 

Georgetown.. 022 42.934 

Wilson. FloresvlUc.R 21 17.289 

Winkler. Kermlt. ....Lll 81 

Wise. Decatur 122 23.363 

Wood. Qullman 127 27.707 

Yoakum. Plains Ill 504 

Vonng. Graham I 19 13.379 

Zapata. Zapata WIS 2.929 

Zavalla. l!atesvlUe....S 17 3.10S 

ToUl 4,663,228 

TOWNS. 

Bold Face type. County Seat. 
Roman type, Post OtHcea. 
/ttitic type have no Post Office, 
(r. d.) no Post Office, bat served 

by rural delivery. 
O Incorporated place. 
X Population not reported. 

Ti^WS. CO. 8KAT. INDEX. POP. 

Abbie. (r. d.) Jones..! 17 200 

Abbotts. Hill L23 303 

^fttfnT«TO6t«. Travis. O 2i X 
Aberdeen, Collings- 
worth D16 20 

Aberfoyle. (r, d.)llnnt ! 25 60 

Aberuathy. Hale G 13 300 

Abllene0,Taylor ..Jn 10.214 
Abitfite '/ u ji c tto Ht 

Taylor J 17 X 

Abies, El Paso L6 11 

Abtea Sprtnffs, Kauf- 
man J25 25 

Abuer, (r. d,) Kauf- 
man J 25 40 

Abrtet/s. Harrison J 28 X 

.dfttvi, Collingsworth. D 16 50 

ADram, lllilalgo Y 20 300 

yUMv/f7H''o«, Bexar. ..Iil9 x 

.-UvifH/io. Shackelford J 18 X 

Ace.I'olk 027 X 

.4'-A(^«o;i. Hunt 124 x 

Acme, Hardeman. . .F 17 500 
Aci>na, (r. d. ) Guad- 
alupe Qll 12 

Acton. (r. d.) Hood. ..J 21 150 

Acworth. Red lilver.G 27 50 

Ada.(r.d.) lTpshur...I28 X 

.^<i<(()-, Fisher 115 50 

Adalla, (r. d.) Cald- 
well Q22 10 

ylrfcjiw, Bexar Q 20 X 

Adams, tlrayson G 24 X 

Adamsvillc,Lampasas.M 20 50 

Addicks, Harris P26 35 

Addlelon, Red River H 27 IJ 

Addison, llaiias 123 100 

Addran, (r. d.) Hop- 
Kins I 26 25 

Aden, (r.d.) Parker..! 21 30 

Ad Hall, (r.d.) Milam N 23 25 

Adieu, (r. d.) Jack.. H 20 X 

Adklns. Bexar 20 200 

Admiral. Callahan... K 18 25 
Adid)e Walls, Hutch- 

lu8.)n B14 50 

Atlnm. Titus H 27 X 

Adrlan, Oldham D 11 100 

Ad^ttl, Newton N 30 250 

Advance, (r. d.) Par- 
ker 121 50 

Adij. I'otter C 12 X 

Artie, (r. d.) WheelerC 16 X 

Afton. Dickens G15 50 

Agee, (r.d.) Hamilton LSI X 

Agnes, (r.d.) Parker. I 21 50 

Agua Dulce. Nueces. U 21 80 
Agua N u e V a , Jim 

Hogg W 20 X 

Aguilaves. Webb V 19 300 

.4/iW((!/. Wharton Q 25 X 

Aiken, (P. O. Dame 

Flocol Floyd F 14 X 

^liWine. Harris Q 27 200 

Aken. (r. d.) Shelby. L 29 25 

^ir<i7,. Smith J 26 X 

Alabama, (P. O. name 

Helmic) Trinity.. ,M27 X 

^/a»)i/o. PreBldlo Q8 X 

Alamo. Hidalgo T 21 500 

Alamo Beach.Calhoun.S24 30 

Alamo MilU. CasB. ... I 29 JOO 

Alanreed, Gray D15 300 

Alarm Creek. Enth.K 20 X 

v4/««an, Nacogdoches L 27 25 

Alba0,Wood 126 1,352 

AlbaDy0, Shackel- 
ford J18 1,469 

Albert, Gillespie P 20 50 

Albion, Red River.. ..G 27 10 

Alcedo, Angelina.... M 28 250 

Alclno, Floyd F 14 X 

Jico, Angelina' L 28 X 

Al'orrtf Montague. . . G 21 X 
Al<lerbra7>ch, Ander- 
son L 26 50 

Aldlne. Harris P 26 150 

Aidridge. Jasper M 29 600 

Aleik. Tyler N 28 X 

Aledo. Parker J 22 500 

Aleman, Hamilton. ..L 12 50 

187 



Alexander, Erath K 20 

Aley,(r.d.) Hender8onK26 

Aifalhi, El Paso L3 

Alfalfa, Ochiltree.... A 16 
Alfred, Jim Wells. ..U 21 
Alyadim, Kobertson. N 24 
Algerlta, San Saba . .M 19 

Algoa, Galveston Q 27 

^//ujfudra, Hutchinson C14 
Alice©. Jim Wells.U 21 

Aliet, Harris Q 26 

Allamoore, Hudspath M 6 

Allen, Collin I 23 

Allen, Liberty 28 

Allendale, Wichita. ..G 19 

Allenfarm, Brazos 024 

.4//<';iA{^r«f,MatagordaR26 

AUeij, Hale G IS 

Alleyton, Colorado. . .Q 24 
.Mliance, (r. d.) Hunt..I 95 

Alliaon, Wise I 22 

Alma. Ellis Ii24 

Almeda, (R. K. name 

fearlaiun Harris. .Q 26 
Almira. (r. d.) Cass. . H 29 
Almont.(r. d.) Bowie H 29 

Aloe. Victoria S 23 

AI0JI30, Walker 26 

Alpha, (r. d.) Dallas,. J 2< 

Alpha, Karnes S 21 

Al|illie0, Brewster. .0 9 
Al8a,cr.d.) Van Zandt J 26 

AUdorr. Ellis J 24 

Altair, Cohirado IJ24 

Alta Loma, GalvestonQ 27 
AltaVista, .11m Hogg..W 20 
Althea. (r. d.l l!eli..,N 22 
Altman. (r.d.) Erath K 21 

Altoy . t'herokee L 27 

Altoga. Collin H 24 

vl/f/>nid.sauAugusllneL29 

Attnda, Brewster 9 

Altura. El Paso KS 

Alum, (r.d.) Wilson.. I£ 21 
AlvaradoO, Jidinson..J 22 

Alvln0. Brazoria IJ 27 

Alvord0. Wise H 21 

Altrtju, I'psliur I 27 

Alzdti, llexar li 20 

Amainta, Kinney R 15 

AlllHrilloe.I'otter D13 

Ambia, Lamar G 25 

Ambrose,Grayson. ..G24 
Amelia, (r.d.) Jctter- 

siui 29 

Ames. Cor.vell L 21 

Ames, Liberty P 28 

Amherst. (r. d. ) ijimarO 26 

Amherst, Ijiinli G 12 

Amlcus.(r. d.) .Marion! 28 

.4"il(/o. Smith J26 

Ammannsvllle, (r. d.) 

Fayette IJ J4 

Amphlon. .Mascosa . , R 20 
Ample, (r.d.) Haskell H 18 
Amslet, Montgomery O 26 
Amy, (r.d ) Delta. .. .11 2« 
Ana,arlHi. KIniii'y . . . R16 
Alial)ila<',chiiinbersP2a 

Auaqua, \utoria S 23 

Anareiie. .Vreher H 19 

Anchor, Brazoria It 26 

Auchoragi'. Atascosa. R 19 

Ander, (i.dlad s 22 

Anderson, Grimes. O 25 
Andlee. (r. d.) rt'll- 

liam.soii 22 

Andrews. .*\ndreW8..1 12 
Andretrs. Harrison...! 28 
Andrews. (r.d.)Wood J 27 

AJldij, Audereon K 26 

Ange, livable I; 17 

Anueles, Reeves K 8 

Angelina, Angelina. .L 28 
Angelita, San Patricio U22 
An{cletou0, Bra- 
zoria R 26 

Angus, Navarro K 24 

Anhalt, (r.d ) Comal. Q 21 

Anna©, Collin H 24 

Annarose, Live Oak.. T 21 
Anneta, (r.d.) Parker J 21 
Annevllle, (i-.d.) Wisel 32 
Annona. lied !ilver...G 27 

Anson©, Jones J 17 

Anson Junction, 

Jones J 17 

Antelope. Jack H 20 

Antelope fiap. Mills. .M 20 
Anthony, Fannin. .. G 24 

Anti, (r. d.) Cass I 29 

Antioch, (r. d.illous- 

ton M 16 

Anville, Wilson R 21 

Apolonia, (r, d.) 

Grimes 025 

Appieby.NacogdochesL 28 
Applegate, Jasper ... N 29 
Apple SprlngB.TrinltyM27 

AqulllB. Hill L22 

Aragon, Presidio O 7 

Arab. Scurry I 14 

Aransas Pass©, San 

Patricio D23 

Ararat, (r. d.) Co- 
manche. L20 

Arbala, Hopkins i 25 

Arbor, (r.d.) HoustonM 26 

Arbnia. Hopkins I 26 

Arcadia. Galveston. . Q 27 
Archer City ©, 

Archer H19 

Areola, Fort Bend. . .Q 26 
Ardath. (r. d.) Collin. H 24 

Arden. Irion M 15 

Arena, Lavaca R 23 

Argo, (r.d.) Tltua H 29 



500 
20 
54 
54 

800 
X 
12 
60 
10 
1,880 

150 
X 

350 
X 
X 

100 
X 
X 

250 

150 
10 

150 

250 

100 

100 

X 

X 

20 

X 

931 

26 

50 

200 

550 

25 

10 

500 

1,081 

50 

30 

X 

X 

25 

1,2*4 

1,519 

1,376 

X 

X 

X 

15,494 

30 

50 

100 
60 
X 
25 
X 
X 
25 



31 
X 
25 
X 

SOU 
X 
15 

100 
,33 
15 

600 

15 
300 
X 
25 
X 
X 
X 
X 
100 

1,043 
50 
30 
538 
X 
100 
V 
7.10 
1,425 

X 
160 
X 
40 
100 



600 

X 

300 

650 

X 

X 



X 

130 

50 

X 

30O 

689 
50 

100 
12 
X 

225 



Argyle, Denton I 22 

Ariola, Hardin O 29 

Avion, Liberty N 23 

Arispe, Hudspeth M5 

Arleston,(r.d.)PanolaK29 

Arlle, Childress E 16 

Ariiiiglon i . Tarrant..! 23 
Armstrong, Kenedy.. W22 
Armstrong, William- 
son N2I 

Arneckevllle,DeWltt.R 22 
Arnett, (r.d.) CoryellM 21 

Arnim, Vvhartou R 25 

Arno, Reeves L 9 

Arnold, (r. d.) Collln.H24 
Arroi/a Colorado, 

Willacy r 22 

Arot/a. Ward LID 

Art, Mason N 18 

Arp, Smith K 27 

Artesla, Iji Salle T18 

Artesla Weils, LaSalleTlS 
Arthur Citj, Lamar.. G 26 

Arpami, Dawson 1 13 

Asander, (r. d.) TItusH 27 

Ash, HenaerBou K 25 

Ash, (r.d.) Houston. M 16 

Ashbii, .Matagorda S 25 

Asherton, Dimmit T 17 

Asliland, Upshur I 27 

Ash I'ond. Burleson. O 24 

^Bbtold, Donley D 23 

Ashvllle, (r. d.) Huut.I 25 
Ashwood, Matagorda. 1126 
Ashworth, (r. d.) 

Kaufman J25 

Askew, (r. d.) Hop- 
kins 128 

Aspen, Cherokee L27 

Aspermont 0, 

stonewall I 16 

Aslin, Brazos N 34 

Atascosa, Bexar R 19 

Ater. (r. d.) Coryell. .M 21 
Athens ©, Hender- 
son K 25 

Atkinson. WtlliamsonN21 

Atlanta©, Cass H29 

Atlas, Lamar (5 26 

Atlast, .Matagorda ...R26 

Allee, La Salle T18 

Atmnr, Trinity .M 27 

Alntar Jr., Trinity. . M 27 
Attoyac. XacogdociiesL 28 
Atwell, Callahan ....K 18 

Aubrey, Denton H 23 

.4 ithitrn. Trinity N 26 

Audelia, (r.d. ) DallasJ 24 

Auilobon, Wise I 22 

Augusta. HouBton. .. .L 26 

Aiigitsttis, (Tar/.a I 14 

Aurora.(r. d.) Wise...! 22 
AUfi,TlN 0,Travis.O21 
Austin Junction, 

TravlB O 21 

Au8twell0, Refugio. T 23 
Authou,(r.d.) Parker! 21 
Avalon, (r, d.) Ellis. .K24 

Avery, Red River G 27 

Avinger. Cass I 28 

Avoca. Jones 1 17 

Avonak, Harris P 26 

Avondale. Tarrant I 22 

Axine, Cass I 29 

Axtell. McLennan. ..L23 
Azie, Tarrant 1 22 

B 

Baber, Angelina M 28 

Babyhead, Llano N 19 

Bacon, (r. d.) Panola. K 29 

Bacon, Wichita G20 

Haer J unctton,HiirrlsP21 
Bagby,(r